Aman Khandelwal, K Gowthamarajan, Jayabalan Nirmal, S Ponnusankar
The discovery of antivascular endothelial growth factor medications has resulted in a substantial change in diabetic retinopathy treatment. The most common cause of diabetic retinopathy blindness is Diabetic Macular Edema. The pathophysiology of Diabetic Macular Edema is thought to include the well-known pro-angiogenic and pro-permeability factor vascular endothelial growth factor. Over the past decade, drugs that impede the functions of vascular endothelial growth factors have established themselves as a standard-of-care treatment for a range of ocular ailments and improved patients' clinical results with diabetic retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema, and their frequency has grown exponentially with the introduction of these agents Pegaptanib, Ranibizumab, and Aflibercept which are approved for ophthalmic indications, while Bevacizumab is used off-label...
April 16, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Ghinwa Barakat, Ghaith Assi, Hussein Khalil, Sami El Khatib
Diabetes Mellitus develops when the body becomes unable to fuel its cells with glucose, which results in the accumulation of sugar excess in the bloodstream. Because it has diverse pathophysiological impacts on the body, diabetes mellitus represents a significant issue of concern in an attempt to find suitable treatment modalities and medications for afflicted diabetic patients. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays a pivotal role in the incretin effect, emerging as a prospective treatment for diabetes mellitus and a promising means of regenerating pancreatic cells, whether directly or through its receptor agonists...
April 16, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Monika, Pragi Arora, Varun Kumar, Pankaj Popli
Prediabetes increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal disease, and cardiovascular disease in a person. In current practice, five alternative definitions of prediabetes are utilized, each based on different HbA1C, fasting glucose, and 2-hour glucose cut points. Prediabetes is a common condition that occurs between normal glycemia and diabetes. It is more common in elderly and obese people. The prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes can be influenced by a variety of individual, family, and societal variables...
April 3, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Rina Amelia, Arlinda Sari Wahyuni, Yuki Yunanada, Isti Ilmiati Fujiati, Juliandi Harahap, Hendri Wijaya, Zulham Zulham, Saktioto Saktioto
BACKGROUND: Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is a chronic complication in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients and is characterized by paresthesia, pain, and hypoesthesia of the extremities. The Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom-Score (DNS) is a quick, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform tool to detect DPN in clinical practice. Biochemical markers like Nitric Oxide (NO) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) play a role in the early detection of DPN. This study aims to investigate the relationship between risk factors and these biomarkers...
March 28, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Maria M Adeva-Andany, Natalia Carneiro-Freire, Elvira Castro-Quintela, Eva Ameneiros-Rodriguez, Lucia Adeva-Contreras, Carlos Fernandez-Fernandez
In humans, insulin resistance is a physiological response to infections developed to supply sufficient energy to the activated immune system. This metabolic adaptation facilitates the immune response but usually persists after the recovery period of the infection and predisposes the hosts to type 2 diabetes and vascular injury. In patients with diabetes, superimposed insulin resistance worsens metabolic control and promotes diabetic ketoacidosis. Pathogenic mechanisms underlying insulin resistance during microbial invasions remain to be fully defined...
March 18, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Ms Sunita, Rahul Kaushik, Krishan Kumar Verma, Rehana Parveen
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus remains a global health challenge, demanding innovative therapeutic strategies. Herbal remedies have garnered attention for their potential in diabetes management, and recent advancements in nanotechnology have enabled the development of herbal nanoformulations with enhanced efficacy and bioavailability. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to comprehensively analyze the mechanisms, formulations, and clinical impact of herbal nanoformulations in managing diabetes mellitus...
March 18, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Acharya Balkrishna, Prashant Katiyar, Jaya Upreti, Muskan Chauhan, Dushyant Sharma, Sandeep Kumar, Vedpriya Arya
In light of the escalating global concern surrounding diabetes mellitus, contemporary medical practices predominantly hinge on pharmaceutical interventions, accompanied by inherent side effects and enduring limitations. This investigation accentuates a discernible research void regarding the amalgamation of Ayurvedic principles an age-old traditional medical system with prevalent approaches to diabetes management. Despite Ayurveda's promising potential in furnishing a comprehensive and personalized strategy for diabetes treatment, the imperative for further research and collaboration between Ayurvedic practitioners and contemporary healthcare professionals becomes evident...
March 11, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Xie Xiang, Pan Shuya, Zhang Jiamin, Zhang Zihan, Yang Xumei, Liu Jingjin
The role of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) has been welldocumented in the development of diabetes. This review offers a thorough examination of its composition and associated routes, specifically focusing on insulin signaling and glucose processing. By examining the precise connection between PDK1 and diabetes, various strategies specifically targeting PDK1 were also investigated. Additionally, recent discoveries from mouse models were compiled where PDK1 was knocked out in certain tissues, which demonstrated encouraging outcomes for focused treatments despite the absence of any currently approved clinical PDK1 activators...
March 11, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Gandhar Pradhan, Yogesh A Kulkarni
Flavonoids have been reported to be vital in treating various chronic disorders. Luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid present in a variety of plant sources such as celery, green pepper, olive oil, peppermint, thyme, rosemary, oregano, etc. It has been reported to have various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-Alzheimer, antimicrobial, etc. Many scientific studies have been carried out on luteolin for its possible effects on diabetes and its associated complications...
February 29, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Deepika Joshi
Dementia is the primary cause of disability and dependence among the elderly population worldwide. The population living with dementia is anticipated to double in the next 17 years. Recent studies show the fact that compared to people without diabetes, people with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) have about a 60% increased chance of developing dementia. In addition to cholinergic function being downregulated, improper insulin signalling also has a negative impact on synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. Type 2 diabetes and dementia share various similar pathophysiological components...
February 29, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Sarah Aqel, Jamil Ahmad, Sebawe Syaj, Majd N Daoud, Bashar Araiqat
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome comprises various conditions like abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, elevated triglyceride levels, reduced HDL, and high blood pressure, which pose significant health challenges globally. It's imperative to determine its prevalence in specific populations to formulate effective preventive measures. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Qatari population...
February 28, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Arjina Sultana, Ranadeep Borgohain, Ashwini Rayaji, Dipankar Saha, Bhrigu Kumar Das
BACKGROUND: The onset of diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels and disrupted glucose metabolism, results in 20% of people with diabetes suffering from diabetes-related wounds worldwide. A minor wound, such as a cut or abrasion, can lead to infections and complications in diabetic patients. We must understand the mechanism/s contributing to this delayed wound healing to develop effective prevention strategies. The potential benefits of bioactive phytochemicals for diabetic wound healing have been reported in numerous studies...
February 27, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Lei Cao, Chunwei Wu, Miao Liu, Wenlong Zhang, Hailong Chen, Ruolin Wang, Ze He
Obesity presently stands as a formidable global public health concern, exerting a profound impact on human life and well-being. Despite the plethora of pharmacological interventions targeting obesity, their extensive use in clinical settings is hindered by the emergence of numerous adverse reactions during drug interventions. Naturally occurring compounds or extracts found in traditional Chinese medicine, fruits, and vegetables, possessing various attributes, such as metabolic modulation, thermogenic induction, appetite alteration, and inhibition of lipase activity and fat synthesis, have positioned themselves as potential anti-obesity pharmaceutical candidates...
February 23, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Sayan Hazra, Gunosindhu Chakraborthy
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an autoimmune manifestation defined by persistent hyperglycemia and alterations in protein, fatty substances, and carbohydrate metabolism as an effect of problems with the secretion of insulin action or both. Manifestations include thirst, blurred eyesight, weight loss, and ketoacidosis, which can majorly lead to coma. There are different types of diabetes according to class or by cellular level. They are interrelated with hyperlipidemia as they are involved in the metabolism and regulation of physiological factors...
February 23, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Isha Chawla, Meenakshi Dhanawat, Manu Sharma, Sumeet Gupta
Diabetes is a metabolic illness marked by elevated levels of glucose in the bloodstream due to the inadequate production or use of insulin in the body. Diabetes can result in a range of consequences, with the most prevalent being cardiovascular disease, renal failure, vision loss, and limb removal. Natural compounds isolated from different sources, like colostrum, are the most important compounds for the treatment of diabetes. Colostrum is a form of lactation produced by mammals in the first days after giving birth to their offspring, having a rich source of constituents and showing multipharmacological properties...
February 20, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Kishor R Danao, Vijayshri V Rokde, Deweshri M Nandurkar, Ujwala N Mahajan
The overexpression of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a key role in the development of insulin resistance, diabetes (T2DM) and obesity, seems to have a substantial impact as a negative regulator of the insulin and leptin signaling pathways. Therefore, inhibiting PTP1B is a prospective therapeutic approach for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. However, the pyrazole scaffold is expected to be of significant pharmaceutical interest due to its broad spectrum of pharmacological actions. This study aims to focus on the significance of pyrazole scaffold in medicinal chemistry, the impact of PTP1B in diabetes and the therapeutic approach of pyrazole scaffold to treat T2DM...
February 13, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
G Arun Maiya, Radhika Aditya Jadhav, Hrishikesh Yadav K, Manjunatha Hande H, Harishchandra Hebbar, Karthik Mohan
BACKGROUND: Photobiomodulation (PBM) or Low-level laser is used to treat diabetic foot complications. The existing method of laser application to the foot did not cover the foot's entire area to improve the foot's microcirculation. Therefore, we have developed a cost-effective Special LASER Shoe device, focusing exclusively on the entire foot region to manage neuropathic pain and other symptoms in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of this newly developed special laser shoe PBM on neuropathic pain and plantar pressure profile in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus with neuropathy...
February 13, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Amandeep Kaur, Ranjeet Kumar, Amit Sharma
Diseases that are caused by a person's everyday habits are known as lifestyle diseases. Habits that devoid people of their daily activities and direct them towards a sedentary lifestyle cause numerous health problems that can lead to non-communicable diseases. Noncommunicable diseases, or NCDs, kill more than 41 million individuals per year, accounting for 74% of all deaths worldwide. In India, 63% of all fatalities were attributed to NCDs in 2016, with 23% of those deaths being early. Compared to the current state of various lifestyle diseases, the prevalence of adult obesity, hypertension, and other lifestyle disorders in Punjab was determined by the National Family Healthcare Surveys (NFHS-4 and NFHS-5)...
February 13, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Pooja Jadhao, Jayshree Swain, Srijit Das, Swayamsidha Mangaraj, Surapaneni Lakshmi Sravya
AIM: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of DPN in newly diagnosed T2DM patients. BACKGROUND: Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is the most common and debilitating complication of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Newly diagnosed T2DM patients visiting the outpatient department were recruited. Detailed demographic parameters, histories, physical examinations, and biochemical investigations were carried out...
February 12, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
Mahmoud Alsaraireh, Mahmoud Al-Kalaldeh, Khaldoon Alnawafleh, Doa'a Dwairej, Wesam Almagharbeh
BACKGROUND: The assessment of the quality of life (QoL) among type 2 diabetic patients is associated with different factors. Evidence shows that these patients usually suffer from a lack of knowledge about the disease, inadequate self-care, and low QoL. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess knowledge of the QoL of type 2 diabetes patients and its possible associated factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive correlational study recruited type 2 diabetic patients conveniently from out-clinics to achieve the objective of the study...
February 9, 2024: Current Diabetes Reviews
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