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Journal of Positive Psychology

Eric K Layland, Brian J Hill, Larry J Nelson
During a period of newly attained freedom preceding commitments expected in adulthood, emerging adults are faced with the major task of identity development. Leisure provides a context with relative freedom wherein emerging adults explore new experiences and access opportunities not always available in more constrained environments like work and school. In this case study of 40 emerging adults from 18 countries ( Mage =23.14 years), qualitative interviews were used to investigate the role of leisure as a context for identity development...
2018: Journal of Positive Psychology
Julie Van de Vyver, Dominic Abrams
Two studies were designed to test whether moral elevation should be conceptualized as an approach-oriented emotion. The studies examined the relationship between moral elevation and the behavioral activation and inhibition systems. Study 1 (N = 80) showed that individual differences in moral elevation were associated with individual differences in behavioral activation but not inhibition. Study 2 (N = 78) showed that an elevation-inducing video promoted equally high levels of approach orientation as an anger-inducing video and significantly higher levels of approach orientation than a control video...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Positive Psychology
Harry T Reis, Stephanie D O'Keefe, Richard D Lane
Fun activities are commonly sought and highly desired yet their affective side has received little scrutiny. The present research investigated two features of fun in two daily diary studies and one laboratory experiment. First, we examined the affective state associated with fun experiences. Second, we investigated the social context of fun, considering whether shared fun is more enjoyable than solitary fun. Findings from these studies indicated that fun is associated with both high-activation and low-activation positive affects, and that it is enhanced when experienced with others (especially friends)...
2017: Journal of Positive Psychology
Mai Stafford, Diana L Kuh, Catharine R Gale, Gita Mishra, Marcus Richards
We examined parent-child relationship quality and positive mental well-being using Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development data. Well-being was measured at ages 13-15 (teacher-rated happiness), 36 (life satisfaction), 43 (satisfaction with home and family life) and 60-64 years (Diener Satisfaction With Life scale and Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale). The Parental Bonding Instrument captured perceived care and control from the father and mother to age 16, recalled by study members at age 43...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Positive Psychology
Patrick L Hill, Grant W Edmonds, Missy Peterson, Koen Luyckx, Judy A Andrews
Accruing evidence points to the value of studying purpose in life across adolescence and emerging adulthood. Research though is needed to understand the unique role of purpose in life in predicting well-being and developmentally relevant outcomes during emerging adulthood. The current studies (total n = 669) found support for the development of a new brief measure of purpose in life using data from American and Canadian samples, while demonstrating evidence for two important findings. First, purpose in life predicted well-being during emerging adulthood, even when controlling for the Big Five personality traits...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Positive Psychology
Sara B Algoe, Ruixue Zhaoyang
Recent correlational evidence implicates gratitude in personal and relational growth, for both members of ongoing relationships. From these observations, it would be tempting to prescribe interpersonal gratitude exercises to improve relationships. In this experiment, couples were randomly assigned to express gratitude over a month, or to a relationally-active control condition. Results showed modest effects of condition on personal and relational well-being. However, those whose partners were perceived as being particularly responsive when expressing gratitude at the initial lab session showed greater well-being across a range of outcomes, whereas this was not so for people in the control condition...
2016: Journal of Positive Psychology
Rosalba Hernandez, Mercedes Carnethon, Frank J Penedo, Lizet Martinez, Julia Boehm, Stephen M Schueller
Major theories informing conceptions of psychological well-being draw heavily from Western-centric perspectives, which often neglect culturally bound frameworks. We investigated how U.S. Hispanics/Latinos conceptualize well-being, how psychosocial and behavioral aspects may increase well-being, and how psychosocial stressors may impact positive emotional states. Spanish-speaking Hispanic/Latino adults were recruited from a church in an urban city in the U.S. and invited to participate in focus groups. Two groups of women (n=19) and one group of men (n=8) participated...
2016: Journal of Positive Psychology
Carly Haeck, Stephen M Schueller, Acacia C Parks
Happiness-increasing interventions demonstrate significant variation in outcomes, suggesting that the people who use them might be as important as the interventions themselves to determine efficacy. In light of this, instructive interventions might not be necessary to increase happiness given a population with knowledge of happiness-increasing strategies. We recruited 270 participants with knowledge of positive psychology to receive six weeks of online psychoeducation. We explored participants' use of the website, reported use of happiness strategies, and changes in well-being...
2016: Journal of Positive Psychology
Jennifer M Tomlinson, Brooke C Feeney, Meredith Van Vleet
The goal of this work was to test a theoretical model of relational catalyst support provision that promotes thriving in non-adverse times. We tested a pathway proposed by Feeney and Collins (2014) that explains how relational catalyst support in the context of close relationships might lead to thriving. We proposed that once relational catalyst support has been received, it functions through the mechanisms of being perceived to be responsive to one's needs and promoting perceived capability. Perceived capability should promote indices of thriving including self-esteem, goal accomplishment, growth, and specific and general availability of support...
2016: Journal of Positive Psychology
Thalida E Arpawong, Louise A Rohrbach, Joel E Milam, Jennifer B Unger, Helen Land, Ping Sun, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Steve Sussman
Stressful life events (SLEs) may elicit positive psychosocial change among youth, referred to as Post-traumatic Growth (PTG). We assessed types of SLEs experienced, degree to which participants reported PTG, and variables predicting PTG across 24 months among a sample of high risk, ethnically diverse early emerging adults. Participants were recruited from alternative high schools (n = 564; mean age=16.8; 65% Hispanic). Multi-level regression models were constructed to examine the impact of environmental (SLE quantity, severity) and personal factors (hedonic ability, perceived stress, developmental stage, future time orientation) on a composite score of PTG...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Positive Psychology
Timothy C Bates
Optimism and pessimism are associated with important outcomes including health and depression. Yet it is unclear if these apparent polar opposites form a single dimension or reflect two distinct systems. The extent to which personality accounts for differences in optimism/pessimism is also controversial. Here, we addressed these questions in a genetically informative sample of 852 pairs of twins. Distinct genetic influences on optimism and pessimism were found. Significant family-level environment effects also emerged, accounting for much of the negative relationship between optimism and pessimism, as well as a link to neuroticism...
November 1, 2015: Journal of Positive Psychology
Oscar H Yan, George A Bonanno
OBJECTIVE: The tendency toward unrealistically optimistic self-serving biases, known as trait self-enhancement, has been associated with both adaptive benefits and negative social consequences. This study explored these potential benefits and costs in the context of conjugal bereavement. METHOD: The study included 94 individuals who had experienced the death of a spouse 1.5-3.0 years prior. The sample (62 female, 32 male) ranged in age from 37 to 60 ( M = 51.45, SD = 6...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Positive Psychology
Margaret L Kern, Lea E Waters, Alejandro Adler, Mathew A White
Seligman recently introduced the PERMA model with five core elements of psychological well-being: positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. We empirically tested this multidimensional theory with 516 Australian male students (age 13-18). From an extensive well-being assessment, we selected a subset of items theoretically relevant to PERMA. Factor analyses recovered four of the five PERMA elements, and two ill-being factors (depression and anxiety). We then explored the nomological net surrounding each factor by examining cross-sectional associations with life satisfaction, hope, gratitude, school engagement, growth mindset, spirituality, physical vitality, physical activity, somatic symptoms, and stressful life events...
May 4, 2015: Journal of Positive Psychology
Mathew A White, Lea E Waters
This applied case study centers on two aspects of Peterson's research as introduced into a large K-12 school in Australia: (i) creating enabling institutions and (ii) applications of character strengths. The paper describes five character strengths initiatives. Four of the strengths initiatives have been integrated into existing school experiences such as English curriculum, school sport, student leadership, and counseling. The fifth initiative involved a brand new program which introduced a Positive Education Curriculum for years K-10...
January 2, 2015: Journal of Positive Psychology
Amy R Krentzman, Kristin A Mannella, Afton L Hassett, Nancy P Barnett, James A Cranford, Kirk J Brower, Margaret M Higgins, Piper S Meyer
This mixed-methods pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a web-based gratitude exercise (the 'Three Good Things' exercise (TGT)) among 23 adults in outpatient treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants were randomized to TGT or a placebo condition. The intervention was feasible with high rates of completion. Participants found TGT acceptable and welcomed the structure of daily emails; however, they found it difficult at times and discontinued TGT when the study ended...
2015: Journal of Positive Psychology
Karen Bluth, Priscilla W Blanton
Self-compassion has been associated with well-being in adult samples, but has rarely been assessed in adolescents. In this study, 90 students ages 11-18 completed an online survey assessing self-compassion, life satisfaction, perceived stress and positive and negative affect. Findings indicated that older female adolescents had lower self-compassion than either older male adolescents or early adolescents of either gender, and self-compassion was associated significantly with all dimensions of emotional well-being with the exception of positive affect...
2015: Journal of Positive Psychology
Michael A Cohn, Martha E Pietrucha, Laura R Saslow, Jen R Hult, Judith T Moskowitz
Positive affect predicts improved glycemic control and longevity in adults with type 2 diabetes. We tested DAHLIA, a self-paced online intervention for type 2 diabetes that teaches positive affect skills such as savoring, gratitude, and acts of kindness. Participants (n=49) were randomized to the 5-week DAHLIA course or an emotion-reporting waitlist control. DAHLIA was understood and accepted by participants and showed good retention (78%). At post-intervention, DAHLIA participants showed a significantly greater decrease in depression than controls (-4...
January 1, 2014: Journal of Positive Psychology
Lauren Eskreis-Winkler, Elizabeth P Shulman, Angela L Duckworth
Are helping professionals who have experienced the same types of struggles as their clients more engaged at work? In the current investigation, we examine this question in samples of police detectives (with and without a history of violent victimization) and mental health workers (with and without a history of mental illness). Our results indicate that police detectives who have experienced violent victimization and mental health professionals who have experienced the same mental illness as their clients do indeed exhibit greater work engagement than their colleagues who lack these parallel life experiences...
January 1, 2014: Journal of Positive Psychology
Christopher W Kahler, Nichea S Spillane, Anne Day, Elise Clerkin, Acacia Parks, Adam M Leventhal, Richard A Brown
Low positive and high negative affect predict low rates of smoking abstinence among smokers making a quit attempt. Positive Psychotherapy can both increase positive affect and decrease negative affect and therefore may be a useful adjunct to behavioral smoking counseling. The purpose of the present study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a Positive Psychotherapy for Smoking Cessation (PPT-S) intervention that integrates standard smoking cessation counseling with nicotine patch and a package of positive psychology interventions...
January 1, 2014: Journal of Positive Psychology
Sigurd W Hystad, Paul T Bartone, Jarle Eid
Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes...
January 2014: Journal of Positive Psychology
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