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Current Cardiology Reviews

Alexandr S Gorbunov, Leonid N Maslov, Amteshwar S Jaggi, Nirmal Singh, Luciano De Petrocellis, Alla A Boshchenko, Ali Roohbakhsh, Vladimir V Bezuglov, Peter R Oeltgen
Transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 2 (TRPV2) is required for normal cardiac contractility. The stimulation of TRPV1 in isolated cardiomyocytes can aggravate the effect of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) on H9C2 cells. The knockout of the TRPV1 gene promotes increased tolerance of the isolated perfused heart to the impact of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). However, activation of TRPV1 increases the resistance of the heart to I/R due to calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release from afferent nerve endings...
March 6, 2019: Current Cardiology Reviews
Mario Rodriguez, Marcelo Hernandez, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Kianoush B Kashani, Iqra Riaz, Janani Rangaswami, Eyal Herzog, Maya Guglin, Chayakrit Krittanawong
Hyponatremia is a very common electrolyte abnormality, associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Two opposite processes can result in hyponatremia in this setting: volume overload with dilutional hypervolemic hyponatremia from congestion, and hypovolemic hyponatremia from excessive use of natriuretics. These two conditions require different therapeutic approaches. While sodium in the form of normal saline can be lifesaving in the second case, same treatment would exacerbate hyponatremia in the first case...
March 5, 2019: Current Cardiology Reviews
Moises Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Ana Castellano-Martinez, Alvaro Antonio Perez-Reviriego
Asymptomatic VPE refers to the presence of this abnormal ECG pattern in the absence of any symptoms. The natural history in these patients is usually benign, and most children (60%) with VPE are usually asymptomatic. However, sudden cardiac death (SCD) has been reported to be the initial symptom in many patients too. The increased risk of SCD is thought to be due to the rapid conduction of atrial arrhythmias to the ventricle, via the AP, which degenerates into ventricular fibrillation (VF). The best method to identify high-risk patients with asymptomatic VPE for SCD is the characterization of the electrophysiological properties of the AP through an electrophysiological study (EPS)...
March 1, 2019: Current Cardiology Reviews
Leonid N Maslov, Sergey Y Tsibulnikov, Ekaterina S Prokudina, Sergey V Popov, Alla A Boshchenko, Nirmal Singh, Yi Zhang, Peter R Oeltgen
The hypothetical trigger of remote postconditioning (RPost) of the heart is the high-molecular weight hydrophobic peptide(s). Nitric oxide and adenosine serve as intermediaries between the peptide and intracellular structures. The role of the autonomic nervous system in RPost requires further study. In signaling mechanism RPost, kinases are involved: protein kinase C, PI3, Akt, JAK. The hypothetical end effector of RPost is aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, the transcription factors STAT, Nrf2, and also the BKCa channel...
February 25, 2019: Current Cardiology Reviews
José Gildo de Moura Monteiro Júnior, Dilênia de Oliveira Cipriano Torres, Dário Celestino Sobral Filho
Cardiovascular diseases are the major causes of preventable health loss from disease in the world and leads to functional disturbances including hematological parameters. The inflammatory and hypoxemic nature in cardiovascular diseases causes a stimulus in the bone marrow and, depending on the intensity of this stimulus, there are a release of immature cells or increase of other cells in the bloodstream. Therefore, their presence in the circulation are important variables used to diagnose, stratify and predict diseases...
February 25, 2019: Current Cardiology Reviews
Caryl E Richards, Daniel R Obaid
BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is now widely used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease since it is a rapid, minimally invasive test with a diagnostic accuracy comparable to coronary angiography. However, to meet demands for increasing spatial and temporal resolution, higher x-ray radiation doses are required to circumvent the resulting increase in image noise. Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation with CT imaging is a major health concern due to the potential risk of radiation-associated malignancy...
February 22, 2019: Current Cardiology Reviews
Bayati Mehdi, Hosseini Kaveh, Vasheghani-Farahani Ali
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death among dialysis patients, accounting for about 40% of all their mortalities. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is culpable for 37.5% of all deaths among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) should be considered in dialysis patients for the primary or secondary prevention of SCD. Recent studies on the implementation of ICD/cardiac resynchronization therapy do not exclude patients with ESRD; however, individualized decisions should be made in this group of patients...
January 18, 2019: Current Cardiology Reviews
Ahmed Fathala
Immunoglobulin 4 (IgG4)-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by elevation of serum IgG4. IgG4-RSD can affect any organ in the body, and the list of organs associated with this condition is growing steadily. IgG4-related cardiovascular disease affects the coronary arteries, heart valves, myocardium, pericardium, aorta, pulmonary and peripheral vessels. Echocardiography is the most commonly used non-invasive imaging method. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) can assess aortitis, periarteritis and coronary aneurysms...
January 16, 2019: Current Cardiology Reviews
Madalena Braga, Maria Lúcia Moleiro, Luís Guedes-Martins
The ductus venosus is a vascular shunt situated within the fetal liver parenchyma connecting the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava. This vessel acts as a bypass of the liver microcirculation and plays a critical role in the fetal circulation. The ductus venosus allows oxygenated and nutrient-rich venous blood to flow from the placenta to the myocardium and brain. Increased impedance to flow in the fetal ductus venosus is associated with fetal aneuploidies, cardiac defects and other adverse pregnancy outcomes...
January 15, 2019: Current Cardiology Reviews
Nitin B Charbe, Flavia C Zacconi, Nikhil Amnerkar, Dinesh Pardhi, Priyank Shukla, Tareq L Mukattash, Paul A McCarron, Murtaza M Tambuwala
Three-dimensional (3D) printing, also known as additive manufacturing, was developed originally for engineering applications. Since its early advancements, there has been a relentless development in enthusiasm for this innovation in biomedical research. It allows for the fabrication of structures with both complex geometries and heterogeneous material properties. Tissue engineering using 3D bio-printers can overcome the limitations of traditional tissue engineering methods. It can match the complexity and cellular microenvironment of human organs and tissues, which drives much of the interest in this technique...
January 12, 2019: Current Cardiology Reviews
Elio Aloia, Paolo Orselli, Carlotta Sciaccaluga
In patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with placement of stents, a triple antithrombotic therapy is empirically established, which consists of the combination of dual antithrombotic therapy (aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor) and an oral anticoagulant agent. This choice is guided by the desirable result of reducing cerebrovascular and coronary ischemic events. However, there is an unwelcome outcome: an increased incidence of bleedings. On this matter, in 2018, a North American Perspective Update was published, about a year later the publication of the European focus update on the dual antiplatelet therapy...
January 10, 2019: Current Cardiology Reviews
Bart W Driesen, Evangeline G Warmerdam, Gert-Jan T Sieswerda, Folkert J Meijboom, Mirella C Molenschot, Gregor J Krings, Arie P J van Dijk, Michiel Voskuil
Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) with right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT) dysfunction need sequential pulmonary valve replacements throughout their life in the majority of cases. Since their introduction in 2000, the number of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantations (PPVI) has grown and reached over 10,000 procedures worldwide. Overall, PPVI has been proven safe and effective, but some anatomical variations can limit procedural success. This review discusses the current status and future perspectives of the procedure...
December 23, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Jian'an Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Current Cardiology Reviews
Rita Marinheiro, Leonor Parreira, Pedro Amador, Dinis Mesquita, José Farinha, Marta Fonseca, Tatiana Duarte, Cláudia Lopes, Andreia Fernandes, Rui Caria
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a prevalent condition thought to increase in the future. Being mostly undiagnosed, the most serious complications are cardiovascular diseases, among which are arrhythmias. Controversy remains as to whether OSA is a primary etiologic factor for ventricular arrhythmias, because of the high incidence of cardiovascular comorbidities in OSA patients. However, there is mostly a strong evidence of a relation between OSA and ventricular arrhythmias. A few mechanisms have been proposed to be responsible for this association and some electrocardiographic changes have also been demonstrated to be more frequent in OSA patients...
2019: Current Cardiology Reviews
Olga N Kislitsina, Jonathan D Rich, Jane E Wilcox, Duc T Pham, Andrei Churyla, Esther B Vorovich, Kambiz Ghafourian, Clyde W Yancy
The management of patients with shock is extremely challenging because of the myriad of possible clinical presentations in cardiogenic shock, septic shock and hypovolemic shock and the limitations of contemporary therapeutic options. The treatment of shock includes the administration of endogenous catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) as well as various vasopressor agents that have shown efficacy in the treatment of the various types of shock. In addition to the endogenous catecholamines, dobutamine, isoproterenol, phenylephrine, and milrinone have served as the mainstays of shock therapy for several decades...
December 12, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Nirav Patel, Krunalkumar Patel, Abhishek Shenoy, William Baker, Amgad N Makaryus, Nabil El-Sherif
BACKGROUND: Ablation therapy is the treatment of choice in antiarrhythmic drug refractory atrial fibrillation (AF). It is performed by either cryoballoon ablation (CBA) or radiofrequency ablation. CBA is gaining popularity due to simplicity with similar efficacy and complication rate compared with RFA. In this meta-analysis, we compare the recurrence rate of AF and the complications from CBA versus RFA for the treatment of AF. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for the articles that compared the outcome of interest...
December 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Nooraldaem Yousif, Mohammady Shahin, Robert Manka, Slayman Obeid
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is an abnormal communication between the termination of a coronary artery or its branches and a cardiac chamber, a great vessel or other vascular structure. Symptomatic patients with large CAF should undergo surgical or percutanous closure of the fistula at the drainage site while still the debate on closing asymptomatic CAF and re-openening symptomatic occluded CAF is ongoing. CASE SUMMARY: We are reporting a 30-year-old male patient with no previous medical history presented as non-ST segment elevation myocardial Infarction...
December 6, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Stacy Westerman, Nanette Wenger
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. The scope and impact of atrial fibrillation is wide; it can affect cardiac function, functional status, and quality of life, and it confers a stroke risk. There are sex differences in atrial fibrillation across the scope of the disease process, from epidemiology and causative mechanisms to management and outcomes. The approach to management of atrial fibrillation differs between women and men, and there are sex differences in response to medical therapy and catheter ablation...
December 4, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
E Russo, D R Potenza, M Casella, R Massaro, G Russo, M Braccio, A Dello Russo, M Cassese
Transcather aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become a safe and indispensable treatment option for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are at high surgical risk. Recently, outcomes after TAVI have improved significantly and TAVI has emerged as a qualified alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement in the treatment of intermediate risk patients and greater adoption of this procedure is to be expected in a wider patients population, including younger patients and low surgical risk patients...
December 4, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Akira Sekikawa, Masafumi Ihara, Oscar Lopez, Chikage Kakuta, Brian Lopresti, Aya Higashiyama, Howard Aizenstein, Yue-Fang Chang, Chester Mathis, Yoshihiro Miyamoto, Lewis Kuller, Chendi Cui
BACKGROUND: Observational studies in Asia show that dietary intake of soy isoflavones had a significant inverse association with coronary heart disease (CHD). A recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) of soy isoflavones on atherosclerosis in the US, however, failed to show their benefit. The discrepancy may be due to the much lower prevalence of S-equol producers in Westerners: Only 20-30% of Westerners produce S-equol in contrast to 50-70% in Asians. S-equol is a metabolite of dietary soy isoflavone daidzein by gut microbiome and possesses the most anti-atherogenic properties among all isoflavones...
December 4, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
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