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Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS

Aizhong Wang, Jiali Wang, Jun Wu, Xiaojun Deng, Yan Zou
An uncontrolled inflammatory response has been implicated in the progression of acute liver failure through poorly understood mechanisms. The aim of our study was to investigate whether suramin attenuates inflammation-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis by modulating mitochondrial homeostasis. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from mice and treated with LPS in vitro in the presence or absence of suramin. Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, and ELISAs were used to evaluate the mitochondrial stress. The LPS treatment caused hepatocyte death via apoptosis...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Ge Jin, Lin Zhu, Peng Liu, Qian Xu, Yue Qi, Xiaoyu Zhou, Jikai Xu, Xuefei Ji, Tianyan Chi, Libo Zou
Xanthoceraside, a novel triterpenoid saponin, has been found to attenuate learning and memory impairments in AD animal models. However, whether xanthoceraside has a positive effect on synaptic morphology remains unclear. Herein, we evaluated the effects of xanthoceraside on learning and memory impairments and the abnormalities of synaptic structure in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The behavioral experiments demonstrated that xanthoceraside attenuated the imaginal memory and spatial learning impairments, and improved social interaction...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Mariko So, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Reiko Saito, Yukiyo Yamamoto, Yasuhito Motojima, Hiromichi Ueno, Satomi Sonoda, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Koichi Kusuhara, Yoichi Ueta
The article Inhibition of ghrelin-induced feeding in rats by pretreatment with a novel dual orexin receptor antagonist, written by Mariko So, Hirofumi Hashimoto.
February 14, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Huiling Jin, Takayuki Fujita, Meihua Jin, Reiko Kurotani, Yuko Hidaka, Wenqian Cai, Kenji Suita, Rajesh Prajapati, Chen Liang, Yoshiki Ohnuki, Yasumasa Mototani, Masanari Umemura, Utako Yokoyama, Motohiko Sato, Satoshi Okumura, Yoshihiro Ishikawa
The article Epac activation inhibits IL-6-induced cardiac myocyte dysfunction.
February 14, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Noriyuki Hama, Minako Kawai, Shin-Ichi Ito, Yuki Yoshida, Yasuhisa Fujita, Akihiko Hirota
We have developed a concave-shaped transparent electrode unit that enables the placement of several electrodes within the optical sampling area on the spherical surface of the rat brain. This concave-shaped transparent electrode unit consists of an insulator base (a plano-concave lens) and a gallium-doped zinc oxide film that is a transparent conductor coating the base. Most of the unit is wrapped in an insulator film made of silicon dioxide, and the few areas left unwrapped act as electrodes. In the study reported here this newly developed transparent electrode unit worked well within the optical detection area without affecting optical recording...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Kayo Nakamura, Andrew John Moorhouse, Dennis Lawrence Cheung, Kei Eto, Ikuko Takeda, Paul Wiers Rozenbroek, Junichi Nabekura
The neuronal K+ -Cl- cotransporter KCC2 maintains a low intracellular Cl- concentration and facilitates hyperpolarizing GABAA receptor responses. KCC2 also plays a separate role in stabilizing and enhancing dendritic spines in the developing nervous system. Using a conditional transgenic mouse strategy, we examined whether overexpression of KCC2 enhances dendritic spines in the adult nervous system and characterized the effects on spine dynamics in the motor cortex in vivo during rotarod training. Mice overexpressing KCC2 showed significantly increased spine density in the apical dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons, measured in vivo using two-photon imaging...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Fumitaka Fujita, Kunitoshi Uchida, Yasunori Takayama, Yoshiro Suzuki, Masayuki Takaishi, Makoto Tominaga
The article Hypotonicity-induced cell swelling activates TRPA1, written by Fumitaka Fujita, Kunitoshi Uchida, Yasunori Takayama, Yoshiro Suzuki, Masayuki Takaishi and Makoto Tominaga, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 16 June 2017 without open access.
February 8, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Farkhonde Hasannejad, Malek Moein Ansar, Mohammad Rostampour, Edris Mahdavi Fikijivar, Behrooz Khakpour Taleghani
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) toxicity is a well-known model for peripheral neuropathy. GABA and glutamate are two neurotransmitters in neural pathways involved in the peripheral neuropathy. Cichorium intybus (Chicory) contains glycosides and triterpenoids, which inhibit glutamatergic transmission and enhance GABAergic transmission. The present study was aimed at studying the effect of chicory extract (CE) on the pyridoxine-induced peripheral neuropathy with a particular focus on glutamatergic and GABAergic systems...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Siamak Shahidi, Alireza Komaki, Reihaneh Sadeghian, Sara Soleimani Asl
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant. The precise mechanisms of its effects remain unknown and current relapse treatments have low efficacy. However, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neuronal plasticity are essential contributors, despite paradoxical reports and a lack of comprehensive studies. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different doses of METH on long-term potentiation (LTP), BDNF expression and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus of reinstated rats. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with METH (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg) or saline, and trained in a conditioned place preference paradigm...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Toshio Kuroki
Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift, published in 1726, was analyzed from the viewpoint of scaling in comparative physiology. According to the original text, the foods of 1724 Lilliputians, tiny human creatures, are needed for Gulliver, but the author found that those of 42 Lilliputians and of 1/42 Brobdingnagians (gigantic human creatures) are enough to support the energy of Gulliver. The author further estimated their heartbeats, respiration rates, life spans and blood pressure. These calculations were made by the use of three equations, i...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Pen-Li Lu, Meng-Li Tsai, Fu-Shan Jaw, Chen-Tung Yen
Mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) is a critical relay of nociception. This study recorded responses of MD neurons to noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli in isoflurane anesthetized rats. We found the threshold of noxious mechanical stimulation was 141 gw and that of noxious heat stimulation was 46 °C. A significantly higher percentage of noxious inhibitory neurons were found in the medial and central part of the MD, whereas a higher percentage of noxious excitatory neurons were found in the lateral part of the MD and adjacent intralaminar nuclei...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Sunena Srivastava, Kiyoshi Nakagawa, Xin He, Toru Kimura, Toshiyuki Fukutomi, Seiji Miyauchi, Hiroyuki Sakurai, Naohiko Anzai
Sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporters SMCT1 (SLC5A8) and SMCT2 (SLC5A12) mediate the high- and low-affinity transport of lactate in the kidney, but their regulatory mechanism is still unknown. Since these two transporters have the PDZ-motif at their C-terminus, the function of SMCTs may be modulated by a protein-protein interaction. To investigate the binding partner(s) of SMCTs in the kidney, we performed yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screenings of a human kidney cDNA library with the C-terminus of SMCT1 (SMCT1-CT) and SMCT2 (SMCT2-CT) as bait...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Shigehiko Ogoh, Kohei Sato, Ai Hirasawa, Tomoko Sadamoto
The present study examined the effect of muscle metaboreflex on blood flow in different cerebral arteries. Eleven healthy participants performed isometric, one-leg knee extension at 30% maximal voluntary contraction for 2 min. Activated muscle metaboreflex was isolated for 2 min by post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI). The contralateral internal carotid (ICA), vertebral (VA), and ipsilateral external carotid arteries (ECA) blood flows were evaluated using Doppler ultrasound. The ICA blood flow increased at the beginning of exercise (P  = 0...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Sae Uchida, Yoshie Ito, Fusako Kagitani
The present study examined the effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation on the odor-induced blood flow response in the olfactory bulb. In urethane-anesthetized rats, odor stimulation (5% amyl acetate, 30 s) produced an increase in olfactory bulb blood flow (reaching 107% ± 3% of the pre-stimulus basal values), without changes in frontal cortical blood flow or mean arterial pressure. Intravenous injection of nicotine (30 μg/kg), a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, significantly augmented the odor-induced increase response of olfactory bulb blood flow, without changes in the basal blood flow level...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Yangong Liu, Pu Wang, Fangfang Ma, Mingqi Zheng, Gang Liu, Shinichiro Kume, Tatsuki Kurokawa, Katsushige Ono
T-type channels are low-voltage-activated channels that play a role in the cardiovascular system particularly for pacemaker activity. Glycosylation is one of the most prevalent post-translational modifications in protein. Among various glycosylation types, the most common one is asparagine-linked (N-linked) glycosylation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the roles of N-linked glycosylation for the gating properties of the CaV 3.1-T-type Ca2+ channel. N-linked glycosylation synthesis inhibitor tunicamycin causes a reduction of CaV 3...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Ei Ei Mon, Fan-Yan Wei, Raja Norazireen Raja Ahmad, Takahiro Yamamoto, Toshiro Moroishi, Kazuhito Tomizawa
Mitochondrial iron is indispensable for heme biosynthesis and iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Several mitochondrial transmembrane proteins have been implicated to function in the biosynthesis of heme and iron-sulfur clusters by transporting reaction intermediates. However, several mitochondrial proteins related to iron metabolism remain uncharacterized. Here, we show that human sideroflexin 2 (SFXN2), a member of the SFXN protein family, is involved in mitochondrial iron metabolism. SFXN2 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that localized to mitochondria via its transmembrane domain...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Oleg Lookin, Yuri Protsenko
The slow force response (SFR) to stretch is an important adaptive mechanism of the heart. The SFR may result in ~ 20-30% extra force but it is substantially attenuated in heart failure. We investigated the relation of SFR magnitude with Ca2+ transient decay in healthy (CONT) and monocrotaline-treated rats with heart failure (MCT). Right ventricular trabeculae were stretched from 85 to 95% of optimal length and held stretched for 10 min at 30 °C and 1 Hz. Isometric twitches and Ca2+ transients were collected on 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 min after stretch...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Koji Nonaka, Yutaka Ozaki, Kenichi Ito, Masahiro Sakita, Satsuki Une, Junichi Akiyama
Statins and exercise reduce cardiovascular disease incidence. We investigated whether endurance exercise in mice induces mitochondrial adaptation in skeletal muscle and muscle injury during administration of atorvastatin, a member of the statin medication class. Male C57BL mice were assigned to one of three groups: control (Con), statin (Statin), or statin and exercise (Statin + Ex). Atorvastatin was administered, and exercise performed on a treadmill for 8 weeks. The levels of mitochondria-associated proteins, PGC-1α, and respiratory chain complex, (COX) I-V, in the quadriceps femoris, and serum creatine kinase, a muscle injury marker, were measured...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Tomohiro Matsumoto, Masayuki Tanaka, Takuya Ikeji, Noriaki Maeshige, Yoshitada Sakai, Toshihiro Akisue, Hiroyo Kondo, Akihiko Ishihara, Hidemi Fujino
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of transcutaneous CO2 application on the blood flow and capillary architecture of the soleus muscle in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, control + CO2 -treated, STZ-induced hyperglycemia, and STZ-induced hyperglycemia + CO2 -treated groups. Blood flow in soleus muscle increased during the transcutaneous CO2 exposure, and continued to increase for 30 min after the treatment...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Tomo Kita, Kunitoshi Uchida, Kenichi Kato, Yoshiro Suzuki, Makoto Tominaga, Jun Yamazaki
FK506 (tacrolimus) is an immunosuppressant widely used as an ointment in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. However, local application of FK506 can evoke burning sensations in atopic dermatitis patients, and its mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we found that FK506 activates transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels. In Ca2+ -imaging experiments, increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+ ]i ) by FK506 were observed in HEK293T cells expressing hTRPA1 or hTRPM8. FK506-induced currents were observed in HEK293T cells expressing hTRPA1 or mTRPA1, but less or not at all in cells expressing hTRPV1 or hTRPM8 using a patch-clamp technique...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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