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Nan Zhou, Nan Li, Jing Liu, Yu Wang, Jun Gao, Yingzhang Wu, Xiaoyan Chen, Chao Liu, Jing Xiao
Tooth development is accomplished by a series of epithelial-mesenchyme interactions. Epithelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling is sufficient to initiate tooth development by activating Shh, Bmps, Fgfs and Wnts in dental epithelium, which in turn, triggered the expression of odontogenic genes in the underlying mesenchyme. Although constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oral ectoderm resulted in the continuous tooth formation throughout the life span, if the epithelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling could induce the mesenchyme other than oral mesenchyme still required to be elucidated...
December 20, 2018: Organogenesis
Corey Eymard, James Markmann
Liver transplantation as a treatment for end stage liver failure remains limited in the United States by the number and quality of donor allografts. Static cold storage, the current standard of care for organ storage prior to transplantation, offers no method for assessment or therapeutic modification. Cold ischemia and its attendant hypoxia deplete cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stores, promote cellular damage, and degrade overall organ quality. Normothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (NEVLP) offers the potential for assessment of allograft function and restoration of intracellular energy stores prior to transplantation...
October 5, 2018: Organogenesis
Srijan Tandukar, Sundaram Hariharan
The transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another is termed xenotransplantation. The history of xenotransplantation is as old as allogeneic transplantation itself. Early attempts were made at a time when the immunologic basis of organ rejection were poorly understood. The advent of potent immunosuppressive medications along with the parallel advances in the field of genetic engineering has provided a fresh perspective on the role of xenotransplantation as a means to alleviate the disparity between the number of candidates on the waitlist and the available organs...
September 25, 2018: Organogenesis
Daniel M Tremmel, Jon S Odorico
Diabetes can be treated with β cell replacement therapy, where a patient is transplanted with cadaveric human islets to restore glycemic control. Despite this being an effective treatment, the process of isolating islets from the pancreas requires collagenase digestion which disrupts the islet extracellular matrix (ECM) and activates anoikis-mediated apoptosis. To improve islet survival in culture and after transplantation, the islet microenvironment may be enhanced with the addition of ECM components which are lost during isolation...
September 25, 2018: Organogenesis
Lauren Edgar, Afnan Altamimi, Marta García Sánchez, Riccardo Tamburrinia, Amish Asthana, Carlo Gazia, Giuseppe Orlando
Extracellular matrix (ECM) materials have had remarkable success as scaffolds in tissue engineering (TE) and as therapies for tissue injury whereby the ECM microenvironment promotes constructive remodeling and tissue regeneration. ECM powder and solubilized derivatives thereof have novel applications in TE and RM afforded by the capacity of these constructs to be dynamically modulated. The powder form allows for effective incorporation and penetration of reagents; hence, ECM powder is an efficacious platform for 3D cell culture and vehicle for small molecule delivery...
September 5, 2018: Organogenesis
Hongpeng Yang, Yue Guo, Dawei Wang, Xiaofei Yang, Chengzhi Ha
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. In vitro osteogenic differentiation is critical but the molecular mechanism has yet to be further clarified. The role of TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in MSCs osteogenesis differentiation has not been reported. By adding si-TAK1 and rhTAK1, the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was measured. Expression levels of the osteoblastic marker genes during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were checked. As well as molecules involved in BMP and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways...
January 2, 2018: Organogenesis
Jie Sun, Zhijing Wang, Xirui Wang
The ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) induced skin lesion has been identified as primary cause of pressure ulcer. Better understanding of the mechanism is required for new therapy development. Leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 (LRRC19) is a recently discovered transmembrane protein containing leucine-rich repeats and plays a role in immune response. To investigate the role of LRRC19 in pressure ulcers, mouse ulcer model was established with two cycles of I/R. The expression of LRRC19 was assessed during injury...
January 2, 2018: Organogenesis
Xiao-Dong Chen, Shu-Bin Ruan, Ze-Peng Lin, Ziheng Zhou, Feng-Gang Zhang, Rong-Hua Yang, Ju-Lin Xie
Skin wound healing involves Notch/Jagged1 signaling. However, little is known how Jag1 expression level in epidermal stem cells (ESCs) contributes to wound healing and scar formation. We applied multiple cellular and molecular techniques to examine how Jag1 expression in ESCs modulates ESCs differentiation to myofibroblasts (MFB) in vitro, interpret how Jag1 expression in ESCs is involved in wound healing and scar formation in mice, and evaluate the effects of porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) treatment on wound healing and scar formation...
January 2, 2018: Organogenesis
Michael S Hu, Mimi R Borrelli, Wan Xing Hong, Samir Malhotra, Alexander T M Cheung, Ryan C Ransom, Robert C Rennert, Shane D Morrison, H Peter Lorenz, Michael T Longaker
Fetal cutaneous wounds have the unique ability to completely regenerate wounded skin and heal without scarring. However, adult cutaneous wounds heal via a fibroproliferative response which results in the formation of a scar. Understanding the mechanism(s) of scarless wound healing leads to enormous clinical potential in facilitating an environment conducive to scarless healing in adult cutaneous wounds. This article reviews the embryonic development of the skin and outlines the structural and functional differences in adult and fetal wound healing phenotypes...
January 2, 2018: Organogenesis
Yohan Kim, Kyojin Kang, Sangtae Yoon, Ji Sook Kim, Su A Park, Wan Doo Kim, Seung Bum Lee, Ki-Young Ryu, Jaemin Jeong, Dongho Choi
Isolated primary hepatocytes from the liver are very similar to in vivo native liver hepatocytes, but they have the disadvantage of a limited lifespan in 2D culture. Although a sandwich culture and 3D organoids with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an attractive assistant cell source to extend lifespan can be used, it cannot fully reproduce the in vivo architecture. Moreover, long-term 3D culture leads to cell death because of hypoxic stress. Therefore, to overcome the drawback of 2D and 3D organoids, we try to use a 3D printing technique using alginate hydrogels with primary hepatocytes and MSCs...
January 2, 2018: Organogenesis
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Organogenesis
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Organogenesis
Giorgio Mattei, Chiara Magliaro, Andrea Pirone, Arti Ahluwalia
Maintaining hepatic functional characteristics in-vitro is considered one of the main challenges in engineering liver tissue. As hepatocytes cultured ex-vivo are deprived of their native extracellular matrix (ECM) milieu, developing scaffolds that mimic the biomechanical and physicochemical properties of the native ECM is thought to be a promising approach for successful tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. On the basis that the decellularized liver matrix represents the ideal design template for engineering bioinspired hepatic scaffolds, to derive quantitative descriptors of liver ECM architecture, we characterised decellularised liver matrices in terms of their biochemical, viscoelastic and structural features along with porosity, permeability and wettability...
2018: Organogenesis
Fukai Ma, Fan Wang, Ronggang Li, Jianhong Zhu
Nervous system injury represent the most common injury and was unique clinical challenge. Using of growth factors (GFs) for the treatment of nervous system injury showed effectiveness in halting its process. However, simple application of GFs could not achieve high efficacy because of its rapid diffusion into body fluids and lost from the lesion site. The drug delivery systems (DDSs) construction used to deliver GFs were investigated so that they could surmount its rapid diffusion and retain at the injury site...
2018: Organogenesis
Xinghua Huang, Weijing Wu, Peng Hu, Qin Wang
To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying taurine-stimulated proliferation and differentiation of cochlear neural stem cells (NSCs) and potential involvement of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway. The NSCs were characterized with immunofluorescence stained with nestin antibody. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The relative proliferation was measured by BrdU incorporation assay. The morphologic index was measured under light microscope. The relative protein level was determined by immunoblotting...
2018: Organogenesis
Gesine Pless-Petig, Sven Knoop, Ursula Rauen
Cryopreservation is the only long-term storage option for the storage of vessels and vascular constructs. However, endothelial barrier function is almost completely lost after cryopreservation in most established cryopreservation solutions. We here aimed to improve endothelial function after cryopreservation using the 2D-model of porcine aortic endothelial cell monolayers. The monolayers were cryopreserved in cell culture medium or cold storage solutions based on the 4°C vascular preservation solution TiProtec® , all supplemented with 10% DMSO, using different temperature gradients...
2018: Organogenesis
Zhao Han, Yu-Yan Gu, Ning Cong, Rui Ma, Fang-Lu Chi
We aimed to investigate the beneficial effect of Celastrol on inner ear stem cells and potential therapeutic value for hearing loss. The inner ear stem cells were isolated and characterized from utricular sensory epithelium of adult mice. The stemness was evaluated by sphere formation assay. The relative expressions of Atoh1, MAP-2 and Myosin VI were measured by RT-PCR and immunoblotting. The up-regulation of MAP-2 was also analysed with immunofluorescence. The in vitro neuronal excitability was interrogated by calcium oscillation...
2018: Organogenesis
Hideyori Sengyoku, Tomoshi Tsuchiya, Tomohiro Obata, Ryoichiro Doi, Yasumasa Hashimoto, Mitsutoshi Ishii, Hiromi Sakai, Naoto Matsuo, Daisuke Taniguchi, Takashi Suematsu, Murray Lawn, Keitaro Matsumoto, Takuro Miyazaki, Takeshi Nagayasu
Lung transplantation is the last option for the treatment of end stage chronic lung disorders. Because the shortage of donor lung organs represents the main hurdle, lung regeneration has been considered to overcome this hurdle. Recellularization of decellularized organ scaffold is a promising option for organ regeneration. Although detergents are ordinarily used for decellularization, other approaches are possible. Here we used high alkaline (pH12) sodium hydroxide (NaOH)-PBS solution without detergents for lung decellularization and compared the efficacy on DNA elimination and ECM preservation with detergent based decellularization solutions CHAPS and SDS...
2018: Organogenesis
Fan Liu, Pawan Kc, Liwei Ni, Ge Zhang, Jiang Zhe
We report a high-sensitivity cell secretome detection method using competitive immuno-aggregation and a micro-Coulter counter. A target cell secretome protein competes with anti-biotin-coated microparticles (MPs) to bind with a biotinylated antibody (Ab), causing decreased aggregation of the functionalized MPs and formation of a mixture of MPs and aggregates. In comparison, without the target cell secretome protein, more microparticles are functionalized, and more aggregates are formed. Thus, a decrease in the average volume of functionalized microparticles/aggregates indicates an increase in cell secretome concentration...
2018: Organogenesis
Sara Montero-Herradón, Javier García-Ceca, Agustín G Zapata
EphB and their ligands ephrin-B are an important family of protein tyrosine kinase receptors involved in thymocyte-thymic epithelial cell interactions known to be key for the maturation of both thymic cell components. In the present study, we have analyzed the maturation of cortical thymic epithelium in EphB-deficient thymuses evaluating the relative relevance of EphB2 and EphB3 in the process. Results support a relationship between the epithelial hypocellularity of mutant thymuses and altered development of thymocytes, lower proportions of cycling thymic epithelial cells and increased epithelial cell apoptosis...
October 2, 2017: Organogenesis
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