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Current Diabetes Reviews

Abdul Hamid Al Ghamdi
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to review the published clinical predictors of Diabetic Retinopathy Progression and discuss their level of clinical significance. METHODS: The data for systematic review has been gathered from the studies that were searched through scholarly platforms and several libraries. These studies discussed the clinical predictors of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) progression. The common keywords included in the review were diabetic retinopathy, anemia, systolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia, genetics and risk factors...
February 15, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Dorothy Liu, Sara Baqar, Lisa L Lincz, Elif I Ekinci
There is ongoing debate surrounding the complex relationship between dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The existing literature consists largely of observational studies that have demonstrated positive, negative, U-/J-shaped or unclear associations between sodium intake and cardiovascular outcomes. Our group and others have previously demonstrated an inverse relationship between dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic nervous system are postulated to contribute to these paradoxical findings through endothelial dysfunction, a precursor to the development of cardiovascular disease...
February 12, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Trishan Gajanand, Shelley E Keating, Wendy J Brown, Matthew D Hordern, Robert G Fassett, Jeff S Coombes
BACKGROUND: Exercise training is vital for glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). While the positive effects of supervised exercise training are well established, unsupervised training may offer an alternative and more sustainable means of realising the benefits of exercise away from a resource-heavy supervised setting. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the available literature and compare the efficacy of supervised and unsupervised exercise training programs on glycaemic control in patients with T2D...
February 12, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Álvaro Astasio-Picado, Elena Escamilla Mart, Beatriz Gómez Martín
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem worldwide. The diabetic foot has a degenerate vascular structure, and its patients present neurological problems, which require the earliest possible identification. INTRODUCTION: The objective of the research was to use infrared thermography to analyze the temperature difference of the feet of users with diabetes mellitus with neuropathy, vasculopathy, neurovascular disease, or none of them, segmenting the sole of the foot in four areas for the study...
February 6, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Mohamed Saad Hamed, Alyaa Ahmed El-Sherbeny, Ahmed Mohamed Bahaa El-Din
INTRODUCTION: T1DM is considered the most common chronic metabolic autoimmune disorder in childhood and adolescence as well as in early adulthood. It appears frequently during 12-13 years of age with distinctive features like immune-mediated chronic damage of pancreatic β-cells, leading eventually to partial, or mostly, absolute insulin deficiency. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a polypeptide consisting of 70 amino acids with insulin-like chemical structure. In most cases, IGF-1 is a reliable growth marker and an anabolic one in adults...
February 6, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Mohamed R Halawa, Mouchira Abd El-Salam, Bassem M Mostafa, Salma S Sallout
BACKGROUND: Symbiotic interactions of microorganisms are widespread in nature, and support fundamentally important processes linking health and disease to the bacterial ecology. Intestinal microbiota is the largest source of microbial stimulation that exerts both harmful and beneficial effects on human health. It participates in the development of the postnatal immune system as well as oral tolerance and immunity.The recently explored impact of the microbiota on energy metabolism, gut hormone regulation and the gut-brain axis was judged to be a fascinating topic and of great value in the future, and can have a clinical role in the management of obesity and diabetes...
February 6, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Mohamad Shieb, Sema Koruturk, Ankita Srivastava, Bashair M Mussa
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases in the UAE. During the last two decades, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has experienced tremendous development in all fields including DM research. The present study sheds light on the growth in DM research in UAE and represents a guide for DM researchers to create more focused future directions in DM research. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the present study is to investigate and document the changes that occurred in DM research in the UAE over the last two decades...
January 31, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
M N Phasha, P Soma, E Pretorius, A Phulukdaree
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has quadrupled within three decades since 1980 affecting 422 million adults in 2016. It remains one of the most common non-communicable chronic diseases and underlying risk factor for cardiovascular diseases worldwide. There are different underlying mechanisms that play a role in the development of pathologies associated with the disease such as hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress, obesity, inflammation and hypercoagulation. Each of which are interlinked. Hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and obesity play a huge role in the activation of inflammation and coagulation...
January 29, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Hidetaka Hamasaki, Masashi Furuta, Hidekatsu Yanai
Obesity management is a critical global issue. It is essential to evaluate visceral adiposity which is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. This study aims at precisely evaluating the necessity of visceral adipose tissue in obesity management. We assessed the validity of visceral fat area (VFA) measurement using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with computed tomography (CT) as a reference in obese subjects. Although VFABIA exhibited significant correlation with VFACT, the difference between VFACT and VFABIA increased with an advancing degree of obesity...
January 27, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Apoorva B Badiger, Triveni M Gowda, Khyati Chandra, Dhoom Singh Mehta
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterised by destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth which is a common cause of tooth mortality in all individuals throughout the world. Diabetes is a group of metabolic dysregulation, primarily of carbohydrate metabolism, characterized by hyperglycemia that results from defects in insulin secretion, impaired insulin action, or both. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have shown that the prevalance of periodontitis is increased in diabetic patients...
January 15, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Omar Yaxmehen Bello-Chavolla, Neftali Eduardo Antonio-Villa, Arsenio Vargas-Vázquez, José Alberto Ávila-Funes, Carlos Alberto Aguilar-Salinas
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes represents an increasing health burden world-wide and its prevalence in particularly higher in elderly population. Consistent epidemiological evidence suggests an increased risk of dementia associated to type 2 diabetes; the mechanisms underlying these associations, however, remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To review epidemiological, clinical and pre-clinical data that weigh on pathophysiological links, mechanisms of disease and associations between type 2 diabetes and dementia to identify areas of opportunity for future research...
January 15, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Dimitar Simov, Ivaylo Christov, Iana Simova
Problems in measuring the QT-dispersion are associated mostly with inaccurate location of the T-wave end. The complications are: (i) in methodology due to various definition for Tend, (ii) in automatic measurements, due to low amplitude of T-wave, presence of U-wave and noise, and (iii) in manual measurements, due to lack of repeatability in the results, and involuntary subjectivism, when the QT-dispersion is measured by a person familiar with the ultimate goal of the study. New ECG repolarization parameter, 'T-wave area dispersion' (TWAD), has been defined by Kenttä et al...
January 15, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Monika Zurawska-Klis, Katarzyna Cypryk
BACKGROUND: Potential influence of pregnancy and parity on the risk of chronic diabetic complications is a matter of great concern and constant discussion. This aspect seems relevant and should be the subject of thorough discussion with the woman planning childbirth. INTRODUCTION: Current data concerning the impact of pregnancy and parity covers primarily retinopathy and nephropathy, while the aspects of neuropathy and macrovascular complications are unsatisfactorily documented...
January 15, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Tiew Chin Siang, Chieng Yi Rong, Naveenya Chetty Annan, Esther Ho Yung Sean, Lim Wen Xi, Ong Siu Lyn, Liew Hui Shan, Hira Choudhury, Manisha Pandey, Bapi Gorain
BACKGROUND: The incidence of diabetes is increasing steeply; the number of diabetics has doubled over the past three decades. Surprisingly, the knowledge of type 3c diabetes mellitus (T3cDM) is still unclear to the researchers, scientist and medical practitioners, leading towards erroneous diagnosis, which is sometimes misdiagnosed as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or more frequently type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review is aimed to outline recent information on the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic procedures, and therapeutic management of T3cDM patients...
January 15, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Tajudeen O Yahaya, Titilola F Salisu
INTRODUCTION: Scientists are considering the possibility of treating diabetes mellitus (DM) using a personalized approach in which various forms of the diseases will be treated based on the causal gene and its pathogenesis. To this end, scientists have identified mutations in certain genes as probable causes of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with diverse mechanisms. AIM: This review was aimed at articulating already identified T2DM genes with their mechanisms of action and phenotypic presentations for the awareness of all stakeholders...
December 4, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Aakash Reddy, Katari Venkatesh, Sayani Sahu, Pallavi Sinha Roy, Konkona Datta, Pearlin, L Vinod Kumar Reddy, Erfath Thanjeem Begum Moghal, Madhubanti Mullick, Gundu H R Rao, Dwaipayan Sen
BACKGROUND: The Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and its involvement in weight gain and obesity is well-known. However, there are no reports published on Indian population regarding the relation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in its intronic region and obesity. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the frequency and association of SNPs in intron-1 of the FTO gene in obese and overweight Indian adults. METHODS: This study group consisted of 80 adults, aged 23...
November 26, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Norman E Cameron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Melanie Copenhaver, Chack-Yung Yu, Robert P Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Increased systemic inflammation plays a significant role in the development of adult cardiometabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. The complement system is a part of the innate immune system and plays a key role in the regulation of inflammation. Of particular importance is the activation of complement components C3 and C4. C3 is produced primarily by the liver but is also produced in adipocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells, all of which are present in adipose tissues...
2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
Rob N M Weijers, Dick J Bekedam
INTRODUCTION: The Diabetes Prevention Program study results indicated that metformin therapy was not as beneficial as a lifestyle modification for delaying the development of type 2 diabetes in individuals at high risk of the disease. A key feature in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which appears in the prediabetic phase, is a significant deficiency, compared to healthy controls, in highly flexible poly-cis-unsaturated fatty acyl chains in membrane phospholipids. This deficiency lowers membrane flexibility, which in turn, reduces the amount of all functional Class I glucose transporters, and thereby reduces glucose-mediated ATP production...
November 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Elizabeth M Vaughan, Craig A Johnston, Katherine R Arlinghaus, David J Hyman, John P Foreyt
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have supported the efficacy of diabetes group visits. However, the benefit of diabetes group visits for low-income and underserved individuals is not clear. The purpose of this study was to conduct a narrative review in order to clarify the efficacy of diabetes group visits in low-income and underserved settings. METHODS: The authors performed a narrative review, categorizing studies into nonrandomized and randomized. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies were identified...
November 12, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
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