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Discovery Medicine

Weiming Sun, Qianling Shi, Huiyun Zhang, Kexin Yang, Yuxia Ke, Yuping Wang, Liang Qiao
Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide after cardiovascular diseases, predominantly due to the lack of early symptoms and early diagnosis, and high relapse rate after radical surgery and conventional therapies. Therefore, novel approaches such as gene therapy have raised hope to significantly improve the survival rate of patients with cancers. This review aims to provide up-to-date information concerning gene therapy including improved vectors, suicide genes, cancer suppressor genes, anti-tumor angiogenesis, gene silencing, oncolytic virotherapy, and gene-editing technology...
January 2019: Discovery Medicine
Steven Lehrer, Peter H Rheinstein
NSAIDs may prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD) but have failed as a treatment, possibly because only 1-2% of an oral NSAID dose reaches the brain. This minuscule dose is enough to have a preventative effect on Alzheimer's disease but not to treat it. We propose a new route of administration for drugs to treat AD: transspinal delivery by transdermal patch over the back-of-neck/cervical spine. The drug would diffuse from the patch through the intervertebral spaces, penetrate the dura, enter the CSF, and reach the brain...
January 2019: Discovery Medicine
Jinduo Zhang, Gang Su, Yanyan Lin, Wenbo Meng, Jonathan King Lam Lai, Liang Qiao, Xun Li, Xiaodong Xie
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play an important role in cell-cycle progression. CDKs are positively modulated by regulatory mitotic cyclins and negatively controlled by endogenous CDK inhibitors (CDKIs) cyclically as cells progress through different cell cycles of transitions. When activated by cyclins, cyclin-CDK complexes were able to facilitate the transition of cell cycle from one phase to the next, e.g., from G1 to S or from G2 to M. DNA damages may cause inhibition of CDKs leading to cell-cycle arrest, while unrepairable DNA damage causes cells to undergo apoptosis...
January 2019: Discovery Medicine
Jian Guan, Yao Li, Luo-Bin Ding, Guang-Yuan Liu, Xiao-Fei Zheng, Wei Xue, Hua-Jun Wang
OBJECTIVE: The current study was carried out to investigate the serum and synovial fluid (SF) alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) levels in correlation with disease severity in primary knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: This study comprised of 105 primary knee OA patients and 98 healthy controls. The radiographic severity was verified according to the Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic grading criteria. The symptomatic severity of knee OA was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index...
January 2019: Discovery Medicine
Atiya Allarakha, Yan Gao, Hong Jiang, Pei-Jun Wang
Breast cancer (BC) research has been evolving tremendously on all fronts, whether it being for imaging, pathology, oncology, pharmacology, or genetics. Regarding medical imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are now both universally recognized and widely used modalities in multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) to diagnose and stage BC, to assess post-chemotherapy response, and to differentiate between scar tissue and recurrent tumor. Meanwhile, pathologists have provided evidence of BC being heterogeneous and having several subtypes, which in turn might affect its prognostic and therapeutic outcomes...
January 2019: Discovery Medicine
Katsunori Yanai, Hiroki Ishii, Akinori Aomatsu, Kenichi Ishibashi, Yoshiyuki Morishita
Peritoneal fibrosis is a crucial complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD). Peritoneal fibrosis contributes to the development of peritoneal membrane failure, which leads to withdrawal from PD. No specific biomarkers or therapies have yet been established for peritoneal fibrosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that can inhibit the translation of target messenger RNAs. Previous studies have shown that miRNAs play pivotal roles in the development of peritoneal fibrosis, indicating that they may represent potential biomarkers and therapeutic options for peritoneal fibrosis...
December 2018: Discovery Medicine
Arjun K Menta, Ishwaria M Subbiah, Vivek Subbiah
The new way of acquiring data is at its inception in our ever-changing world. There are now a plethora of opportunities to acquire data; from the data, trends can be calculated, validated, and utilized to solve current problems. Wearable technology has been widely adopted in our society, acquiring roles in many aspects of daily life. With each iteration of a wearable platform, devices are further miniaturized with greater integration of sensors that continually collect and store vast amounts of data. The commercialization of these wearable technologies brings to light opportunities for incorporation of these devices into healthcare, and in particular cancer care...
December 2018: Discovery Medicine
Jing Qian, Jianyong Zhong, Minhua Yan, Huizhu Shi, Chuanming Hao, Yong Gu, Lingyun Lai
To determine whether -344T/C CYP11B2 promoter polymorphism affects serum aldosterone levels and whether this polymorphism is an indicator of eGFR decline in patients with chronic kidney disease. -344 C/T CYP11B2 gene polymorphism analysis was performed in 96 adults with stages 1-5 CKD by using polymerase chain reaction. Serum aldosterone levels were measured at baseline and at 1.5-year follow-up. The primary outcome was the annual eGFR decline and the secondary outcome was the occurrence of cardio-cerebrovascular events...
December 2018: Discovery Medicine
Xianglan Sun, Minglong Li, Yao Wang, Ye Bi
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulting from 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (17-OHD) is an uncommon autosomal recessive disease. 17-OHD is caused by mutations in the cytochrome P450c17 gene (CYP17A1), and characterized by hypertension, hypokalemia, female sexual infantilism, or male pseudohermaphroditism. Here we report a case of a 19-year-old Chinese girl (46,XX) with 17-OHD, and analyze her clinical and molecular genetic characteristics. The patient had high blood pressure (147/102 mmHg), irregular menstruation, hypomenorrhea, and normal serum potassium...
December 2018: Discovery Medicine
Anil Kumar Bhatta, Uma Keyal, Yeqiang Liu
High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) refers to the ultrasound probe frequency of more than 10 MHz. HFUS has shorter wavelengths, is absorbed more easily, and is therefore not as penetrating. This explains its use for superficial structures and hence its increasing application in the field of dermatology. HFUS is a simple, reliable, and noninvasive technique that is being used along with the physical examination for the assessment, diagnosis, and management of many dermatologic conditions. In addition, it can also be used for the evaluation of normal skin structure...
December 2018: Discovery Medicine
Lu-Yao Guan, Yuan Lu
Ovarian cancer remains the most mortal gynecological cancer in the world. The standard treatment for ovarian cancer remains cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy. Although most patients are platinum-sensitive initially, the majority of them will develop platinum resistance after multiple relapses, and platinum-resistant patients have a low response to the second-line chemotherapy. Besides, ovarian cancer is considered to be a highly heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. Molecular targeted therapy is expected to be a more effective and less toxic therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer...
November 2018: Discovery Medicine
Brandon Baer, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Fred Possmayer, Cory Yamashita, Ruud Veldhuizen
Due to its branching structure, drug delivery to the peripheral areas of the lung is a major challenge. Consequently, most pulmonary therapies utilize large systemic dosing, with the potential for adverse side effects. One proposed strategy to overcome this challenge is to use exogenous surfactant, a material capable of distributing throughout the lung, as a pulmonary drug delivery vehicle. The objective was to develop and test an in vitro system to rapidly assess surfactant based therapies prior to animal studies...
November 2018: Discovery Medicine
Zachary Oaks, Anola Stage, Bradley Middleton, Stephen Faraone, Brian Johnson
BACKGROUND: The cold pressor test (CPT) has been used in experimental paradigms to measure pain tolerance. It is used clinically to evaluate for opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), as part of the clinical evaluation of fibromyalgia, to document reversal of OIH by low dose naltrexone (LDN), and to document the clinical response of fibromyalgia to LDN. METHODS: We reviewed charts of 254 outpatients admitted to addiction medicine with chronic opioid treatment for pain, opioid addiction, or fibromyalgia...
November 2018: Discovery Medicine
Yesheng Li, Jia Shi, Xing Liu, Qing Deng, Yangqing Huang, Zongguo Yang
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been linked to the development of cancer. The relationship between MetS and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. Studies up to September 2017 of MetS and HCC were systematically identified and meta-analyzed. Ten studies (nine cohorts and one case-control) were included in this meta-analysis. It was found that MetS patients are significantly more likely to develop HCC (RR = 1.60, 95%CI = 1.12-2.28, P = 0.01). Additionally, when only cohort studies were included, MetS is a potential risk factor for HCC occurrence (RR = 1...
November 2018: Discovery Medicine
Qin Jia, Jing Chang, Qing Hong, Jing-Jian Zhang, Hai Zhou, Feng-Hua Chen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory tract disease with an incompletely understood pathogenesis. According to previous reports, miRNAs play a crucial pathophysiological role in COPD. MiR-212 was reported to be downregulated in COPD patients; however, the role of miR-212 in COPD remains unknown. In this study, the expression level of miR-212-5p and miR-223 decreased significantly in COPD patients compared to healthy controls. In vitro experiments showed that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induced NCI-H292 cell apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation...
November 2018: Discovery Medicine
Rui Chen, Yuquan Tao, Xin Xu, Liang Shan, Hongyuan Jiang, Qilei Yin, Lingyan Pei, Feng Cai, Lifang Ma, Yongchun Yu
Currently, platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard first-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that is not driven by identifiable genetic events, such as sensitizing mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and translocations of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, which unleash a patient's own T cells to attack tumors, are revolutionizing the treatment paradigm of lung cancer. Anti-programmed death 1 (anti-PD-1) antibodies, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, and anti-programmed death ligand 1 (anti-PD-L1) antibody atezolizumab have shown a significantly longer survival and manageable safety profile, being approved as first or second-line treatment options in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer...
October 2018: Discovery Medicine
Majid Alfadhel, Sarah Albahkali, Amani Almuaysib, Bahauddeen M Alrfaei
The sortilin-related VPS10 domain-containing receptor 3 (SORCS3) is a type-I receptor transmembrane protein and a member of the vacuolar protein sorting 10 receptor family. Proteins of this family are defined to have a vacuolar protein sorting 10 domain at the N-terminus. They play important roles as a sorting agency within the cells and transport a variety of intracellular proteins between the Golgi apparatus, endosome, lysosome, secretory granules, and plasma membrane. They are also involved in signal transduction...
October 2018: Discovery Medicine
Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan, Darren Mah, Raj Padwal
Prescribing medications safely and effectively in older adults is a complex process. This review discusses challenges with medication prescribing in older adults and outlines a holistic approach to medication management in older adults. Well-known challenges including the alterations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics that often occur with aging are discussed. Other classic concerns including polypharmacy, potentially inappropriate medication use, prescribing cascades, suboptimal prescribing, paradoxical harm and unintended consequences of medications, and drug interactions are reviewed...
October 2018: Discovery Medicine
Shiyong Peng, Wenqiang Li, Luxian Lv, Zhongjiang Zhang, Xiping Zhan
Schizophrenia and major depression disorders, both being of pathological synaptogenesis, are the most common psychiatric disorders worldwide. These diseases, if not treated effectively, may cause suicide and are a serious social and economic challenge. Although schizophrenia and depression can be significantly improved with the second-generation atypical antipsychotics, rising drug resistance has limited their efficacy. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has appeared to be a promising therapy against severe mental disorders, but it is still controversial primarily due to inadequate evaluation...
October 2018: Discovery Medicine
Jian Wang, Xiaomin Yan, Yuxin Chen, Yong Liu, Li Wang, Bei Jia, Guiyang Wang, Yali Xiong, Peixin Song, Weihua Wu, Juan Xia, Sufang Lu, Zhaoping Zhang, Rui Huang, Chao Wu
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze serum antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) level during different immunological phases in the natural history of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: Serum anti-HBc levels in the immune tolerant (IT), immune clearance (IC), low replicative (LR), and HBeAg negative hepatitis (ENH) phases from 634 treatment-naïve CHB patients were measured and compared between phases and with other serum markers. RESULTS: Median serum anti-HBc levels were different between the phases of CHB...
October 2018: Discovery Medicine
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