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Current Colorectal Cancer Reports

Sarah F Andres, Kathy N Williams, Anil K Rustgi
Purpose of review: Metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is a vexing clinical problem. In contrast to early stage disease, once CRC metastasizes to other organs, long-term survival is compromised. We seek to review the molecular pathogenesis, animal models, and functional genomics for an enhanced understanding of how CRC metastasizes and how this can be exploited therapeutically. Recent findings: Mouse models may recapitulate certain aspects of metastatic human CRC and allow for studies to identify regulators of metastasis...
April 2018: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Katharina Nimptsch, Kana Wu
Purpose of the review: To summarize the current evidence on the most important dietary and lifestyle factors in colorectal carcinogenesis during different stages of a lifetime with special emphasis on studies investigating exposure during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Recent findings: A number of studies showed that independent of adult obesity, higher body fatness during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood is associated with risk of colorectal cancer later in life...
February 2018: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Hon Lyn Tan, Matilda Lee, Balamurugan A Vellayappan, Wee Thong Neo, Wei Peng Yong
Purpose of Review: Colorectal cancer liver metastasis is a major clinical problem, and surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment. We seek to discuss various liver-directed therapy modalities and explore their roles in the evolving realm of treatment strategies for metastatic colorectal cancer. Recent Findings: Clinical outcomes for patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases have improved as more patients undergo potentially curative resection and as the armamentarium of systemic treatment and liver-directed therapies continues to expand...
2018: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Laurence Bernier, Svetlana Balyasnikova, Diana Tait, Gina Brown
Purpose of Review: Pathological complete response is seen in approximately one fifth of rectal cancer patients following neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Since these patients have excellent oncological outcomes, there has been a rapidly growing interest in organ preservation for those who develop a clinical complete response. We review the watch-and-wait strategy and focus on all aspects of this hot topic, including who should be considered for this approach, how should we identify treatment response and what are the expected outcomes...
2018: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Fred K Tabung, Lisa S Brown, Teresa T Fung
Purpose of review: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a global public health problem, with an estimated 1.4 million cases diagnosed worldwide in 2012. Evidence suggests that diet may be important for primary prevention. Recent findings: The 2017 WCRF/AICR Continuous Update Project on colorectal cancer concluded that there is convincing evidence linking several individual dietary factors with CRC risk but the evidence for dietary patterns was limited and inconclusive. Also, previous reviews and meta-analyses have not critically synthesized various dietary patterns...
December 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Mingyang Song, Andrew T Chan
Diet plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. Emerging data have implicated the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer. Diet is a major determinant for the gut microbial structure and function. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that alterations in gut microbes and their metabolites may contribute to the influence of diet on the development of colorectal cancer. We review several major dietary factors that have been linked to gut microbiota and colorectal cancer, including major dietary patterns, fiber, red meat and sulfur, and obesity...
December 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Apple G Long, Emma T Lundsmith, Kathryn E Hamilton
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer in both men and women in the United States, resulting in over 55,000 deaths annually. Environmental and genetic factors influence the development of CRC, and inflammation is a critical hallmark of cancer that may arise from a variety of factors. Purpose of review: While patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a higher risk of developing CRC, sporadic CRCs may engender or be potentiated by inflammation as well. In this review, we focus on recent advances in basic and translational research utilizing murine models to understand the contribution of inflammatory signaling pathways to CRC...
August 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Sarah P Short, Patricia W Costacurta, Christopher S Williams
The three-dimensional (3D) structure of the intestine is a key determinant of differentiation and function; thus, preserving this architecture is an important consideration for studies of intestinal homeostasis and disease. Over the past decade, a number of systems for 3D intestinal organoid cultures have been developed and adapted to model a wide variety of biological phenomenon. Purpose of this review: We discuss the current state of intestinal and colorectal cancer (CRC) 3D modeling, the most common methods for generating organoid cultures, and how these have yielded insights into intestinal physiology and tumor biology...
June 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Yangzom D Bhutia, Jiro Ogura, Sathish Sivaprakasam, Vadivel Ganapathy
Purpose of review: The relationship between colonic bacteria and the host is symbiotic, but how communication between the two partners occurs is just beginning to be understood at the molecular level. Here, we highlight specific products of bacterial metabolism that are present in the colonic lumen and their molecular targets in the host that facilitate this communication. Recent findings: Colonic epithelial cells and mucosal immune cells express several cell-surface receptors and nuclear receptors that are activated by specific bacterial metabolites, which impact multiple signaling pathways and expression of many genes...
April 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Ibrahim Nassour, Patricio M Polanco
Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease with a poor prognosis, often thought to be a terminal illness with no hope except for palliative treatment. New therapeutic modalities combining cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have shown favorable outcomes and may provide a significant survival benefit in a selected group of patients. The main rational for CRS is to remove all visible tumor burden to allow for the chemotherapeutic agent (HIPEC) to eradicate any microscopic residual disease...
April 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Emma M Schatoff, Benjamin I Leach, Lukas E Dow
The WNT signaling pathway is a critical mediator of tissue homeostasis and repair, and frequently co-opted during tumor development. Almost all colorectal cancers (CRC) demonstrate hyperactivation of the WNT pathway, which in many cases is believed to be the initiating and driving event. In this short review, we provide a focused overview of recent developments in our understanding of the WNT pathway in CRC, describe new research tools that are enabling a deeper understanding of WNT biology, and outline ongoing efforts to target this pathway therapeutically...
April 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Lara Hathout, Terence M Williams, Salma K Jabbour
Purpose of review: Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) has been the standard technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The use of new radiation treatment technologies such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), proton therapy (PT), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and brachytherapy (BT) has been increasing over the past 10 years. This review will highlight the advantages and drawbacks of these techniques. Recent findings: IMRT, PT, SBRT and BT achieve a higher target coverage conformity, a higher organ at risk sparing and enable dose escalation compared to 3DCRT...
February 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
John M Carethers
Microsatellite instability (MSI) refers to the biochemical detection of frameshifted microsatellite sequences from genomic DNA. Genesis of MSI is due to defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) that fails to correct post DNA replicative slippage mistakes at microsatellites. Most of the estimated 100,000 genomic microsatellites are non-coding; however, ~150-300 microsatellites are coding such that, when frameshifted during the pathogenesis of an MSI tumor, can generate immunogenic neopeptide antigens that limit the growth of tumor and prolong patient survival...
February 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Laura A E Hughes, Colinda C J M Simons, Piet A van den Brandt, Manon van Engeland, Matty P Weijenberg
Purpose of Review: In this review, we describe molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) studies from around the world that have studied diet and/or lifestyle factors in relation to molecular markers of (epi)genetic pathways in colorectal cancer (CRC), and explore future perspectives in this realm of research. The main focus of this review is diet and lifestyle factors for which there is evidence for an association with CRC as identified by the World Cancer Research Fund reports. In addition, we review promising hypotheses, that warrant consideration in future studies...
2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Moniek van Zutphen, Ellen Kampman, Edward L Giovannucci, Fränzel J B van Duijnhoven
Purpose of Review: This review summarizes the evidence regarding diet, physical activity, smoking, and body composition after colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis in relation to all-cause and CRC-specific mortality and disease recurrence and gives suggestions for future research directions. Recent Findings: Overall, this review suggests that some, albeit not all, of the well-known modifiable risk factors for cancer incidence might also be associated with CRC survival...
2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Upender Manne, Trafina Jadhav, Balananda-Dhurjati Kumar Putcha, Temesgen Samuel, Shivani Soni, Chandrakumar Shanmugam, Esther A Suswam
This review provides updates on the efforts for the development of prognostic and predictive markers in colorectal cancer based on the race/ethnicity of patients. Since the clinical consequences of genetic and molecular alterations differ with patient race and ethnicity, the usefulness of these molecular alterations as biomarkers needs to be evaluated in different racial/ethnic groups. To accomplish personalized patient care, a combined analysis of multiple molecular alterations in DNA, RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs), metabolites, and proteins in a single test is required to assess disease status in a precise way...
December 2016: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Carlyn Rose C Tan, Lanlan Zhou, Wafik S El-Deiry
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) are emerging noninvasive multifunctional biomarkers in liquid biopsy allowing for early diagnosis, accurate prognosis, therapeutic target selection, spatiotemporal monitoring of metastasis, as well as monitoring response and resistance to treatment. CTCs and ctDNA are released from different tumor types at different stages and contribute complementary information for clinical decision. Although big strides have been taken in technology development for detection, isolation and characterization of CTCs and sensitive and specific detection of ctDNA, CTC-, and ctDNA-based liquid biopsies may not be widely adopted for routine cancer patient care until the suitability, accuracy, and reliability of these tests are validated and more standardized protocols are corroborated in large, independent, prospectively designed trials...
June 2016: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Ibrahim Nassour, Patricio M Polanco
Minimally invasive surgery has been cautiously introduced in surgical oncology over the last two decades due to a concern of compromised oncological outcomes. Recently, it has been adopted in liver surgery for colorectal metastases. Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in the USA. In addition, liver metastasis is the most common site of distant disease and its resection improves survival. While open resection was the standard of care, laparoscopic liver surgery has become the standard of care for minor liver resections...
April 2016: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Madeleine Young, Karen R Reed
Modelling human diseases in in vitro systems is undisputedly an invaluable research tool, yet there are many limitations. Some of those limitations have been overcome through the introduction of organoid culture systems, which have revolutionised colorectal cancer research and enabled an array of new experimental techniques. This 3D system models the physiology, shape, dynamics and cell make-up of the intestinal epithelium producing a relevant and highly adaptable model system. The increased functional relevance of this model compared to the use of 2D cancer cell lines makes it an invaluable tool for both basic and translational research...
2016: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Svetlana Balyasnikova, Gina Brown
The optimal management of rectal cancer is achieved through a shared multidisciplinary decision making process with accurate staging by imaging being critical for treatment planning. Good quality, high-resolution MRI has become the imaging gold standard as it allows consistent staging and stratification of patients into distinct prognostic groups according to MR-findings. Imaging features other than T and N have been proven to influence patient outcomes, and increasingly these features are taken into consideration when determining treatment options: distance of tumour to the potential circumferential margin (CRM), presence of tumour within the extramural rectal vessels (EMVI), discontinuous tumour deposits (N1c), relationship to the intersphincteric plane in low rectal tumours and to pelvic compartments in advanced disease...
2016: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
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