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Acta Physiologica

Philipp Hillmeister, Ivo Buschmann, Anja Bondke Persson
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) a Greek philosopher presented in one of his earliest work in the fourth century BC an accurate and universal description of the human cardiovascular system. Aristotle laid the foundation of modern evidence-based medicine, concluding there cannot be a scientific conclusion which is drawn from a single person or an individual alone: "Individuum est ineffabile" (The individual cannot be grasped) 1 . Nowadays diseases of the cardiovascular system (CVD) are the leading cause of illness and death worldwide, except on the African continent 2 , while at the same time modern clinical medicine sees a paradigm shift towards individual, personalized treatment refining the standards set by evidence-based guidelines...
February 14, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Eric Diego Turossi Amorim, Lorena de Jager, Andressa Buzetti Martins, Ananda Totti Rodrigues, Bruno Fernando Cruz Lucchetti, Deborah Ariza, Phileno Pinge-Filho, Carlos Cesar Crestani, Ernane Torres Uchoa, Marli Cardoso Martins-Pinge
AIM: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that manifests itself clinically after reaching an advanced pathological stage. Besides motor signals, PD patients present cardiovascular and autonomic alterations. Recent data showed that rats induced to Parkinsonism by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) administration in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) showed lower mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), as reduction in sympathetic modulation. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is an important site for autonomic and cardiovascular control, and amino acid neurotransmission has a central role...
February 4, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Alexandra Rhoden, Jakob Speiser, Birgit Geertz, June Uebeler, Schmidt Kjestine, Cor de Wit, Thomas Eschenhagen
AIM: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (AChMR1-5) are fundamental for cellular responses upon release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) from parasympathetic nerve fibers. ACh is the prototypical agonist stimulating endothelium-dependent dilation, but most blood vessels lack parasympathetic innervation, raising the question as to the physiologic function of endothelial AChMR in vivo. Global deletion of AChM3R revealed a role in ACh-induced vasodilation in vitro and food uptake, but overall cardiovascular homeostasis has not been examined thoroughly...
February 4, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Liukun Meng, Xiaoyan Liu, Xiao Teng, Wen Yuan, Lihua Duan, Jian Meng, Jun Li, Zhe Zheng, Yingjie Wei, Shengshou Hu
AIM: Proteins mainly expressed in normal lungs and significantly changed in lungs exposed to systemic-to-pulmonary shunts might be promising targets for pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by congenital heart diseases (PAH/CHD). This study aimed to investigate the potential role of differential screening-selected gene aberrative in neuroblastoma (DAN) in PAH/CHD. METHODS: PAH was surgically induced by combined surgery (right pulmonary artery ligation and left cervical systemic-to-pulmonary shunt) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
February 4, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Yuh-Ying Lin Wang
Helping everyone prevent or detect disease early is an important goal of health care. To achieve this goal, we need low-cost, non-invasive and easy-to-implement diagnostics; the measured parameters must be sensitive to reflect small changes in a person's physiological condition, and the results can be quantified. The arterial pulse was known as a vital sign to the ancient Chinese, Greeks, Romans, and Indians, who employed its diagnostic value for thousands of years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
February 3, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Christine M Loescher, L Michelle Gibson, D George Stephenson
AIM: Dantrolene interacts with ryanodine receptors in skeletal and cardiac muscle affecting sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release. Since dantrolene is lipophilic it could also affect intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium handling proteins such as calsequestrin. This study investigated whether dantrolene (1-30 μmol L-1 ) alters the polymerization state and the calcium binding capacity of recombinant cardiac calsequestrin, and cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium handling. METHODS: Human recombinant cardiac calsequestrin was used to make simultaneous measurements of turbidity (to indicate calsequestrin polymerization) and calcium binding to calsequestrin in the presence and absence of dantrolene...
February 1, 2019: Acta Physiologica
E Seeliger, P B Persson
Current debate questions the existence of contrast-media-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI). Once considered the third leading cause for hospital-acquired AKI, CIAKI may be extremely rare, or nonexistent. Retrospective and propensity score-adjusted studies document comparable occurrence of CIAKI, dialysis, and mortality between the groups that received contrast media (CM) intravenously for computed tomography (CT) examinations, and those who underwent non-contrast CT examinations. This article is protected by copyright...
January 28, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Stefanie Reuter, Ralf Mrowka
Since the 1980s there has been an alarming increase in obesity all over the world. A sedentary life style and the uptake of energy-dense foods are drivers of this trend, exacerbated by changes in food systems and environments. In 2015 about 107 million children and 603 million adults were obese with an overall prevalence of 5% among children and 12% among adults 1 . A high body mass index (BMI >25) is the major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer and nevertheless poor life quality...
January 19, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Tao Yang, Kacy L Magee, Luis M Colon-Perez, Riley Larkin, Yan-Shin Liao, Eliza Balazic, Jonathan R Cowart, Rebeca Arocha, Ty Redler, Marcelo Febo, Thomas Vickroy, Christopher J Martyniuk, Leah R Reznikov, Jasenka Zubcevic
AIM: Butyrate is a major gut microbiota-derived metabolite. Reduced butyrate-producing bacteria has been reported in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a model of hypertension characterized by dysfunctional autonomic nervous system and gut dysbiosis. Here, we demonstrate a potential mechanism for butyrate in blood pressure regulation. METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were performed to measure butyrate levels in feces and serum...
January 18, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Jean-Pierre Mothet, Jean-Marie Billard, Loredano Pollegioni, Joseph T Coyle, Jonathan V Sweedler
The last two decades have witnessed remarkable advance in our understaning the role of d-amino acids in the mammalian nervous system: from the unknown, to known molecules with unknown functions, to potential central players in health and disease. d-Amino acids have emerged as an important class of signaling molecules. In particular, the exploration of the roles of d-serine in brain physiopathology is a vibrant field that is growing at an accelerating pace. However, disentangling the functions of a small chiral molecule in the complex chemical milieu of the brain requires to be familiar with distinct measurement approaches but also to currently work with delicate molecular tools which effects can be confounded...
January 16, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Sofien Laouafa, Damien Roussel, François Marcouiller, Jorge Soliz, David Gozal, Aida Bairam, Vincent Joseph
AIM: Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) induces systemic (hypertension) and central (mitochondrial dysfunction underlying cognitive deficits). We hypothesized that agonists of oestradiol receptors (ER) α and β prevent CIH-induced hypertension and brain mitochondrial dysfunction. METHODS: Ovariectomized female rats were implanted with osmotic pumps delivering vehicle (Veh), the ERα agonist propylpyraoletriol (PPT - 30μg/kg/day) or the ERβ agonist diarylpropionitril (DPN - 100μg/kg/day)...
January 11, 2019: Acta Physiologica
T Ertelt, T Gronwald
Injuries of the muscle-tendon complex are one of the most frequent non-contact injuries in sports. Particularly in team sports such as football, the demands of the game result in a large number of risk factors. Ekstrand and colleagues1 observed that each team experiences 50 injuries in every season and the hamstrings are most affected. Of these injuries, 83% affect the biceps femoris (BF) muscle2 . Current studies show that despite injury prevention programs, the rate of hamstring injuries has increased by more than 4% in recent years This article is protected by copyright...
January 11, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Tomi Rantamäki
A study led by Dr. Henrik Seth provides further evidence linking rapid antidepressant effects with dentate gyrus cell proliferation while hippocampal synaptic plasticity and glutamatergic neurotransmission remain essentially unaltered shortly following an acute low (subanesthetic) dose of ketamine. NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) antagonist ketamine, an arylcyclohexamine that is closely related to phencyclidine (PCP), was discovered in 1962 by Dr. Calvin Stevens and was some years later brought into clinical practice as an anesthetic agent (Figure 1)...
January 11, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Patrik Persson, Angelica Fasching, Fredrik Palm
AIM: Common kidney alterations early after the onset of insulinopenic diabetes include glomerular hyperfiltration, increased oxygen consumption and tissue hypoxia. Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in most of these early alterations. The RAAS peptide angiotensin (1-7) has the potential to modulate RAAS-mediated alterations in kidney function. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the acute effects of angiotensin (1-7) in the kidney of insulinopenic type 1 diabetic rat and the results compared to that of normoglycaemic controls...
January 11, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Paul T Reidy, Nikol Yonemura, Jared H Madsen, Alec I McKenzie, Ziad S Mahmassani, Matthew T Rondina, Yu Kuei Lin, Katie Kaput, Micah J Drummond
Mechanisms underlying physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance are not well understood. In addition to a role in muscle repair, immune cell populations such as macrophages may regulate insulin sensitivity. AIM: To examine if the dynamic changes in insulin sensitivity during and after recovery from reduced physical activity corresponded to changes in skeletal muscle macrophages. METHODS: In this prospective clinical study we collected muscle biopsies from healthy older adults (70±2y, n=12) before and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp were assessed before (PRE) and after 2-weeks reduced physical activity (RA), and following 2-weeks of recovery (REC)...
January 10, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Jarrah M Dowrick, Kenneth Tran, Denis S Loiselle, Poul M F Nielsen, Andrew J Taberner, June-Chiew Han, Marie-Louise Ward
When exposed to an abrupt stretch, cardiac muscle exhibits biphasic active force enhancement. The initial, instantaneous, force enhancement is well explained by the Frank-Starling mechanism. However, the cellular mechanisms associated with the second, slower, phase remain contentious. This review explores hypotheses regarding this 'slow force response' with the intention of clarifying some apparent contradictions in the literature. The review is partitioned into three sections. The first section considers pathways that modify the intracellular calcium handling to address the role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the mechanism underlying the slow force response...
January 7, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Wilhelm Bloch
Loss of muscle fibers and nuclei in disuse induced muscle wasting has been recently doubted (Bruusgard and Gunderson) and brings into question whether cancer-induced muscle wasting involves the process of hyperplasia (Winje et al.). Cancer cachexia leads to muscle wasting, a multifactorial syndrome observed in more than 50% of oncological patients. The loss of muscle mass and function influences survival and quality of life. Therefore, the search of a countermeasure for the prevention of muscle wasting in cancer patients remains a major goal in cancer research...
December 31, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Ferruh Artunc, Matthias Wörn, Anja Schork, Bernhard N Bohnert
Sodium retention and extracellular volume expansion are typical features of patients with nephrotic syndrome. In recent years, from in vitro data, endoluminal activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by aberrantly filtered serine proteases has been proposed as an underlying mechanism. Recently, this concept was supported in vivo in nephrotic mice that were protected from proteolytic ENaC activation and sodium retention by the use of aprotinin for the pharmacological inhibition of urinary serine protease activity...
December 31, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Patricia Rivera, María Teresa Ramírez-López, Antonio Vargas, Juan Decara, Mariam Vázquez, Rocío Arco, Raquel Gómez de Heras, Jesús Argente, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Julie A Chowen, Juan Suárez
AIM: We aimed to investigate whether a dysregulated maternal diet during gestation and lactation induces long-lasting changes in the hypothalamic control of feeding behavior in the offspring and whether this effect is sex specific. METHODS: The study included an analysis of appetite-regulating metabolic hormones and hypothalamic signaling in male and female offspring in adulthood after exposure to a free-choice high-calorie palatable low-protein (P) diet or standard chow (C) during (pre)gestation/lactation (maternal) and/or postweaning (offspring)...
December 27, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Nuria Perretta-Tejedor, José M Muñoz-Félix, Annette Düwel, Yaremi Quiros-Luis, José Luis Fernández-Martín, Ana I Morales, Francisco J López-Hernández, José M López-Novoa, Carlos Martínez-Salgado
AIM: Chronic kidney disease is characterized by tubulointerstitial fibrosis involving inflammation, tubular apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation. Cardiotrophin-1, a member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines, protects several organs from damage by promoting survival and anti-inflammatory effects. However, whether cardiotrophin-1 participates in the response to chronic kidney injury leading to renal fibrosis is unknown. METHODS: We hypothesized and assessed the potential role of cardiotrophin-1 in a mice model of tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction...
December 27, 2018: Acta Physiologica
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