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Global Public Health

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30895892/social-norms-and-child-marriage-in-cameroon-an-application-of-the-theory-of-normative-spectrum
#1
Beniamino Cislaghi, Gerry Mackie, Paul Nkwi, Holly Shakya
This paper reports on a qualitative study on social norms and child marriage in rural Cameroon, a country with high prevalence of child marriage but largely ignored in the literature. Study participants (n = 80) were men and women from four different ethnic groups living in four rural villages (two in the Far-North, two in the East). With the assistance of four local interviewers, we conducted 16 semi-structured focus groups to understand how existing social norms contributed to child marriage in participants' communities...
March 21, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30887912/part-of-the-solution-an-engaged-scholarship-approach-for-the-sustainable-reduction-of-street-pesticides-and-poisonings
#2
Christie Nicole Godsmark, Hanna-Andrea Rother
In low-income townships, pests are rife, a nuisance and are vectors of disease. Although alternatives are available, chemical means of pest control is often the first resort due to lack of knowledge of other methods, convenience and presumed efficacy. The demand for chemical pest control has created a unique business opportunity for informal vendors in South Africa servicing predominately low socio-economic communities. That is the selling of 'street pesticides', which are either containing agricultural pesticides too toxic for domestic use or illegally imported products...
March 19, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30887910/re-imagining-global-health-through-social-medicine
#3
Vincanne Adams, Dominique Behague, Carlo Caduff, Ilana Löwy, Francisco Ortega
The conceptual and practical work done by social medicine and global health have often overlapped. In this paper, we argue that new efforts to apprehend 'the social' in social medicine offer important insights to global health along five lines of critical analysis: (1) reconfigurations of the state and new forms of political activism, (2) philanthrocapitalism and the economisation of life, (3) The economy of attention, (4) anthropogenic climate change, and (5) the geopolitics of North and South.
March 19, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30871413/training-health-care-providers-to-provide-prep-for-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-attending-public-health-facilities-in-kenya
#4
Elizabeth M Irungu, Kenneth Ngure, Kenneth Mugwanya, Nelly Mugo, Elizabeth Bukusi, Elizabeth Wamoni, Josephine Odoyo, Jennifer F Morton, Gena Bernabee, Barbara Mambo, Sarah Masyuko, Irene Mukui, Gabrielle O'Malley, Jared M Baeten
To catalyse national scale up of PrEP for HIV serodiscordant couples in public health facilities in Kenya, the Partners Scale-Up Project, using a two-day case-based interactive curriculum, trained health care providers working in 24 high volume facilities in central and western Kenya on PrEP service delivery. Using a standardised test with questions about PrEP and antiretroviral-based HIV prevention we assessed gain in knowledge and confidence gain by comparing pre-and post-training test scores. We explored experiences of the training through key informant interviews after clinics started delivering PrEP...
March 14, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30835636/after-the-handover-exploring-msf-s-role-in-the-provision-of-health-care-to-migrant-farm-workers-in-musina-south-africa
#5
Thea de Gruchy, Anuj Kapilashrami
Non-state actors, including humanitarian agencies, play a prominent role in providing health care in low- and middle-income countries. Between 2007 and 2009, Musina, a South African municipality bordering Zimbabwe, became the site of several interventions by non-state organisations as an unprecedented number of Zimbabweans crossed the border, putting strain on already burdened local systems. After the initial need for humanitarian relief dissipated, organisations started to implement projects that were more developmental in nature...
March 5, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30829120/exploring-factors-that-influence-the-integration-of-hivst-with-hct-using-a-qualitative-comparative-cross-over-design-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#6
Charlene Harichund, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Pinky Kunene, Sinenhlanhla Simelane, Mosa Moshabela
The World Health Organization recommends using HIV self-testing (HIVST) to improve HIV testing coverage by integrating self-testing for HIV into public domain primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in areas with a high burden of HIV. However, an understanding of the relationship and interaction between HIVST and the standard HIV counselling and testing (HCT), the primary HIV testing approach within public PHC clinics, is limited. We therefore sought to compare experiences of people seeking an HIV test, specifically, how HIVST can be used to enhance HCT when introduced together...
March 4, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30829113/a-colonial-legacy-of-hiv-aids-ntd-and-sti-super-syndemics-eugenicist-foreign-aid-and-intertwined-health-burdens-in-nigeria
#7
Mehar Maju, Andria Sharma, Archana Beeram, Bayla Ostrach
Syndemics theory has been applied to the structurally shaped, biologically facilitated co-occurrence of HIV/AIDS with Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) and with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The biological and social pathways of interaction between all three ailments have not yet been analysed together. The effects of these diseases are often exacerbated by structural factors including access to care and socioeconomic status. We explore the interrelated biological pathways and structural factors that have further heightened the risk for HIV/AIDS, NTDs, and STIs...
March 4, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30821598/adolescent-access-to-and-utilisation-of-health-services-in-two-regions-of-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-a-qualitative-study
#8
Chantal Donahue, Julia Robinson, Samuel Adam Granato, Fatoumata Tirera, Doroux Aristide Billy, Ahoua Koné, James Pfeiffer
Adolescence is a critical time for physical, cognitive, social and emotional development, yet adolescents are prone to unique barriers and unmet needs for receiving proper health care services and information. This study explored barriers and facilitators to adolescent (15-19 years) access to and utilisation of health services in two regions of Côte d'Ivoire. Focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent females and males, caregivers, and health care workers at eight health facilities. Barriers and facilitators emerged within three themes: cultural, structural, and 'accueil', a French term encompassing overall feelings and experiences of a situation...
March 1, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30810486/sterilisations-at-delivery-or-after-childbirth-addressing-continuing-abuses-in-the-consent-process
#9
Sam Rowlands, Jeffrey Wale
Non-consensual sterilisation is not only a historic abuse. Cases of unethical treatment of women around the time of a pregnancy continue in the Twenty-First Century in five continents. Sterilisation is being carried out by some healthcare professionals at the time of delivery, or soon afterwards, without valid consent. A range of contemporary examples of such practices is given. Respecting women's autonomy should be the touchstone of the consent process. Avoidance of force, duress, deception and manipulation should go without saying...
February 27, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30810480/santo-domingo-s-lgbt-social-movement-at-the-crossroads-of-hiv-and-lgbt-activism
#10
H Daniel Castellanos
The emergent Dominican LGBT movement in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, has been embedded in local and global structures and discourses related to HIV/AIDS, women's health, and identity. This article explores how ongoing sociocultural changes, increased international HIV funding, and elite support facilitated a surge of collective actions and the institutional reconfiguration of the movement. However, the entry of new cohorts of leaders and the alignment of leaders with global discourses of gender and human rights exposed some rifts within the movement, including over the framing of identity, confrontational tactics, and the role of health issues...
February 27, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30810469/public-health-s-social-contract-an-obstacle-in-the-advancement-of-effective-hiv-technologies
#11
Nicola Bulled
Evidence from the past 40 years of HIV technology development and implementation indicates that the public health social contract - with its expectations of patient/citizen compliance - has hampered global disease control efforts. Despite the availability of a wide array of effective technologies, including antiretroviral drugs as treatment and prevention, voluntary medical male circumcision procedures, and newly developed intravaginal ring products, new infections among adults globally have not decreased significantly...
February 27, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30794484/adolescent-demand-for-contraception-and-family-planning-services-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#12
Julianne Deitch, Lindsay Stark
An estimated 23 million adolescent girls age 15-19 in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have an unmet need for contraception. Despite the recognised importance of expanding access to appropriate methods of contraceptives for adolescents in LMICs, the evidence base on their total demand for contraception is limited, and there is no consensus on how to measure this important phenomenon. The aim of this study was to review the published literature in order to better understand the level of adolescent demand for contraception in LMICs and to explore what demand-related indicators are being measured...
February 22, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30794481/strange-expectations-cameroonian-migrants-and-their-german-healthcare-providers-debate-obstetric-choices
#13
Pamela Feldman-Savelsberg
When Cameroonian women migrate to Germany, they expect a different obstetric experience than they would have met in Cameroon. They bemoan the loss of family support, but do not yearn for village midwives. These largely urban, educated women expect better and more easily accessible medical care, free of the shortages and corruption plaguing Cameroon's public health system. Their expectations-that bearing children is medically easier but socially harder than in Cameroon-are shaped by obstetrical stories circulating among their fellow migrants...
February 22, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30794471/shedding-light-on-a-hiv-blind-spot-factors-associated-with-men-s-hiv-testing-in-five-african-countries
#14
Paul J Fleming, Joseph G Rosen, Vincent J Wong, Maria Augusta Carrasco
Men's relatively low rates of HIV testing has been termed the 'HIV blind spot' and recently declared by UNAIDS as a top priority. This study uses data from five nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe to explore factors associated with men's lifetime HIV testing. Between 29.3% and 34.9% of men ages 15-49 in these countries had never tested for HIV and men who held accepting attitudes towards gender-based violence, who lacked HIV knowledge, and who held stigmatising views of HIV were more likely to report never testing for HIV...
February 22, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785858/non-communicable-diseases-and-tuberculosis-anticipating-the-impending-global-storm
#15
Karl Philipp Puchner, Rodrigo Rodriguez-Fernandez, Matthew Oliver, Zisimangelos Solomos
The epidemiological transitions that have occurred in low and middle income countries (LMIC) during the past decades have led to an increased prevalence on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in these countries, where the burden of infectious diseases (IDs), especially tuberculosis (TB), remains high. Although the true dimensions of this comorbidity have not yet been fully understood, there is a growing amount of data, over the last 10 years, that suggest a clear association between NCDs and TB. In particular, there is a continuously increasing body of evidence that diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory conditions, tobacco use, mental health illnesses and chronic kidney disease increase TB morbidity and mortality and vice versa...
February 20, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785854/assessing-the-role-of-caste-ethnicity-in-predicting-menstrual-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-in-nepal
#16
Sara E Baumann, Pema Lhaki, Jessica G Burke
Menstruation is a natural, physiological process, but it can be a challenging experience for millions of women around the world. In Nepal, a geographically small yet diverse country of 125 caste/ethnic groups, understanding how caste/ethnicity impacts menstrual health is critical for developing context-specific interventions to improve women's health. A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted with 679 women and girls between the ages of 13-51 from the country's most populous castes/ethnic groups...
February 20, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773110/building-global-partnerships-through-shared-curricula-for-an-mph-programme-in-india-and-sri-lanka
#17
Nalini Sathiakumar, Meghan Tipre, Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Vinod Bhat, Muhammad Masood Kadir, David Coggon, Arunasalem Pathemeswaran, Ramachandra Kamath, G Arunkumar, Zafar Fatmi, Tamika L Smith, Sanjay M Pattanshetty, Elizabeth Delzell
OBJECTIVE: To design and implement a locally relevant competency- based MPH programme. METHODS: The demand for trained public health professionals in South Asia is enormous and growing, which created a unique opportunity for a Fogarty International Center-funded University of Alabama at Birmingham-South Asia [Aga Khan University, Pakistan; Manipal Academy of Higher Education, India; and University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka] international research training in environmental and occupational health (ITREOH) programme...
February 17, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773094/collective-health-and-regional-integration-in-latin-america-an-opportunity-for-building-a-new-international-health-agenda
#18
María Belén Herrero, Jorgelina Loza, Marcela Beatriz Belardo
From its origins, the Latin American Social Medicine and the Collective Health (LASM/CH) movements have focused on thinking about health from and for the region. After the implementation of neoliberal policies, social improvements and the geopolitical strengthening of the region became the roots of new regional integration projects in South America. The objective of this article is twofold. First, we explore the legacy of long-standing efforts in the region that address the social and political dimensions of health, associated with the LASM/CH movements and their influence on the contemporary regional health agenda...
February 17, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741107/struggles-for-the-right-to-health-at-work-in-colombia-the-case-of-associations-of-workers-with-work-related-illnesses
#19
Mauricio Torres-Tovar, Jairo Ernesto Luna-García
The neoliberal reforms of the early 1990s in Colombia, mainly labour and social security reforms, transformed capital-labour relations and contributed to the erosion of working conditions and health protection at work, with devastating impacts on workers' health. In the context of these dramatic changes, Colombian workers mobilised around collective identities that have shaped new forms of workers' struggle and resistance. Since 2006, associations of workers suffering work-related illnesses have been active in Colombia...
February 11, 2019: Global Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724649/the-practice-of-female-genital-mutilation-across-the-world-data-availability-and-approaches-to-measurement
#20
Claudia Cappa, Luk Van Baelen, Els Leye
While Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) has been in existence for centuries, the rigorous and systematic documentation of the extent of the practice is a recent undertaking. This paper discusses data availability related to the practice of FGM and reviews the methods used to generate prevalence estimates. The aim is to illustrate strengths and limitations of the available data. The review is organised around two main categories of countries: FGM countries of origin, where representative prevalence data exist, and countries of migration for women and girls who have undergone FGM, for which representative prevalence data are lacking...
February 6, 2019: Global Public Health
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