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Stem Cell Reviews

Srinivas V Koduru, Ashley N Leberfinger, Denis Pasic, Anoosha Forghani, Shane Lince, Daniel J Hayes, Ibrahim T Ozbolat, Dino J Ravnic
Vascularization is a major hurdle in complex tissue and organ engineering. Tissues greater than 200 μm in diameter cannot rely on simple diffusion to obtain nutrients and remove waste. Therefore, an integrated vascular network is required for clinical translation of engineered tissues. Microvessels have been described as <150 μm in diameter, but clinically they are defined as <1 mm. With new advances in super microsurgery, vessels less than 1 mm can be anastomosed to the recipient circulation. However, this technical advancement still relies on the creation of a stable engineered microcirculation that is amenable to surgical manipulation and is readily perfusable...
February 10, 2019: Stem Cell Reviews
Sandra A Acosta, Jea Y Lee, Hung Nguyen, Yuji Kaneko, Cesar V Borlongan
Stroke remains a major unmet clinical need that warrants novel therapies. Following an ischemic insult, the cerebral vasculature secretes inflammatory molecules, creating the stroke vasculome profile. The present study evaluated the therapeutic effects of endothelial cells on the inflammation-associated stroke vasculome. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that specific inflammation-related vasculome genes BRM, IκB, Foxf1, and ITIH-5 significantly upregulated by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD. Interestingly, co-culture of human endothelial cells (HEN6) with human endothelial cells (EPCs) during OGD significantly blocked the elevations of BRM, IκB, and Foxf1, but not ITIH-5...
February 9, 2019: Stem Cell Reviews
Yung-Kang Chen, Yun Yen
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Xist has emerged as a key modulator in dosage compensation by randomly inactivating one of the X chromosomes in mammals during embryonic development. Dysregulation of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) due to deletion of Xist has been proven to induce hematologic cancer in mice. However, this phenomenon is not consistent in humans as growing evidence suggests Xist can suppress or promote cancer growth in different organs of the human body. In this review, we discuss recent advances of XCI in human embryonic stem cells and provide an explanation for the seemingly contradictory roles of Xist in development of human cancer...
January 26, 2019: Stem Cell Reviews
Marwa Mahmoud, Nourhan Abu-Shahba, Osama Azmy, Nagwa El-Badri
Multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have regenerative and immunomodulatory properties to restore and repair injured tissues, making them attractive candidates for cell-based therapies. Experimental and clinical evidence has demonstrated the effectiveness of MSC transplantation in managing diabetes mellitus (DM). Autologous MSCs are assumed to be favorable because patient-derived cells are readily available and do not entail sustained immunosuppressive therapy. DM is associated with hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and altered immune responses and inflammation...
January 24, 2019: Stem Cell Reviews
Chiou-Mee Kong, Arjunan Subramanian, Arijit Biswas, Walter Stunkel, Yap-Seng Chong, Ariff Bongso, Chui-Yee Fong
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with an increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity. The Wharton's jelly (WJ) of the umbilical cord (UC) is a useful indicator of the deleterious effects of hyperglycemia on fetal tissues as it represents the fetus embryologically, physiologically and genetically. We studied WJ mesenchymal stem cells (hWJSCs) from UC from mothers without GDM (Normal; n = 3); insulin-controlled GDM mothers (GDMi; n = 3) and diet-controlled GDM mothers (GDMd; n = 3)]...
January 15, 2019: Stem Cell Reviews
Anuhya Gottipati, Lakshman Chelvarajan, Hsuan Peng, Raymond Kong, Calvin F Cahall, Cong Li, Himi Tripathi, Ahmed Al-Darraji, Shaojing Ye, Eman Elsawalhy, Ahmed Abdel-Latif, Brad J Berron
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the ensuing ischemic heart disease are approaching an epidemic state. Limited stem cell retention following intracoronary administration has reduced the clinical efficacy of this novel therapy. Polymer based cell coating is biocompatible and has been shown to be safe. Here, we assessed the therapeutic utility of gelatin-based biodegradable cell coatings on bone marrow derived cell retention in ischemic heart. METHODS: Gelatin based cell coatings were formed from the surface-mediated photopolymerization of 3% gelatin methacrylamide and 1% PEG diacrylate...
January 15, 2019: Stem Cell Reviews
Ali Golchin, Tahereh Zarnoosheh Farahany
The pace of advances in the world of science have created new opportunities and insights that give us new and more understanding of our nature and environment. Among the different fields of science, new medical sciences have drawn a great deal of attention among medical science researchers and the society. The hope for finding treatments for incurable diseases and further improvement of man's health is growing thanks to new medical technologies. Among the novel medical fields that have been extensively covered by medical and academic societies are cell therapy and gene therapy that are categorized under regenerative medicine...
January 9, 2019: Stem Cell Reviews
Mariusz Z Ratajczak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Penghui Feng, Pingping Li, Jichun Tan
POI is characterized by "absent not abnormal" menstruation with hormonal disorders in woman younger than 40 years of age, and etiological and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the POI development have not been clearly defined. Recently, due to advantages such as abundant sources and non-invasive methods of harvest, MenSCs have been emerging as a promising treatment strategy for the recovery of female reproductive damage. Here, we demonstrated that MenSCs graft in POI mice after CTX treatment could restore ovarian function by regulating normal follicle development and estrous cycle, reducing apoptosis in ovaries to maintain homeostasis of microenvironment and modulating serum sex hormones to a relatively normal status...
December 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Mariusz Z Ratajczak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Adeline Blandinières, Thomas Gille, Jérémy Sadoine, Ivan Bièche, Lofti Slimani, Blandine Dizier, Pascale Gaussem, Catherine Chaussain, Carole Planes, Peter Dorfmüller, Dominique Israël-Biet, David M Smadja
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disease characterized by fibroblast proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, destruction of pulmonary alveolar architecture and vascular remodeling. Apart pirfenidone or nintendanib that only slow down the fibrotic process, there is no curative treatment other than lung transplantation. Because cell therapy approaches have been proposed in IPF, we hypothesized that injection of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), the vasculogenic subtype of endothelial progenitor cells, could modulate fibrosis in a Nude mouse model of bleomycin induced-pulmonary fibrosis...
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Ankita Kaushik, Deepa Bhartiya
Developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors has resulted in the increased incidence of infertility and testicular germ cell tumors (T2GCT) in young men residing in developed countries. Unlike T1GCT (infants and young children) and T3GCT (aged men), T2GCT arise from CIS/GCNIS that develops from pre-CIS. Pre-CIS represents undifferentiated, growth-arrested gonocytes that persist in fetal testes due to endocrine disruption. However, whether pre-CIS truly exist, do CIS develop into T2GCT, why no CIS in T1GCT/T3GCT, why germ cell tumors (GCT) also occur along midline at extra-gonadal sites, why T1GCT show partial erasure and T2GCT show complete erasure of genomic imprints are open questions that are awaiting answers...
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Krzysztof Marycz, K Kornicka, M Röcken
Tissue engineering and stem cell-based therapies are one of the most rapidly developing fields in medical sciences. Therefore, much attention has been paid to the development of new drug-delivery systems characterized by low cytotoxicity, high efficiency and controlled release. One of the possible strategies to achieve these goals is the application of magnetic field and/or magnetic nanoparticles, which have been shown to exert a wide range of effects on cellular metabolism. Static magnetic field (SMF) has been commonly used in medicine as a tool to increase wound healing, bone regeneration and as a component of magnetic resonance technique...
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Vladimir Holan, Kristina Cechova, Alena Zajicova, Jan Kossl, Barbora Hermankova, Pavla Bohacova, Michaela Hajkova, Magdalena Krulova, Petr Svoboda, Eliska Javorkova
Morphine is an analgesic drug therapeutically administered to relieve pain. However, this drug has numerous side effects, which include impaired healing and regeneration after injuries or tissue damages. It suggests negative effects of morphine on stem cells which are responsible for tissue regeneration. Therefore, we studied the impact of morphine on the properties and functional characteristics of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The presence of μ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors (OR) in untreated MSCs, and the enhanced expression of OR in MSCs pretreated with proinflammatory cytokines, was demonstrated using immunoblotting and by flow cytometry...
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Raissa Borges Curtarelli, Jussara Maria Gonçalves, Luciane Geanini Pena Dos Santos, Maria Gorete Savi, Jacques Eduardo Nör, Luis André Mendonça Mezzomo, Mabel Mariela Rodríguez Cordeiro
Malignant neoplasms may be composed of several cell groups, including cancer stem cells (CSC). These cells have been related with the capacity of metastasis, relapse and resistance to multiple drugs during chemotherapy. This study aims to identify CSC biomarkers and their expression pattern in human head and neck carcinomas. This study was conducted following the PRISMA checklist. The search for articles was carried out in five databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs and Scielo). The articles found were selected in two phases: 1) reading the titles and / or abstract and 2) reading the full text...
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Zachariah Payne Sellers, Gabriela Schneider, Magdalena Maj, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
The paternally-imprinted genes insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), H19, delta-like homologue 1 (DLK1), and maternally-expressed gene 3 (MEG3) are expressed from the tandem gene loci IGF2-H19 and DLK1-MEG3, which play crucial roles in initiating embryogenesis and development. The erasure of imprinting (EOI) at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) which regulate the expression of these genes maintains the developmental quiescence of primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrating through the embryo proper during embryogenesis and prevents them from forming teratomas...
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Lukáš Školoudík, Viktor Chrobok, Zuzana Kočí, Jiří Popelář, Josef Syka, Jan Laco, Alžběta Filipová, Eva Syková, Stanislav Filip
Temporal bone reconstruction is a persisting problem following middle ear cholesteatoma surgery. Seeking to advance the clinical transfer of stem cell therapy we attempted the reconstruction of temporal bone using a composite bioartificial graft based on a hydroxyapatite bone scaffold combined with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combined biomaterial on the healing of postoperative temporal bone defects and the preservation of physiological hearing functions in a guinea pig model...
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Mehmet F Güleçyüz, Konstanze Macha, Matthias F Pietschmann, Andreas Ficklscherer, Birte Sievers, Björn P Roßbach, Volkmar Jansson, Peter E Müller
PURPOSE: Rotator cuff (RC) tears result not only in functional impairment but also in RC muscle atrophy, muscle fattening and eventually to muscle fibrosis. We hypothesized that allogenic bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and myocytes can be utilized to improve the rotator cuff muscle fattening and increase the atrophied muscle mass in a rat model. METHODS: The right supraspinatus (SSP) tendons of 105 inbred rats were detached and muscle fattening was provoked over 4 weeks; the left side remained untouched (control group)...
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Federica Banfi, Alessandra Colombini, Carlotta Perucca Orfei, Valentina Parazzi, Enrico Ragni
The molecular profile of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a key factor in defining their identity. Nevertheless, the effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS) batches or origin on MSC molecular signature has been neglected. In this frame, chemical fingerprint of FBS batches from unrelated countries showed strong correlation between chemical composition and country of origin. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate in stem cells isolated from bone marrow (BMMSCs) and umbilical cord-blood (CBMSCs) the effects of independently collected FBS batches on both twelve commonly used reference genes (RGs) and a selected panel of thirty-eight genes crucial for MSC definition in both research and clinical settings...
December 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Gabrielle Mangin, Nathalie Kubis
Stroke is a major public health issue with limited treatment. The pharmacologically or mechanically removing of the clot is accessible to less than 10% of the patients. Stem cell therapy is a promising alternative strategy since it increases the therapeutic time window but many issues remain unsolved. To avoid a new dramatic failure when translating experimental data on the bedside, this review aims to highlight the indispensable checkpoints to make a successful clinical trial based on the current preclinical literature...
November 15, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
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