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Cell Division

Nagaraja Chappidi, Giuseppe De Gregorio, Stefano Ferrari
Background: Mechanisms controlling DNA resection at sites of damage and affecting genome stability have been the subject of deep investigation, though their complexity is not yet fully understood. Specifically, the regulatory role of post-translational modifications in the localization, stability and function of DNA repair proteins is an important aspect of such complexity. Results: Here, we took advantage of the superior resolution of phosphorylated proteins provided by Phos-Tag technology to study pathways controlling the reversible phosphorylation of yeast Exo1, an exonuclease involved in a number of DNA repair pathways...
2019: Cell Division
Alicja Sznarkowska, Anna Kostecka, Anna Kawiak, Pilar Acedo, Mattia Lion, Alberto Inga, Joanna Zawacka-Pankau
Background: The p73 protein is a tumor suppressor that shares structural and functional similarity with p53. p73 is expressed in two major isoforms; the TA isoform that interacts with p53 pathway, thus acting as tumor suppressor and the N-terminal truncated ΔN isoform that inhibits TAp73 and p53 and thus, acts as an oncogene. Results: By employing a drug repurposing approach, we found that protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a metabolite of aminolevulinic acid applied in photodynamic therapy of cancer, stabilizes TAp73 and activates TAp73-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells lacking p53...
2018: Cell Division
Feng Tang, Meng-Hao Pan, Xiang Wan, Yujie Lu, Yu Zhang, Shao-Chen Sun
Background: During oocyte meiosis, the cytoskeleton dynamics, especially spindle organization, are critical for chromosome congression and segregation. However, the roles of the kinesin superfamily in this process are still largely unknown. Results: In the present study, Kif18a, a member of the kinesin-8 family, regulated spindle organization through its effects on tubulin acetylation in mouse oocyte meiosis. Our results showed that Kif18a is expressed and mainly localized in the spindle region...
2018: Cell Division
Ramona Jühlen, Dana Landgraf, Angela Huebner, Katrin Koehler
Background: Membrane-associated progesterone receptors are restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum and are shown to regulate the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes which are involved in steroidogenesis or drug detoxification. PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 belong to the membrane-associated progesterone receptor family and are of interest due to their suspected role during cell cycle. PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 are thought to bind to each other; thereby suppressing entry into mitosis. We could previously report that PGRMC2 interacts with the nucleoporin ALADIN which when mutated results in the autosomal recessive disorder triple A syndrome...
2018: Cell Division
Estelle Willems, Matthias Dedobbeleer, Marina Digregorio, Arnaud Lombard, Paul Noel Lumapat, Bernard Rogister
Aurora kinases are serine/threonine kinases essential for the onset and progression of mitosis. Aurora members share a similar protein structure and kinase activity, but exhibit distinct cellular and subcellular localization. AurA favors the G2/M transition by promoting centrosome maturation and mitotic spindle assembly. AurB and AurC are chromosome-passenger complex proteins, crucial for chromosome binding to kinetochores and segregation of chromosomes. Cellular distribution of AurB is ubiquitous, while AurC expression is mainly restricted to meiotically-active germ cells...
2018: Cell Division
Cecil J Gomes, Michael W Harman, Sara M Centuori, Charles W Wolgemuth, Jesse D Martinez
Background: Live-cell fluorescence microscopy (LCFM) is a powerful tool used to investigate cellular dynamics in real time. However, the capacity to simultaneously measure DNA content in cells being tracked over time remains challenged by dye-associated toxicities. The ability to measure DNA content in single cells by means of LCFM would allow cellular stage and ploidy to be coupled with a variety of imaging directed analyses. Here we describe a widely applicable nontoxic approach for measuring DNA content in live cells by fluorescence microscopy...
2018: Cell Division
Gerson Dierley Keppeke, Chia Chun Chang, Min Peng, Li-Yu Chen, Wei-Cheng Lin, Li-Mei Pai, Luis Eduardo Coelho Andrade, Li-Ying Sung, Ji-Long Liu
Background: Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo GTP biosynthesis, plays an important role in cell metabolism and proliferation. It has been demonstrated that IMPDH can aggregate into a macrostructure, termed the cytoophidium, in mammalian cells under a variety of conditions. However, the regulation and function of the cytoophidium are still elusive. Results: In this study, we report that spontaneous filamentation of IMPDH is correlated with rapid cell proliferation...
2018: Cell Division
Yan Xie, Minghui Cheng, Shan Lu, Qilong Yuan, Dongyu Yang, Ying Chen, Chen Pan, Yurong Qiu, Bo Xiong
Background: Kinesin superfamily proteins are microtubule-based molecular motors essential for the intracellular transport of various cargos, including organelles, proteins, and RNAs. However, their exact roles during mammalian oocyte meiosis have not been fully clarified. Results: Herein, we investigated the critical events during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation with the treatment of Eg5-specific inhibitor monastrol. We found that Eg5 inhibition resulted in oocyte meiotic failure by displaying the poor expansion of cumulus cells and reduced rate of polar body extrusion...
2018: Cell Division
Anita E Raposo, Sabine C Piller
Protein arginine methylation is a common post-translational modification where a methyl group is added onto arginine residues of a protein to alter detection by its binding partners or regulate its activity. It is known to be involved in many biological processes, such as regulation of signal transduction, transcription, facilitation of protein-protein interactions, RNA splicing and transport. The enzymes responsible for arginine methylation, protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), have been shown to methylate or associate with important regulatory proteins of the cell cycle and DNA damage repair pathways, such as cyclin D1, p53, p21 and the retinoblastoma protein...
2018: Cell Division
Hong-Zhen Wang, Si-Han Yang, Gui-Ying Li, Xudong Cao
The main role of condensins is to regulate chromosome condensation and segregation during cell cycles. Recently, it has been suggested in the literatures that subunits of condensin I and condensin II are involved in some human cancers. This paper will first briefly discuss discoveries of human condensins, their components and structures, and their multiple cellular functions. This will be followed by reviews of most recent studies on subunits of human condensins and their dysregulations or mutations in human cancers...
2018: Cell Division
Steven Boeynaems, Peter Tompa, Ludo Van Den Bosch
Just like all matter, proteins can also switch between gas, liquid and solid phases. Protein phase transition has claimed the spotlight in recent years as a novel way of how cells compartmentalize and regulate biochemical reactions. Moreover, this discovery has provided a new framework for the study of membrane-less organelle biogenesis and protein aggregation in neurodegenerative disorders. We now argue that this framework could be useful in the study of cell cycle regulation and cancer. Based on our work on phase transitions of arginine-rich proteins in neurodegeneration, via combining mass spectroscopy with bioinformatics analyses, we found that also numerous proteins involved in the regulation of the cell cycle can undergo protein phase separation...
2018: Cell Division
Hana Paculová, Jiří Kohoutek
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulators of both cell cycle progression and transcription. Since dysregulation of CDKs is a frequently occurring event driving tumorigenesis, CDKs have been tested extensively as targets for cancer therapy. Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12) is a transcription-associated kinase which participates in various cellular processes, including DNA damage response, development and cellular differentiation, as well as splicing and pre-mRNA processing. CDK12 mutations and amplification have been recently reported in different types of malignancies, including loss-of-function mutations in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas, and that has led to assumption that CDK12 is a tumor suppressor...
2017: Cell Division
Michael Polymenis
The varied nature of human cancers is recapitulated, at least to some extent, in the diverse NCI-60 panel of human cancer cell lines. Here, I used a basic, continuous variable of proliferating cells, their doubling time, to stratify the proteome across the NCI-60 cell lines. Among >7000 proteins quantified in the NCI-60 panel previously, the levels of 84 proteins increase in cells that proliferate slowly. This set overlapped with the hallmark molecular signature "epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)" (p value = 1...
2017: Cell Division
Stephen K Kim, Randy Strich
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13008-016-0024-3.].
2017: Cell Division
L John Gagliardi, Daniel H Shain
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13008-016-0026-1.].
2017: Cell Division
Michael J Thwaites, Matthew J Cecchini, Srikanth Talluri, Daniel T Passos, Jasmyne Carnevale, Frederick A Dick
BACKGROUND: The G1-S phase transition is critical to maintaining proliferative control and preventing carcinogenesis. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor is a key regulator of this step in the cell cycle. RESULTS: Here we use a structure-function approach to evaluate the contributions of multiple protein interaction surfaces on pRB towards cell cycle regulation. SAOS2 cell cycle arrest assays showed that disruption of three separate binding surfaces were necessary to inhibit pRB-mediated cell cycle control...
2017: Cell Division
Maximilian Billmann, Michael Boutros
Genetic screens have identified many novel components of various biological processes, such as components required for cell cycle and cell division. While forward genetic screens typically generate unstructured 'hit' lists, genetic interaction mapping approaches can identify functional relations in a systematic fashion. Here, we discuss a recent study by our group demonstrating a two-step approach to first screen for regulators of the mitotic cell cycle, and subsequently guide hypothesis generation by using genetic interaction analysis...
2017: Cell Division
Piotr Kowalec, Jan Fronk, Anna Kurlandzka
BACKGROUND: Correct chromosome segregation depends on the sister chromatid cohesion complex. The essential, evolutionarily conserved regulatory protein Irr1/Scc3, is responsible for the complex loading onto DNA and for its removal. We found that, unexpectedly, Irr1 is present not only in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm. RESULTS: We show that Irr1 protein is enriched in the cytoplasm upon arrest of yeast cells in G1 phase following nitrogen starvation, diauxic shift or α-factor action, and also during normal cell cycle...
2017: Cell Division
L John Gagliardi, Daniel H Shain
BACKGROUND: Recent experiments regarding Ndc80/Hec1 in force generation at kinetochores for chromosome motions have prompted speculation about possible models for interactions between positively charged molecules at kinetochores and negative charge at and near the plus ends of microtubules. DISCUSSION: A clear picture of how kinetochores and centrosomes establish and maintain a dynamic coupling to microtubules for force generation during the complex motions of mitosis remains elusive...
2016: Cell Division
Agnieszka Lass, Ross Cocklin, Kenneth M Scaglione, Michael Skowyra, Sergey Korolev, Mark Goebl, Dorota Skowyra
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/1747-1028-6-7.].
2016: Cell Division
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