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Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy

Znabu Hadush Kahsay, Azeb Gebresilassie Tesema, Alessandra N Bazzano
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance (PS) use is a public health concern among University students. Understanding the factors underlay the use helps to underpin effective preventive interventions. However, there is dearth of exploratory studies on the drivers of psychoactive substance use in Ethiopian universities. Here, we aimed to explore the drivers for psychoactive substance use among Mekelle University undergraduate students. METHODS: Exploratory qualitative study was conducted from April 1 to May 30, 2017...
March 4, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Zachary F Meisel, Julia Mitchell, Daniel Polsky, Nada Boualam, Ellen McGeoch, Janet Weiner, Matthew Miclette, Jonathan Purtle, Bruce Schackman, Carolyn C Cannuscio
BACKGROUND: The National Institute on Drug Abuse has identified a persistent research-to-practice gap in the implementation of evidence-based prevention and treatment programs for substance use disorder. To identify mechanisms to close this gap, we sought to obtain and characterize the range of policy makers' perspectives on the use of research in substance use disorder treatment and coverage decisions. METHODS: We conducted open-ended, semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of eighteen policy makers involved in the delivery of health services...
March 4, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Myo Nyein Aung, Motoyuki Yuasa, Saiyud Moolphate, Thaworn Lorga, Hirohide Yokokawa, Hiroshi Fukuda, Tsutomu Kitajima, Susumu Tanimura, Yoshimune Hiratsuka, Koichi Ono, Payom Thinuan, Kazuo Minematsu, Jitladda Deerojanawong, Yaoyanee Suya, Eiji Marui
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is an achievable behavioral change, which reduces the risks of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and tobacco-related diseases. There is a need for an effective smoking cessation service for low and middle income country settings where the smoking rate is generally very high whilst a cessation service is not usually accessible. This study devised a new smoking cessation service package and assessed its effectiveness in the primary health care setting of northern Thailand...
February 22, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Anahita Khalatbari-Mohseni, Hamid Reza Banafshe, Naghmeh Mirhosseini, Zatollah Asemi, Amir Ghaderi, Abdollah Omidi
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) might be associated with the symptoms of depression and anxiety, sleep disturbances and sexual dysfunctions. This study was designed to determine the effects of crocin on psychological parameters in patients under MMT. METHODS: Patients under MMT were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either 30 mg/day crocin (2 plus crocin tablet, 15 mg BID) (n = 25) or placebo (2 tablets per day, 15 mg BID) (n = 25), one hour after taking food, for 8 weeks...
February 22, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Davood Soroosh, Mahbubeh Neamatshahi, Bahram Zarmehri, Samaneh Nakhaee, Omid Mehrpour
BACKGROUND: Iran is a country with the highest rate of opioid addiction in the world. The most commonly used opioid in Iran is opium, and methadone is in second place. The trend of drug use has changed from opium to methadone from 2006 to 2011. Presence of a large number of addicted people and methadone maintenance therapy clinics make methadone readily available in Iran. Therefore, evaluation of the epidemiological characteristic of methadone toxicity and its effects on the heart is essential...
February 20, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Germa Catherina Maria Nass, Leon Willem van Rens, Boukje Arnolda Gerdina Dijkstra
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is more common in patients with Substance Use Disorder (SUD) than in the general population. Although international guidelines recommend integrated treatment clinicians are still hesitant in offering integrated treatment and more concrete recommendations are needed. This study aims to contribute to a practice-based guideline through the exploration of practice-based decision criteria to determine the indication and treatment of SUD and PTSD...
February 19, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Ronald B Moss, Dennis J Carlo
There has been a dramatic increase of deaths due to illicit fentanyl. We examined the pharmacology of fentanyl and reviewed data on the number of repeat doses of naloxone used to treat fentanyl overdoses. Multiple sequential doses of naloxone have been required in a certain percentage of opioid overdoses due to fentanyl. In addition, fentanyl appears to differ from other opioids as having a very rapid onset with high systemic levels found in overdose victims. A rapid competition is required by naloxone to out-compete large numbers of opioid receptors occupied by fentanyl in the CNS...
February 18, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Onnalin Singkorn, Tawatchai Apidechkul, Bukhari Putsa, Sudkhed Detpetukyon, Rachanee Sunsern, Phitnaree Thutsanti, Ratipark Tamornpark, Panupong Upala, Chadaporn Inta
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use impacts several dimensions, including physical health, mental health, families, and social interactions. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and to determine the factors associated with alcohol use among Akha and Lahu hill tribe youths in Chiang Rai, Thailand. METHODS: An analytic cross-sectional design was applied to obtain key data on these associations. The study sample was Akha and Lahu hill tribe youths aged 15-24 years who lived in 30 selected hill tribe villages...
January 24, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Selamawit Zewdu, Charlotte Hanlon, Abebaw Fekadu, Girmay Medhin, Solomon Teferra
BACKGROUND: Although alcohol use disorders contribute a high proportion of population disease burden, the treatment gap is large, especially in low- and middle-income countries. To narrow this gap, contextually relevant evidence is needed to inform service development in low- and middle-income country settings. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of the treatment gap for alcohol use disorder, help-seeking behavior, stigma and barriers to care among people with alcohol use disorder in rural Ethiopia...
January 18, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Tam Minh Thi Nguyen, Bach Xuan Tran, Mercedes Fleming, Manh Duc Pham, Long Thanh Nguyen, Anh Lan Thi Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Thang Huu Nguyen, Van Hai Hoang, Xuan Thanh Thi Le, Quan Hoang Vuong, Manh Tung Ho, Van Nhue Dam, Thu Trang Vuong, Vu Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Huyen Phuc Do, Phuong Linh Doan, Hai Hong Nguyen, Carl A Latkin, Cyrus S H Ho, Roger C M Ho
BACKGROUND: Globally, people who inject drugs are highly vulnerable to HIV transmission. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs are one of the most cost-effective mechanisms to substitute opioid use and improve the quality of life of patients. Since the coverage of MMT is still limited and even for those patients who are treated, improving their knowledge on HIV and maintaining healthy behaviors are key to maximizing the outcomes of HIV harm reduction programs. This study examined the knowledge on HIV, perceived risk and HIV testing among drug users accessing methadone maintenance services in three Vietnamese mountainous areas...
January 15, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Adel Elkbuli, Valerie Polcz, Brianna Dowd, Mark McKenney, Guillermo Prado
BACKGROUND: Behavioral Interventions are needed to prevent HIV in substance users, which is associated with higher risk for contracting HIV via unprotected sexual intercourse or syringe-based exposure. We reviewed universal HIV prevention interventions targeting intravenous drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs (NIDUs) to identify which prevention interventions are the most effective at reducing HIV transmission risk among IDU's and NIDU's and identify gaps in the literature. METHODS: A PubMed literature review (1998-2017), limiting studies to universal HIV prevention interventions targeting adult HIV-negative substance users...
January 3, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Lisa Strada, Christiane Sybille Schmidt, Moritz Rosenkranz, Uwe Verthein, Norbert Scherbaum, Jens Reimer, Bernd Schulte
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST) is limited and fragmented. The present study examines the HRQOL of a large national sample of OST patients in Germany and sociodemographic and clinical correlates. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on the HRQOL of 2176 OST patients was compared with German general population norms. Patients were recruited from 63 OST practices across Germany. To identify correlates of HRQOL, as measured with the SF-12, we performed bi- and multivariate analyses with sociodemographic and clinical variables, including patient- and clinician-reported outcomes on physical and mental health...
January 3, 2019: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Liang-Jen Wang, Mei-Yen Chen, Chin-Yin Lin, Mian-Yoon Chong, Wen-Jiun Chou, Yu-Han You, Chih-Pu Tsai, Yi-Syuan Chen, Shing-Fang Lu
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relapse risk among different illicit drugs is vital for developing an adequate relapse prevention policy. Therefore, the current study aims to explore the potential difference in long-term relapse rates between youths who use ketamine and those who use stimulants (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA] or methamphetamine). METHODS: The study's participants included 92 youths with ketamine use (ketamine group, mean age: 16.0 years) and 43 youths with MDMA/methamphetamine use (stimulants group, mean age: 16...
December 22, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Sarah Wadd, Maureen Dutton
BACKGROUND: Whilst alcohol misuse is decreasing amongst younger adults in many countries, it is increasing in older adults. Residential rehabilitation (rehab) is a vital component of the alcohol treatment system, particularly for those with relatively complex needs and entrenched alcohol problems. In this study, we sought to find out to what extent rehabs in England have upper age limits that exclude older adults, whether rehabs are responsive to older adults' age-related needs and how older adults experience these services...
December 13, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
E Meijer, M Kampman, M S Geisler, N H Chavannes
BACKGROUND: Little research has investigated in-depth how physicians perceive their role in smoking cessation care. This qualitative study sought to understand physicians' perceptions of responsibility for smoking cessation. METHODS: Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews between June and November 2017 in The Netherlands. We interviewed 5 addiction specialists, 5 anesthesiologist, 4 cardiologists, 8 GPs, 5 internists, 5 neurologists, 2 pediatricians, 6 pulmonologists, 7 surgeons, and 8 youth healthcare physicians (N = 55)...
December 12, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Daniel Goldstone, Jason Bantjes, Lisa Dannatt
BACKGROUND: People with substance use disorders (PWSUDs) are a clearly delineated group at high risk for suicidal behaviour. Expert consensus is that suicide prevention strategies should be culturally sensitive and specific to particular populations and socio-cultural and economic contexts. The aim of this study was to explore mental health care providers' context- and population-specific suggestions for suicide prevention when providing services for PWSUDs in the Western Cape, South Africa...
December 7, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Gholamhossein Shahraki, Zahra Sedaghat, Mohammad Fararouei
BACKGROUND: Substance dependence is considered as an important health disorder with a wide and serious range of psychosocial effects. With regard to the large number of people with substance dependency in Iran and high failure rate of quitting attempts, the aim of this study was to identify contributing factors to quitting substance dependency among patients in Yasuj the capital of Kohgilooyeh and Boyerahmad province. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted on 150 current substance users (as control group) and 187 patients who voluntarily introduced themselves to governmental and private residential treatment camps (as case group)...
December 6, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Farhad Taremian, Hamid Yaghubi, Hamid Pairavi, Seyed Ruhollah Hosseini, Masoud Zafar, Reza Moloodi
BACKGROUND: Substance use is a major mental health concern among university students. It may result in behavioral and academic problems, psychiatric disorders, and infectious diseases. Thus, this study investigated the risk and protective factors of substance use among Iranian university students. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. A number of 7330 students were selected from 30 universities in Iran. The participants completed a researcher-designed questionnaire...
December 6, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Pamela J Trangenstein, Neo K Morojele, Carl Lombard, David H Jernigan, Charles D H Parry
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the potential individual-level and contextual drivers of heavy drinking in South Africa. This study aimed to identify risk factors for heavy drinking in Tshwane, South Africa. METHODS: A household survey using a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling design. Complete consumption and income data were available on 713 adults. Heavy drinking was defined as consuming ≥120 ml (96 g) of absolute alcohol (AA) for men and ≥ 90 ml (72 g) AA for women at any location at least monthly...
December 5, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Yuka Murofushi, Yujiro Kawata, Akari Kamimura, Masataka Hirosawa, Nobuto Shibata
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the anti-doping (AD) education, doping control experience, and AD knowledge according to the World Anti-doping Code (Code) of Japanese university athletes. METHODS: We collected data from 514 male athletes (Mage  = 19.53 years, SD = 1.13) and 629 female athletes (Mage  = 20.99 years, SD = 1.07). We asked them about their experience undergoing doping control and the AD education they had received...
December 5, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
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