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Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779597/acute-cardiometabolic-effects-of-interrupting-sitting-with-resistance-exercise-breaks
#1
Robert J Kowalsky, John Jakicic, Andrea Hergenroeder, Renee J Rogers, Bethany Barone Gibbs
PURPOSE: Interrupting prolonged sitting with light activity breaks, such as short walks, improves cardiometabolic outcomes, yet less is known about the impact of resistance exercise breaks. This study examined the effects of hourly, guidelines-based simple resistance exercise breaks on acute cardiometabolic health outcomes over a simulated work period. METHODS: Fourteen adults (age: 53.4±9.5 years, BMI: 30.9±4.8 kg/m2) completed two randomized 4-hour conditions: prolonged sitting (SIT) and hourly resistance exercise breaks (REX)...
February 19, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779596/time-course-of-recovery-is-similar-for-the-back-squat-bench-press-and-deadlift-in-well-trained-males
#2
Daniel J Belcher, Colby A Sousa, Joseph P Carzoli, Trevor K Johnson, Eric Helms, Nishant P Visavadiya, Robert F F Zoeller, Michael Whitehurst, Michael C Zourdos
This study examined the time course of recovery following resistance exercise sessions in the back squat, bench press, and deadlift. Twelve well-trained males (age: 24.5±3.8yrs, body mass: 84.01±15.44kg, training age: 7.1±4.2yrs) performed 4 sets to failure at 80% of a one-repetition maximum (1RM) on the squat, bench press, and deadlift in successive weeks. The bench press was always performed in week-2 with the squat and deadlift order counterbalanced between weeks 1 and 3. Indirect muscle damage and performance fatigue was assessed immediately prior to, post-exercise, and 24, 48, 72, and 96hrs post-exercise...
February 19, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768366/effects-of-low-dose-leucine-supplementation-on-gastrocnemius-muscle-mitochondrial-content-and-protein-turnover-in-tumor-bearing-mice
#3
Harold W Lee, Ella Baker, Kevin M Lee, Aaron Michael Persinger, William Hawkins, Melissa Puppa
Many forms of cancer are associated with loss of lean body mass, commonly attributed to decreased protein synthesis and stimulation of proteolytic pathways within the skeletal muscle. Leucine has been shown to improve protein synthesis, insulin signaling, and mitochondrial biogenesis, key signaling pathways influenced by tumor signaling. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of leucine supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis and protein turnover in tumor bearing mice. Twenty male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n=5): Chow, leucine (Leu), Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) implant, LLC+Leu...
February 15, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30730761/accelerometry-measured-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behaviour-of-preschoolers-in-nova-scotia-canada
#4
Michelle R Stone, Natalie Houser, Jane Cawley, Angela Kolen, Daniel Rainham, Laurene Rehman, Joan Turner, Sara Kirk
OBJECTIVE: To describe the levels and bouts of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) among preschoolers in Nova Scotia, Canada, and the proportion meeting PA and step guidelines. METHODS: Children (75 boys, 49 girls; mean age = 4.2 (range = 3-5 years)) participating in the Physical Literacy in the Early Years (PLEY) study provided data. Average time (minutes, % of day) spent sedentary, in light PA (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and total PA (TPA), average frequency and duration of bouts of MVPA (≥ 5 minutes, ≥ 10 minutes) and sedentary bouts (≥ 10 minutes), per day were determined using published cut-points, using 15-s epochs...
February 7, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30726107/-the-performance-and-aerobic-endurance-effects-of-high-intensity-versus-moderate-intensity-continuous-running
#5
Even Jarstad, Asgeir Mamen
The abstract to this manuscript exceeds APNM's limit of 250 words, by 24 words (i.e 274 words in this abstract). We apologize for this and hope that APNM can accept our abstract of 274 words as part of the manuscript approved by APNM. As the authors see it, valuable information in the abstract will disappear if we have to cut down on the number of words. APNM must of course decide this. However, we do supply three bullet points here, that summarize the key findings in the present study: 1. High-intensity (HICR) or moderate-intensity continuous running (MICR), non-matched for total work, can be equally performance enhancing, despite various physiological alterations...
February 6, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702924/sex-based-differences-in-hepatic-and-skeletal-muscle-triglyceride-storage-and-metabolism
#6
Kayleigh M Beaudry, Michaela C Devries
Women and men store lipid differently within the body with men storing more fat in the android region and women storing more fat in the gynoid region. Fat is predominately stored in adipose tissue as triacylglycerides (TG); however, TG are also stored in other tissues including the liver and skeletal muscle. Excess hepatic TG storage, defined as a TG concentration > 5% of liver weight and known as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is related to the metabolic syndrome. Similarly, elevated skeletal muscle TG, termed intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), are related to insulin resistance in obesity and type II diabetes...
January 31, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689401/youth-get-a-d-grade-in-physical-activity-how-can-we-change-public-health-messages-to-help-reverse-this-trend
#7
Angela S Alberga, Michelle Fortier, Corliss Bean, Yoni Freedhoff
The purpose of this paper is to critique how PA promotion is communicated and offer evidence-based alternative framings to encourage PA in youth. We argue that PA promotion messaging should not be tied to outcomes that focus on changing physical appearance, preventing or treating diseases, or sport performance or competition. From a public health perspective, we suggest that PA should instead focus on campaigns, policies and programs that tie PA to enjoyment, wellbeing and play.
January 28, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689399/the-effect-of-weaning-age-on-the-small-intestine-mucosa-of-rats
#8
Yonatan Crispel, Ron Shaoul, Ranya Khamaise, Edmond Sabo, Zeev Hochberg
Weaning of mammalian progeny is associated with a change in food composition and mother-offspring separation. Weaning results in a critical period of low voluntary feed intake, during which the animal is adapting to the starter diet. To evaluate the effects of weaning age on morphological changes that occur in rats' intestines, we assessed intestinal histomorphometry and somatic growth in 21 days old pups and 90 days old mature rats that had been weaned early (d16), normally (d21), or late (d26). Early weaning resulted in deeper crypts, lower villous/crypt ratio and a smaller villous area on day 21...
January 28, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30664382/dominant-and-non-dominant-leg-press-training-induce-similar-contralateral-and-ipsilateral-limb-training-adaptations-with-children
#9
Aymen Ben Othman, Anis Chaouachi, Mehdi M Chaouachi, Issam Makhlouf, Jonathan P Farthing, Urs Granacher, David G Behm
Cross-education has been extensively investigated with adults. Adult studies report asymmetrical cross-education adaptations predominately after dominant limb training. The objective of the study was to examine unilateral leg-press (LP) training of the dominant or non-dominant leg on contralateral and ipsilateral strength and balance measures. Forty-two youth (10-13 years) were placed (random allocation) into a dominant (n=15) or non-dominant (n=14) leg-press training group or non-training control (n=13). Experimental groups trained 3 times per week for 8 weeks and were tested pre-/post-training for ipsilateral and contralateral 1-repetition maximum (RM) LP, knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC), countermovement jump (CMJ), triple hop test (THT), elbow flexors (EF) MVIC and handgrip MVIC, as well as Stork and Y balance test...
January 21, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30664360/influence-of-exercise-amount-and-intensity-on-long-term-weight-loss-maintenance-and-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-ros-production-in-humans
#10
Steen Larsen, Sune Dandanell, Kasper Birch Kristensen, Sofie Drevsholt Jørgensen, Flemming Dela, Jørn Wulff Helge
Sustaining a weight loss after a lifestyle intervention is challenging. The objective of the present study was to investigate if mitochondrial function is associated to the ability to maintain a weight loss. 68 former participants in an 11-12-week lifestyle intervention were recruited into two groups; weight loss maintenance (WLM; BMI 32±1 kg/m2) and weight regain (WR; BMI 43±2 kg/m2) based on weight loss measured at a follow-up visit (WLM: 4.8±0.4; WR: 7.6±0.8 years after lifestyle intervention). Maximal oxygen consumption rate (VO2max), physical activity level, blood and muscle samples were obtained at the follow up experiment...
January 21, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30664359/modality-specific-training-adaptations-do-they-lead-to-a-dampened-acute-inflammatory-response-to-exercise
#11
Sven P Hoekstra, Matthew N Westerman, Flavio Beke, Nicolette C Bishop, Christof A Leicht
While adaptations to a short-term training program can dampen the acute inflammatory response to exercise, less is known about the influence of chronic modality-specific adaptations to training. This study compares the acute inflammatory response to upper- and lower-body interval exercise in individuals chronically trained in these respective modalities. Ninety minutes of interval exercise matched for relative power output on an arm-crank (ARM) and cycle ergometer (LEG) was performed by 8 trained paddlers and 8 trained cyclists...
January 21, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30653342/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-frequency-on-perceptual-responses-and-future-physical-activity-participation
#12
Pinelopi S Stavrinou, Gregory C Bogdanis, Christoforos D Giannaki, Gerasimos Terzis, Marios Hadjicharalambous
The effectiveness of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in inducing positive physiological adaptations is well documented. However, its impact on perceptual responses and on future physical activity (PA) engagement is less evaluated. The present study aimed to examine the effects of HIIT frequency on perceptual responses, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its influence in future PA participation. Thirty five inactive adults were randomly assigned to a control (CON) and to two training groups which performed HIIT (10x60s cycling, ~83% Wpeak), two (HIIT-2) or three (HIIT-3) times per week for eight weeks...
January 17, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30653335/is-replacing-time-spent-in-one-type-of-physical-activity-with-another-associated-with-health-in-children
#13
Anne P Macgregor, Michael M Borghese, Ian Janssen
Altering the proportion of total physical activity time accumulated while participating in different types of physical activity may influence health. Our objective was to use observational data to estimate whether replacing time from one physical activity type with another is associated with physical and mental health indicators among children. Participants were 385 children aged 10-13 years. They wore a Global Positioning System watch and accelerometer and completed an activity log for 7 days. Data from these instruments was used to estimate time spent in outdoor active play, organized sport, curriculum-based physical activity at school, and active transportation...
January 17, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30652917/corrigendum-the-influence-of-nighttime-feeding-of-carbohydrate-or-protein-combined-with-exercise-training-on-appetite-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-young-obese-women
#14
Michael J Ormsbee, Amber W Kinsey, Wyatt R Eddy, Takudzwa A Madzima, Paul J Arciero, Arturo Figueroa, Lynn B Panton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649910/faster-oxygen-uptake-heart-rate-and-ventilatory-kinetics-in-stepping-compared-to-cycle-ergometry-in-copd-patients-during-moderate-intensity-exercise
#15
Paulo DE Tarso Müller, João Zardetti Nogueira, Tiago Rodrigues Augusto, Gaspar R Chiappa
Although step tests are a stressful and feasible cost-effective modality to evaluate aerobic performance, the eccentric in addition to concentric muscle contractions of the legs on stepping emerge as a potential speeding factor for cardioventilatory and metabolic adjustments towards a steady-state, since eccentric contractions would prompt an earlier and stronger mechanoreceptor activation, besides higher heart rate/cardiac output adjustments to the same metabolic demand. Moreover, shorter tests are ideal for exercise-limited subjects...
January 16, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649908/intensity-of-acute-aerobic-exercise-but-not-aerobic-fitness-impacts-on-corticospinal-excitability
#16
Monica M MacDonald, Hawazin Khan, Sarah N Kraeutner, Francesco Usai, Emily Anne Rogers, Derek S Kimmerly, Gail Dechman, Shaun G Boe
Aerobic exercise (AE) modulates cortical excitability. It can alter both corticospinal excitability and intra-cortical networks, which has implications for its use as a tool to facilitate processes such as motor learning, where increased levels of excitability are conducive to the induction of neural plasticity. Little is known about how different intensities of AE modulate cortical excitability or how individual-level characteristics impact on it. Therefore, we investigated whether AE intensities, lower than those previously employed, would be effective in increasing cortical excitability...
January 16, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649897/do-stair-climbing-exercise-snacks-improve-cardiorespiratory-fitness
#17
Elizabeth M Jenkins, Leah Nicole Nairn, Lauren E Skelly, Jonathan P Little, Martin J Gibala
We investigated the effect of stair climbing exercise "snacks" on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Sedentary young adults were randomly assigned to perform 3 bouts/d of vigorously ascending a three-flight stairwell (60 steps), separated by 1-4 h of recovery, 3d/wk for 6 wk, or a non-training control group (n=12 each). VO2peak was higher in the climbers post-intervention (P=0.003), suggesting that stair climbing "snacks" are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness, although the absolute increase was modest...
January 16, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649894/maternal-dyslipidemia-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-increases-blood-pressure-and-disrupts-cardiorespiratory-and-glucose-hemostasis-in-the-female-rat-offspring
#18
Emmanuel Veríssimo de Araújo, Keyth Guimarães, Marciane Magnani, Josiane Cruz, Hubert Vidal, Valdir Andrade Braga, José Luiz de Brito Alves
Hypertension and metabolic disorders evidenced in adults who have been exposed to nutritional insults during early life may be sex-dependent. We evaluated whether blood pressure (BP), cardiorespiratory control and metabolic parameters are affected in female offspring (FO) from dams fed a dyslipidaemic diet during pregnancy and lactation. FO was obtained from dams who received control (CTL) or dyslipidaemic diet (DLP) during pregnancy and lactation. The effects of a maternal dyslipidaemic diet on BP, cardiorespiratory control and biochemical parameters were assessed at 30 and 90 days of age...
January 16, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30640516/prevalence-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-between-1999-and-2014-in-the-u-s-adult-population-and-the-impact-of-the-2007-2008-recession-a-nhanes-study
#19
Alexis Marcotte-Chénard, Thomas A Deshayes, Ahmed Ghachem, Martin Brochu
OBJECTIVES: To document changes in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the U.S. adult population between 1999 and 2014 and to explore how variations in the dietary intakes explain changes in MetS prevalence and its components over time. METHODS: A total of 38,541 individuals (20-85 years; NHANES 1999-2014) were studied. Outcome variables were: MetS, waist circumference (WC), plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, fasting glucose (FG) levels, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, dietary intakes (total daily energy, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, sodium and alcohol intakes), the poverty income ratio (PIR) and sociodemographic data (age, sex, ethnicity)...
January 14, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30633542/acute-caffeine-supplementation-promotes-small-to-moderate-improvements-in-performance-tests-indicative-of-in-game-success-in-professional-female-basketball-players
#20
Emilija Stojanovic, Nenad Stojiljkovic, Aaron T Scanlan, Vincent J Dalbo, Ratko Stankovic, Vladimir Antic, Zoran Milanovic
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acute caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance in professional, female basketball players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, experimental design was used in a randomized, counterbalanced manner. In separate sessions, 10 professional basketball players ingested caffeine (3 mg/kg body mass) or a placebo (dextrose: 3 mg/kg body mass) 60 min before completing countermovement jumps (CMJ) with and without arm swing, a squat jump (SJ), the Lane Agility Drill, 20-m sprints (with 5-m and 10-m split times recorded) with and without dribbling a ball, and a Suicide Run...
January 11, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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