Hansheng Wang, Jiankun Wang, Yan Liu, Yunyun Wang, Yanhui Zhou, Dan Yu, Hui You, Tao Ren, Yijun Tang, Meifang Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: EBUS-TBNA has emerged as an important minimally invasive procedure for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of different specimen preparation from aspirates on the diagnosis of lung cancer. METHODS: 181 consecutive patients with known or suspected lung cancer accompanied by hilar / mediastinal lymphadenopathy underwent EBUS-TBNA from January 2019 to December 2022. Specimens obtained by EBUS-TBNA were processed by three methods: Traditional smear cytology of aspirates (TSC), liquid-based cytology of aspirates (LBC) and histopathology of core biopsies...
April 19, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Li-Fen Zhang, Yan Zhang, Rou-Hong Shui, Hong-Fen Lu, Wen-Hua Jiang, Xu Cai, Xiao-Qiu Li, Bao-Hua Yu
AIMS: MNDA (myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen) has been considered as a potential diagnostic marker for marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), but its utility in distinguishing MZL from other B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs) and its clinicopathologic relevance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are ambiguous. We comprehensively investigated MNDA expression in a large series of B-NHLs and evaluated its diagnostic value. METHODS: MNDA expression in a cohort of 1293 cases of B-NHLs and 338  cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) was determined using immunohistochemistry and compared among different types of B-NHL...
April 16, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Hikaru Tsukita, Kei Koyama, Takahiro Ishinari, Ayana Takahashi, Ken Miyabe, Michinobu Umakoshi, Makoto Yoshida, Yukitsugu Kudo-Asabe, Akiko Nishida, Naohiko Otsuka, Ouki Yasui, Ikuma Kato, Noriyoshi Fukushima, Akiteru Goto
BACKGROUND: PEComa is a mesenchymal tumor that can occur in various organs including the uterus and soft tissues. PEComas are composed of perivascular epithelioid cells, and angiomyolipoma (AML), clear cell sugar tumor (CCST), and lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) are considered lesions of the same lineage as tumors of the PEComa family. Histologically, a common PEComa shows solid or sheet-like proliferation of epithelioid cells. This is accompanied by an increase in the number of dilated blood vessels...
April 15, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Peng Zhang, JiaHua Xu, Qing Wu, Jianxin Qian, Song Wang
BACKGROUND: Crizotinib, an oral first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is superior to systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with positive rearrangement of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). However, an increased incidence of renal and hepatic cysts has been reported in the patients on crizotinib treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we describe a case of a 71-year-old Chinese women developed multiple cystic lesions in kidney and liver during crizotinib treatment for the primary and metastatic NSCLC...
April 14, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Kaori Oya, Akinori Takeshita, Kanta Wakamori, Misa Song, Hayato Kimura, Katsutoshi Hirose, Hiroaki Shimamoto, Sunao Sato, Kazuhide Matsunaga, Narikazu Uzawa, Satoru Toyosawa
BACKGROUND: Cementoblastoma is a rare odontogenic tumor characterized by the formation of osteocementum-like tissue on a tooth root directly by neoplastic cementoblasts. Although it is categorized as benign, it has a high potential for growth with a certain degree of recurrence risk. However, there are only a few studies describing the features of recurrent cementoblastoma. The diagnosis of recurrent cementoblastoma is challenging not only due to its cytological atypia but also because of its large size and multicentric growth pattern...
April 8, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Xiaohong Yao, Wei Wang, Ying He
BACKGROUND: Müllerian adenosarcoma, a rare malignancy, presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In this study, we conducted an analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics of 22 adenosarcomas, with a particular focus on screening for DICER1 hot mutations. METHODS: The cohort consisted of patients with adenosarcoma who were registered at the West China Second Hospital between the years 2020 and June 2022. Sanger sequencing was employed to screen for somatic Hotspot mutations in the RNase IIIb domain of DICER1 in the 22 adenosarcomas...
April 3, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Tillmann Bedau, Carina Heydt, Udo Siebolts, Thomas Zander, Max Kraemer, Heike Loeser, Reinhard Buettner, Alexander Quaas
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) frequently involves mutations in the KRAS gene, impacting therapeutic strategies and prognosis. The occurrence of KRAS mutations typically precludes the presence of RET fusions, with current medical literature suggesting a mutual exclusivity between these two genetic alterations. We present a unique case that challenges this notion. CASE PRESENTATION: An 85-year-old female with metastatic CRC was found to have a combination of genetic anomalies that is to the best of our knowledge not yet described in the medical literature: a KRAS p...
March 27, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Mijia Wang, Zhendong Wei, Jixia Kong, Haidong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Accurately predicting the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer patients is crucial for guiding treatment strategies and enhancing clinical outcomes. Current studies have primarily focused on a limited set of biomarkers. More importantly, the results of many studies are in conflict. To address this, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the predictive value of a diverse range of clinically available molecular biomarkers in breast cancer, including HER2, ER, PR, TOPO II, EGFR, Ki67, CK5/6, AR, and p53...
March 20, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Raghav Kapoor, Anurag Mehta, Anila Sharma, Shrinidhi Nathany, Himanshi Diwan, Divya Bansal
Melanocytic lesions involving the central nervous system are extremely rare and pose a diagnostic challenge owing melanoma being the third most common malignancy metastasizing to the spine. Morphology and immunohistochemistry are identical in both primary and secondary cases, and hence may not help in rendering a final diagnosis. Molecular alterations involving melanomas of the spine and melanomas elsewhere are distinct and help establish the appropriate diagnosis. We report an interesting case where molecular profiling of the tumor tissue helped render the final diagnosis...
March 20, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Igor Iskra, Maja Ilić Tomaš, Tatjana Bogović Crnčić, Edvin Kukić, Ita Hadžisejdić, Manuela Avirović, Neva Girotto
BACKGROUND: Papillary carcinoma is the most frequent type of thyroid carcinoma, while primary thyroid lymphoma is uncommon disease. The coexistence of these entities has already been described, and the common risk factor is considered Hashimoto thyroiditis. The two most frequent histotypes of primary thyroid lymphoma are diffuse large B-cell and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, but the coexistence of both with papillary carcinoma is rarely reported. METHODS: We present a case of a previously healthy 57-years old male with rapidly growing lump on the right side of the neck...
March 9, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Ningxiang Wu, Yonghui Li, Xiaokun Ma, Zhen Huang, Zhuoxuan Chen, Weihua Chen, Ran Zhang
BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma in minors is considered to be a distinct entity from OSCC in older patients, with an uncertain etiology. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may trigger the initiation and promote the progression of OSCC, but these roles have not been firmly established.We aimed to explore the correlation between HPV infection and the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma in minors and know the characteristics of OSCC in young patients more thoroughly. METHOD: From January 2013 to December 2022,6 cases of OSCC aged < 15 years were selected from the Department of Oral Pathology, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing, China...
March 9, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Qiaochu Sun, Jaeyoung Ryu, Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare, complex genetic disorder characterized by hamartomas and neoplastic lesions in various organ systems. With the development of radiology and gene testing, the diagnostic criteria for TSC were updated in 2012 at the International Consensus Conference. Intraoral fibromas have long been associated with TSC. However, the incidence of giant cell angiofibroma (GCA) in TSC patients is extremely rare. Here, we report the first case of GCA in the gingival tissue of a patient with TSC...
March 8, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Dajeong Park, Junhun Cho
The histological diagnosis of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is difficult for pathologists. Recently, digital pathology systems have been widely used to provide tools that can objectively measure lesions on slides. In this study, we measured the extent of marginal zone expansion in suspected MALT lymphoma cases and compared the results with those of a molecular clonality test. In total, 115 patients who underwent an IGH gene rearrangement test for suspected MALT lymphoma were included in this study...
March 8, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Xin Zhou, Yanshi Li, Min Pan, Tao Lu, Chuan Liu, Zhihai Wang, Fengxiang Tang, Guohua Hu
BACKGROUND: Patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma (HPC) have a poor prognosis mainly because of lymphatic metastasis. This research aimed to determine the PKM2 role in lymphatic metastasis in HPC and the underlying molecular mechanism contributing to this phenomenon. METHODS: PKM2 in HPC was studied for its expression and its likelihood of overall survival using TCGA dataset. Western blotting, qRT-PCR, and IHC were employed to confirm PKM2 expression. Methods including gain- and loss-of-function were used to examine the PKM2 role in HPC metastasis in vitro and in vivo...
March 2, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Chunyan Hu, Lan Lin, Ming Ye, Yifeng Liu, Qiang Huang, Cuncun Yuan, Ji Sun, Hui Sun
AIMS: Primary mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs) of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx are rare entities that represent a diagnostic challenge, especially in biopsy samples. Herein, we present a case series of MECs of the sinonasal and skull base and its mimics to evaluate the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics in order to avoid misdiagnosis. METHODS: We reviewed the pathology records of patients diagnosed from 2014 to 2022. Thirty MECs were consecutively diagnosed during that period...
March 1, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Shahram Darabi, Armin Ariaei, Auob Rustamzadeh, Dariush Afshari, Enam Alhagh Charkhat Gorgich, Leila Darabi
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal motor neuron disease. Due to the limited knowledge about potential biomarkers that help in early diagnosis and monitoring disease progression, today's diagnoses are based on ruling out other diseases, neurography, and electromyography examination, which takes a time-consuming procedure. METHODS: PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science were explored to extract articles published from January 2015 to June 2023...
March 1, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Tummidi Santosh, Indranil Chakrabarti, Aparna Palit, Sonakshi Srivastava
BACKGROUND: Fungal infection incidental detection is a common encounter in cytopathology practices. Detection of the fungal organisms and awareness of the morphological features are challenges for the cytopathologist. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of incidental detection of a fungal organism in a 67-year-old male patient with complaints of bilateral elbow joint swellings. Cytology was done and showed a fungal organism (Cladosporium sps.). CONCLUSION: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) along with Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) is a rapid, minimally invasive technique used for the diagnosis and detection of various fungi / parasites leading to early and definitive treatment...
February 29, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Amir F Beirat, Justin Z Amarin, Haya H Suradi, Yasmeen Z Qwaider, Adel Muhanna, Bayan Maraqa, Abdallah Al-Ani, Maysa Al-Hussaini
BACKGROUND: Lymph node ratio (LNR) may offer superior prognostic stratification in colorectal adenocarcinoma compared with N stage. However, candidate cutoff ratios require validation. We aimed to study the prognostic significance of LNR and its optimal cutoff ratio. METHODS: We reviewed the pathology records of all patients with stage III colorectal adenocarcinoma who were managed at the King Hussein Cancer Center between January 2014 and December 2019. We then studied the clinical characteristics of the patients, correlates of lymph node count, prognostic significance of positive lymph nodes, and value of sampling additional lymph nodes...
February 28, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Ehsan Ullah, Anil Parwani, Mirza Mansoor Baig, Rajendra Singh
BACKGROUND: The integration of large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT in diagnostic medicine, with a focus on digital pathology, has garnered significant attention. However, understanding the challenges and barriers associated with the use of LLMs in this context is crucial for their successful implementation. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to explore the challenges and barriers of using LLMs, in diagnostic medicine with a focus on digital pathology...
February 27, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
Catriona Dunn, David Brettle, Martin Cockroft, Elizabeth Keating, Craig Revie, Darren Treanor
BACKGROUND: Staining tissue samples to visualise cellular detail and tissue structure is at the core of pathology diagnosis, but variations in staining can result in significantly different appearances of the tissue sample. While the human visual system is adept at compensating for stain variation, with the growth of digital imaging in pathology, the impact of this variation can be more profound. Despite the ubiquity of haematoxylin and eosin staining in clinical practice worldwide, objective quantification is not yet available...
February 23, 2024: Diagnostic Pathology
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