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Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine

Ismaheel O Lawal, Gbenga O Popoola, Thabo Lengana, Alfred O Ankrah, Thomas Ebenhan, Mike M Sathekge
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) in identifying the cause of fever of unknown origin (FUO) in patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans of 46 patients with a mean age of 39.28±12.50 years on RRT for ESRD. All patients with abnormal scans had histopathologic examination and microbial cultures of tissue samples from areas with increased standardized uptake value maximum (SUVmax) suggesting the cause of FUO in the 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Jingyan Li, Lihua Zhang, Zhanlei Zhang, Jiachen Liu, Hong Zhang, Xiaofeng Lin, Ningyi Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Despite the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy (RIT), a few patients are refractory and show relapse, warranting repeated RIT (RRIT). The purpose of this study is to explore the risk factors for RRIT. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 607 cases treated with iodine-131 (131 I) between January 2013 and June 2016. Patients were categorized into two groups: RRIT (n=76) or non-RRIT (n=531). Univariate analysis and a final multivariate model were used to determine the risk factors for RRIT...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
F S Simsek, Y Dönder, K Ugur, F Kilinc, Z Cetinkaya, B Ustundag, I H Ozercan, F Elmali
OBJECTIVE: There is a special group of patients, according to 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines. This group is defined as "the patients with conflicting observational data for post-surgery radioiodine ablation (COD for PSRIA)". For this special group of patients RIA is applied after a thorough reassessment of histopathological, clinical and biochemical features, including thyroglobulin (Tg). However, there is no consensus on what is the suitable cut-off value for the radioiodine ablation (RIA) decision or for therapy prediction...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Chih-Feng Chang, Chih-Feng Chen, Tzu-Hwei Wang, Fu-Tsai Chiang, Hao-Ting Wu, Lung-Fa Pan, Lung-Kwang Pan
OBJECTIVE: An indigenous polymethyl metacrylate (PMMA) phantom with a V-shaped slit and a correlated technique for semi-quantifying the minimum detectable difference (MDD) of single photon emission tomography (SPET) via gamma camera scanning are proposed and validated using four radionuclides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radio-actinide solutions of gallium-67 (67 Ga), technetium-99m (99m Tc), iodine-131 (131 I) and thallium-201 (201 Tl) were diluted to 11c.c. and thoroughly injected into the continuous zig zag slit of the PMMA phantom...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Shilpa Sharma, Neha Singla, Vijayta Dani Chadha, D K Dhawan
OBJECTIVE: The concept of radiation hormesis has been the matter of discussion with regard to beneficial effects to biological systems from low doses of ionizing radiations. However, its molecular basis is not well understood till now and the present study is a step forward to elucidate how low levels of ionizing radiation prove beneficial for functioning of biological systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Female Wistar rats weighing 100-120g were divided into four different groups...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Lei Yang, Chunwu Zhou
OBJECTIVE: This study was to evaluate performance characteristics of ultrasonography (US) and a combined two-and three-dimensional (2D+3D) digital mammography in identifying breast tumors in Chinese women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred and two women with suspected breast tumors were examined using diagnostic imaging techniques of US and a combined 2D+3D imaging protocol. Detection of breast tumors in women with and without dense breasts was validated according to the features of image-detected breast tumors which were proven by histological exam in this study cohort...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Kazuhiro Kitajima, Toshiko Yamano, Yasuo Miyoshi, Takayuki Katsuura, Takuya Enoki, Koichiro Yamakado
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic value of pretreatment fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in breast cancer patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eighty-three patients who had a tumor larger than 2cm shown by 18 F-FDG PET/CT and by 3-Tesla breast MRI, received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and subsequent surgical resection...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Tatsuya Tsuchitani, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Yoshihiro Maeda, Masahiko Oda, Takuya Enoki, Noriko Kotoura, Kazuhiro Kitajima
OBJECTIVE: To examine the correlation of the quantitative indexes standardized uptake value (SUV), SUV corrected for lean body mass (SUL) and SUV corrected for Japanese lean body mass (SULj) with body weight to develop an appropriate quantitative index independent of body weight fluctuation for assessment of response to cancer treatment in Japanese patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty-six males with esophageal cancer and 30 females with breast cancer underwent fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans, once before and once after, receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to planned surgical resection...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Leila S Arani, Mohammad H Gharavi, Mahdi Z Zadeh, William Y Raynor, Siavash M Seraj, Caius M Constantinescu, Oke Gerke, Thomas J Werner, Poul F Høilund-Carlsen, Abass Alavi
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the feasibility of quantifying fluorine-18-fluorodexoglucose (18 F-FDG) and 18 F-sodium fluoride (18 F-NaF) uptake in abdominal aorta and examine their association with age and cardiovascular risk factors. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Our study comprised 123 subjects (48±14 years of age, 62 men) including 78 healthy volunteers and 45 patients with chest pain syndrome, who originally enrolled in the CAMONA study in Odense, Denmark (NCT01724749)...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Philip C Grammaticos, Stavros J Baloyiannis, Vasileios Kokkas
This paper aims to describe how radial artery obstruction can support blood circulation in an ischemic area. A dramatic case is described. Furthermore aims to describe that fatigue, atherosclerosis and toxic substances like in alcoholism may reduce blood flow and energy supply in the cortex and other brain areas and thus unconsciously modify our usual civilized behavior. Intense mental and physical fatigue was described as: "vital exhaustion".
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Nikoletta K Pianou, Petros Z Stavrou, Evangelia Vlontzou, Phivi Rondogianni, Demetrios N Exarhos, Ioannis E Datseris
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common solid cancer affecting men worldwide. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is at present the most commonly used biomarker for PCa screening, as well as a reliable marker of disease recurrence after initial treatment. Bone metastases (BM) are present in advanced stages of the disease. Imaging of BM is important not only for localization and characterization, but also to evaluate their size and number, as well as to follow-up the disease during and after therapy. Bone metastases formation is triggered by cancer initiating cells in the bone marrow and is facilitated by the release of several growth factors...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Cyrus Ayubcha, Hitomi Hosoya, Siavash M Seraj, Mahdi Z Zadeh, Thomas Werner, Abass Alavi
Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18 F-FDG PET) imaging was conceived in the early 1970 by investigators at the University of Pennsylvania as a research technique to measure brain metabolism and function by employing a non-invasive imaging approach. Soon after the introduction of whole-body PET instruments, 18 F-FDG was utilized in the assessment of a variety of solid tumors and certain hematological malignancies. Yet, the role of 18 F-FDG in assessing benign and uncommon malignant disorders of the bone marrow has not been investigated to a great extent...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Artor Niccoli Asabella, Corinna Altini, Anna G Nappi, Valentina Lavelli, Cristina Ferrari, Andrea Marzullo, Alessandra Loiodice, Giuseppe Rubini
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the best known haemoglobinopathy, caused by a mutation substituting valina for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta-globin chain of adult hemoglobin A, resulting in hemoglobin S (HbS). The homozygous HbS disease (HbSS), an autosomal recessive disorder, is the most common form and the Mediterranean area, along with sub-Saharian African and India, have the highest prevalence (1%-15%). In particular, Sicily with a prevalence of 2%-5%, is among the most interested regions. However, migratory flows have led to a wider diffusion of the disease no longer confined to endemic areas...
March 5, 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Phaedra Lougiaki, Magda Tsolaki, Anastasia Pantazaki
Neurovascular dysfunction is a central process in the pathogenesis of the stroke and most neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The multi-cell neurovascular unit (NVU) combines the components of the neural, vascular and extracellular matrix (ECM) into an important interface whose proper function is critical to maintaining brain health. Tissue engineering now offers new tools and information to promote understanding of NVU's operation. A promising area for the development of NVU models is their bio-production through 3D bio-printing to produce a multi-layered NVU in which the contribution of the different cell types to neurovascular function and dysfunction can be studied at molecular and cellular levels...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Elena Tzekaki, Magda Tsolaki, Anastasia Pantazaki
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disorder that manifests itself as progressive damage to memory and knowledge and is the main cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid-β plate (Aβ) and by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein. These modifications lead to neuronal cell death, vascular dysfunction and inflammatory disorders. Described as "elderly disease", AD is an escalating threat to developed countries as life expectancy is increasing...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Georgios Liakakis
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder that has been fully described in clinical, neuropathological and imaging aspects. It is considered as the most prevalent ischemic CNS disorder and has been associated to arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and obstructive sleep apnea. The hallmark of SSVD is the ischemic white matter lesions which can be presented as lacunar infracts and global brain hypoperfusion in a common and homogeneous subtype of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) which is often unrecognized...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Sylva Sarafidou
In neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia of the Alzheimer's type the person gradually loses skills and aspects of everyday living. Does that indicate that he/ she lose the self? In the past it was widely accepted that the self diminishes in dementia, until it is lost in the latest stage, yet in the recent years this premise has been challenged. Accepting that the self is "lost" can be problematic theoretically in the approach of self-hood, and practically in the care of individuals. Currently a novel perspective is "gaining ground" supporting the existence of the self in dementia, and the importance of enhancing the self-hood, in order to improve the life of the person...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Ioannis Mavroudis
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the main causes of dementia in the western world. It is clinically characterized by memory impairment, deterioration of intellectual faculties and loss of professional skills. AD brains exhibit significant atrophy, predominantly in the temporal and parietal lobes, while light microscopy reveals deposition of senile plaques and neurofibrillary degeneration initially in the entorhinal cortex, the hippocampus, and in the acoustic and visual cortices, in the frontal lobe and the cerebellum in the advanced stages...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Grigorios Kalogiannis, George Chassapis, Magda Tsolaki
OBJECTIVE: Often, people with Subjective Cognitive Impairment (SCI), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and dementia are underwent to Electroencephalography (EEG) in order to evaluate through biological indexes the functional connectivity between brain regions and activation areas during cognitive performance. EEG recordings are frequently contaminated by muscle artifacts, which obscure and complicate their interpretation. These muscle artifacts are particularly difficult to be removed from the EEG in order the latter to be used for further clinical evaluation...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Vaitsa Giannouli, Magda Tsolaki
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of specific brain areas for financial capacity in patients suffering from amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) over time. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen aMCI patients underwent assessment of cognitive and mood functioning, as well as quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (for three times a 3 Tesla MRI). We used a detailed neuropsychological examination and a new instrument measuring financial capacity, the Legal Capacity for Property Law Transactions Assessment Scale (LCPLTAS), during a 12-month period...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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