Leandro Tolfo Franzoni, Stephanie Bastos da Motta, Gabriel Carvalho, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Mabel Marciela Ahner, Marco Aurélio Lumertz Saffi, Alexandre Araújo Pereira, Adamastor Humberto Pereira, Anderson Donelli da Silveira, Ricardo Stein
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise (PE) may improve plasma concentration of interleukin- 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and adiponectin (adpN) in heart transplant (HT) patients. However, no consistent data is available on this population. AIM: Thus, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of PE over these pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers in HT patients. METHODS: Following the guidelines established by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 statement, we conducted a systematic literature search in the PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus databases...
April 2, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Yue Su, Jin-Yu Sun, Zhen-Yang Su, Wei Sun
As a major cause of various cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence of hypertension has been increasing in the past 30 years, leading to significant socioeconomic and health burdens. Obesity is one of the major risk factors for hypertension. Body mass index (BMI) is the most used anthropometric index to measure obesity in clinical practice and to assess the risk of obesity-related diseases. However, obesity is a heterogeneous disease, and the accumulation of fat in different body regions leads to differences in cardiovascular and metabolic risks...
March 27, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Bianca Araujo Almeida, Anderson Pontes Morales, José Ricardo Claudino Ribeiro, Yasmin Garcia Ribeiro, Felipe Sampaio-Jorge, Thiago Barth, Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the influence of caffeine (CAF) intake strategies, taking into account their form, timing, and dosage, on heart rate variability (HRV) indices in the post-exercise recovery period. METHODS: The meta-analysis adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and is registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42023425885). A comprehensive literature search was carried out across MEDLINE, Web of Science, LILACS, and SCOPUS, concluding in May 2023...
March 14, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Sandeep Randhawa, Jawahar L Mehta, Gaurav Dhar
Over 750,000 individuals suffer from stroke annually in the United States, with 87% of these strokes being ischemic in nature. Roughly 40% of ischemic strokes occur in individuals 60 years of age or under. A quarter of all ischemic strokes have no identifiable cause despite extensive workup and are deemed cryptogenic in nature. Patent Foramen Ovales (PFO) has been postulated in stroke causation by either paradoxical embolization or platelet activation in the tunnel of the defect. The incidence of PFO is reported to be 15-25% in the general population but rises to 40% in patients with cryptogenic stroke...
March 11, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Nismat Javed, Kirit Singh, Justin Shirah, Timothy J Vittorio
BACKGROUND: Pericardial effusion is associated with amyloidosis, specifically amyloid light chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) subtypes. However, the patients might present with different clinical symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and associations of patients with pericardial effusion owing to either AL or ATTR amyloidosis. METHODS: This study reviewed 26 studies from databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Google Scholar and CINAHL databases after protocol registration...
March 8, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Shivani Chib, Sushma Devi, Rishabh Chalotra, Neeraj Mittal, Thakur Gurjeet Singh, Puneet Kumar, Randhir Singh
Cardiovascular and neurological diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality globally. Moreover, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally. About 17.9 million people are affected by cardiovascular diseases and 6.8 million people die every year due to neurological diseases. The common neurologic manifestations of cardiovascular illness include stroke syndrome which is responsible for unconsciousness and several other morbidities significantly diminished the quality of life of patients...
March 4, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Ekhlas Mahmoud Al-Hashedi, Fuad A Abdu
BACKGROUND: Cardiac remodelling could be a key mechanism in aldosteronemediated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Experimental and clinical evidence has demonstrated that aldosterone causes cardiac structural remodelling and dysfunction by its profibrotic and pro-hypertrophic effects, which result mainly from the direct effects on myocardial collagen deposition, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Clinical studies have investigated the aldosterone effects on the heart in different clinical conditions, including general population, essential hypertension, primary aldosteronism, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation...
February 29, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Balamrit Singh Sokhal, Sowmya Prasanna Kumar Menon, Charles Willes, Nadia Corp, Andrija Matetić, Christian Mallen, Mamas Mamas
BACKGROUND: There is limited systematic data on the association between the Hospital Frailty Risk Score (HFRS) and characteristics and mortality in patients with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This systematic review aimed to summarise the use of the HFRS in describing the prevalence of frailty in patients with CVD, the clinical characteristics of patients with CVD, and the association between frailty on the likelihood of mortality in patients with CVD. METHODS: A systematic literature search for observational studies using terms related to CVD, cerebrovascular disease, and the HFRS was conducted using 6 databases in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
February 29, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Inne Vanreusel, Wendy Hens, Emeline Van Craenenbroeck, An Van Berendoncks, Vincent F M Segers
Although there is a continually growing number of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) due to medical and surgical advances, these patients still have a poorer prognosis compared to healthy individuals of similar age. In patients with heart failure, microvascular dysfunction (MVD) has recently emerged as a crucial modulator of disease initiation and progression. Because of the substantial pathophysiological overlap between CHD and heart failure induced by other etiologies, MVD could be important in the pathophysiology of CHD as well...
February 21, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Zeinab Eftekhar, Habib Haybar, Alireza Mohebbi, Najmaldin Saki
The novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first reported in the last days of December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The presence of certain co-morbidities, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), are the basis for worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Relevant English-language literature was searched and retrieved from the Google Scholar search engine and PubMed database up to 2023 using COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Heart failure, Myocardial infarction, and Arrhythmia and Cardiac complication as keywords. Increased hemodynamic load, ischemia-related dysfunction, ventricular remodeling, excessive neurohumoral stimulation, abnormal myocyte calcium cycling, and excessive or insufficient extracellular matrix proliferation are associated with heart failure (HF) in COVID-19 patients...
February 20, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Alfred Stanley, Constantine Athanasuleas
Asymptomatic primary mitral regurgitation due to myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve leaflets may remain so for long periods, even as left ventricular function progresses to a decompensated stage. During the early compensated stage, the ventricle's initial response to the volume overload is an asymmetric increase in the diastolic short axis dimension, accomplished by a diastolic shift of the interventricular septum into the right ventricular cavity, creating a more spherical left ventricular diastolic shape, increasing diastolic filling and stroke volume...
February 13, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Shashipriya Agress, Jannat S Sheikh, Aida A Perez Ramos, Durlav Kashyap, Soha Razmjouei, Joy Kumar, Mankaranvir Singh, Muhammad Ali Lak, Ali Osman, Muhammad Zia Ul Haq
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (HF) is frequently associated with various comorbidities. These comorbid conditions, such as anemia, diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, and sleep apnea, can significantly impact the prognosis of patients with HF. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to synthesize current evidence on the prevalence, impact, and management of comorbidities in patients with chronic HF. METHODS: A comprehensive review was conducted, with a rigorous selection process...
February 9, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Basheer Abdullah Marzoog
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be subdivided into exogenous and endogenous categories based on their origin. Analyzing the endogenous VOCs can provide insights into maintaining the internal organs' homeostasis. Despite the ongoing development and the current understanding, studies have suggested a link between cardiovascular metabolic alterations in patients with ischemic heart disease and elevated levels of ethane and isoprene detectable through exhaled breath analysis. Conversely, patients with chronic heart failure exhibit elevated acetone and pentane in their exhaled air...
February 2, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Ertan Yetkin, Hasan Atmaca, Bilal Çuğlan, Kenan Yalta
The association between cryptogenic stroke (CS) and patent foramen ovale (PFO) with or without atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) has been a debate for decades in terms of pathophysiologic processes and clinical courses. This issue has become more interesting and complex, because of the concerns associating the CS with so-called normal variant pathologies of interatrial septum, namely ASA and PFO. While there is an anatomical pathology in the interatrial septum, namely PFO and ASA, the embolic source of stroke is not clearly defined...
February 1, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
S Arunkumar, K Jegaverrapandi
BACKGROUND: Previous publications in 2011, 2016, and 2022 have presented lists of drugs associated with takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM). This review aims to provide updated drug lists that have been reported as potential causes of TCM. METHODS: Following the same methodology employed in previous reviews, a detailed investigation was carried out in the PubMed/Medline database from June 2022 to July 2023 to identify drug-induced TCM (DITC) case reports. Various search terms related to the drug-induced transient left ventricular ballooning syndrome, ampulla cardiomyopathy, apical ballooning syndrome, drug-induced broken heart syndrome, drug triggered takotsubo cardiomyopathy, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and iatrogenic takotsubo cardiomyopathy were utilized...
February 1, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Yonatan Akivis, Hussam Alkaissi, Samy I McFarlane, Inna Bukharovich
Triglycerides have long been recognized as a cardiovascular disease risk factor. However, their precise role in atherosclerosis and potential utility as a therapeutic target remains debated topics. This review aims to shed light on these aspects by exploring the complex relationship between triglycerides and atherosclerosis from pathophysiological and pharmacological perspectives. Triglycerides, primarily carried by chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins, play an essential role in energy storage and utilization...
January 26, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Jonathan C H Chan, Areeb Siddiqui
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a clinical condition with high mortality and morbidity that occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body. The pharmacological management of heart failure has been revolutionized over the past decade with novel treatments. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the review is to highlight the recent pharmacological advances in the management of heart failure. RESULTS: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i), iron carboxymaltose, finerenone, omecamtiv mecarbil, and vericiguat have been shown to reduce hospitalization for heart failure...
January 26, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
D Carrasco, L Guedes-Martins
Congenital heart defects represent the most common structural anomalies observed in the fetal population, and they are often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The fetal cardiac axis, which indicates the orientation of the heart in relation to the chest wall, is formed by the angle between the anteroposterior axis of the chest and the interventricular septum of the heart. Studies conducted during the first trimester have demonstrated promising outcomes with respect to the applicability of cardiac axis measurement in fetuses with congenital heart defects as well as fetuses with extracardiac and chromosomal anomalies, which may result in improved health outcomes and reduced healthcare costs...
January 24, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Kanishk Aggarwal, Sri Pranvi Boyapati, Jayesh Valecha, Amna Noor, Fnu Kanwal, Rohit Jain, Sai Gautham Kanagala
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) results from gene mutations affecting cardiac sarcomeres and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. With a prevalence of 1:200-1:500 in the general population, HCM is characterised by a hypertrophied and non-dilated left ventricle with predominant involvement of the interventricular septum. The myocardium's structural and intracellular factors, combined with triggers such as physical exertion, autonomic dysfunction, and ischemia, can lead to reentry events, and atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation (AF) which is common among HCM patients...
January 24, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
Estefanie Osorio-Llanes, Jairo Castellar-López, Wendy Rosales-Rada, Yulieth Montoya, John Bustamante, Ricardo Zalaquett, Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Jaime A Riquelme, Gina Sánchez, Mario Chiong, Sergio Lavandero, Evelyn Mendoza-Torres
The use of cardioprotective strategies as adjuvants of cardioplegic solutions has become an ideal alternative for the improvement of post-surgery heart recovery. The choice of the optimal cardioplegia, as well as its distribution mechanism, remains controversial in the field of cardiovascular surgery. There is still a need to search for new and better cardioprotective methods during cardioplegic procedures. New techniques for the management of cardiovascular complications during cardioplegia have evolved with new alternatives and additives, and each new strategy provides a tool to neutralize the damage after ischemia/reperfusion events...
January 24, 2024: Current Cardiology Reviews
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