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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS

Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas Albaayit, Rukesh Maharjan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Zerumbone has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and anti-hyperglycemic effects but the specific mechanism through which zerumbone exerts its anti-inflammatory action through inhibiting reactive oxygen species was not well studied. Hence, this paper studied the zerumbone capacity to inhibit intracellular and extracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) produced by whole blood cell, polymorphoneutrophil (PMNs) and macrophage cells due to the zymogen and phorbolmyristerate acetate (PMA) oxidant effect...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Malala Panezai, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Imran Nawaz, Imran Taj, Marina Panezai, Nazia Panezai, Umbreen Zafar, Durdana Ghulam Muhammad, Saeed Ahmed Essote, Ghulam Muhammad
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Salmonella paratyphi cause enteric fever which is an important public health problem worldwide. In Pakistan incidence is increasing and affect all age groups. Therefore, the present research was designed to study the different microbiological aspects of Salmonella paratyphi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted to identify the Salmonella paratyphi from blood samples in Quetta. Total 480 blood samples were collected from different hospital of Quetta...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Nawal Abdel Hafez Hassanain, Raafat Mohamed Shaapan, Mohey Abdel Hafez Hassanain
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The major maternal toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy is regularly related to trans-placental transmission to the embryo and newly-borne child. This cross-section study was performed to investigate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women attending antennal health centers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma were quantitatively determined by commercially available kits, while IgG antibodies and avidity (AV) of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies were quantitatively determined by using of conventional ELISA...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Doha A Mohamed, Sherein S Abdelgayed, Hend A Essa, Rasha S Mohamed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a public health problem presenting one of the most important common forms of liver diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of two functional foods in form of bread containing purslane seeds meal and garden cress seeds against NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High fat and high cholesterol diet were used for induction of NAFLD in rats for 6 weeks. Plasma lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, hepatic lipid profile (total fat, cholesterol, triglycerides), malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as liver (AST, ALT, total and direct bilirubin) and kidney (creatinine and urea) functions were assessed...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Tarek Nour Soliman, Mona Abd El Fattah Hassan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of milk proteins for drug delivery is a new trend in functional foods and pharmaceutical. Recently, researchers have focused on the utilization of whey proteins in the preparation of nanoparticle and carrier for drugs and micronutrients. The objectives of this paper were to use whey proteins isolate (WPI) nanoparticles for the encapsulation of zinc citrate micronutrients and characterization of the prepared nanoparticles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nanoparticles were prepared from WPI with pH cycling and used for the encapsulation and sustained release of zinc citrate with three ratios (7, 14 and 28 mM) of zinc citrate per gram WPI...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Dina Sugiyanti, Purnama Darmadji, Umar Santoso, Yudi Pranoto, Chairil Anwar, Sri Anggrahini
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Low molecular weight chitosan (LWCS) was interestingly used because of it's solubility and has good functional properties like antioxidant and antibacterial activity. This study aimed to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activity of chitosan and low molecular weight chitosan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Low molecular weight chitosan was obtained by physical and chemical hydrolysis using steam explosion process with steam pressure at 6 bar, temperature at 160°C and concentration of phosphotungstic acid at 0...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Mudasar Nabi, Aaliya Bhat, Shayaq Ul Abeer Rasool, Sairish Ashraf, Rouf Maqbool, Showkat Ahmad Ganie, Shajrul Amin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Protease inhibitors (PIs) regulate various cellular processes like cell cycle, differentiation, apoptosis and immune responses. Leguminous seeds are rich sources of protease inhibitors and many novel protease inhibitors have been purified from them. To isolate and purify protease inhibitors from seeds of Sophora japonica, characterize and investigate their anti- microbial activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Protease inhibitors (SJ-pi I and SJ-pi II) were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, Ion exchange chromatography and column chromatography...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Younis Ahmad Hajam, Seema Rai, Muddasir Basheer, Hindole Ghosh, Srishti Singh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia is a representative hallmark and risk factor for diabetes and is closely linked to diabetes associated complications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of exogenous melatonin against the streptozotocin induced pancreatic damages in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Streptozotocin was injected for consecutive 6 days. Diabetes was confirmed by blood glucose measurement after 72 h and on 7th day after injection...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Summaiya Baloch, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Imran Taj, Ghulam Muhammad, Abdul Aziz, Wajid Ali, Firdous Bugti, Nasir Ahmed Rind, Farooq Shehzad, Saeed Ahmed Essote
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pneumococcal diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Streptococcus Pneumoniae causing pneumonia in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan in children under 5 years of age and older adults. Therefore; the present research was design to study the different microbiological aspects of Streptococcus pneumoniae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 480 sputum samples were collected from pneumonia patient at different government hospitals of Quetta...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Ahmed M S Hussein, Mona M Hussein, Manal F Salama, Ibrahim M Hamed, Karem Aly Fouda, Rasha S Mohamed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: School children especially in Egypt need a safe meal which is able to meet their daily nutrient needs and ameliorate cognition. So, the current study aimed to evaluate formula prepared as cookies to be served as a meal for primary school children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wheat, roasted chickpea, milk protein concentrate, cinnamon and brewer's yeast were used to prepare cookies which have been exposed to sensory, chemical and biological evaluation...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Fatma A M Hassan, K E Ali, Mona A M Abd, El-Gawad, N S Abd Rabou, Hoda S El-Sayed, Aboelfetoh M Abdalla
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Moringa oleifera oil is composed of highly unsaturated fatty acids containing 80.4% polyunsaturated, mainly oleic acids 67.9% and had a low acid value and low free fatty acids composition, so it is acceptable for edible application. The objective of study was the feasibility of using Moringa oleifera oil in manufacture of cheese compared with other oils (olive, sun flower) and the effect of using Moringa oleifera oil in chemically; organoleptically and microbial content in cheese...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Anatolii Pomortsev, Nikolay Dorofeev, Lada Sokolova, Svetlana Zorina, Natalia Katysheva
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The spring growth of winter cereals depends on the viability of the crowns as it is the key organ of the spring renewal of leaves, stems and roots. After the plants out of wintering, the impact of stressful conditions in the spring period negatively affects the viability of the crowns of winter cereals. The study was aimed at studying the physiological and biochemical reactions of the crowns of winter triticale, depending on the moisture level of the soil after wintering...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Diah Tri Widayati, Pradita Iustitia Sitaresmi, Sigit Bintara, Budi Prasetyo Widyobroto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In goats, weak estrus behavior is potentially caused by a decline in reproductive efficiency. In the present study, aim was to measure the vaginal pH to determine the accuracy of lust detection in Saanen Etawah crossbreed goats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen Saanen Etawah crossbred does (Capra hircus) with body condition score of 2-3 were used. The dose were fed concentrate, provided forage and water ad libitum. The experiment was conducted during the natural estrous cycle...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Wael Fathy Shehata, Mohei El-Din Solliman Mohamed, Heba Allah Adel Mohasseb, Abdullatif Ali Al-Khateeb, Mohammed Ibrahim Aldaej, Saleh Mobarak Alturki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Presently, determination of optimum protocol for callus induction of any plant is an important issue in tissue culture technology. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to find out an optimum protocol for callus induction from in vitro cultured jojoba by determining the optimum explant and the best growth regulators mixture for callus induction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study used three variant explants namely the leaf disks, seeds and nodal segments for callus formation...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Ikpesu Thomas Ohwofasa, Juliana Okwena Pondei
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of infections ailments because most of the synthetic drugs have side effects. A large proportion of the developing countries populations depend on herbal remedy for their physical and psychological health needs depend. Hence, the anti-bacterial activity of the mixture of the extracts of Solenostemon monostachyus and Vernonia amygdalina, common medicinal plants use in Africa, Asia and Europe on some Gram-negative bacteria was investigated...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Sahar Y Al-Okbi, Doha A Mohamed, Eman E Abd-Elhady, Ahmed M S Hussein, Enas S K Al-Siedy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is accused as inducer of both cardiovascular and chronic liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of combined freeze dried orange juice with its dried pulp supplemented with methionine, as functional food, in comparison to orange bioactive constituents, as parallel formula, in NAFLD rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proximate composition, dietary fibers, minerals, total phenolics, fatty acids and phytosterols were determined in the orange functional food...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Sahar Y Al-Okbi, Ahmed M S Hussein, Hagar F H Elbakry, Karem Aly Fouda, Khaled F Mahmoud, Mohamed E Hassan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dyslipidemia is a major health problem that may lead to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In the present research, a biological experiment was run on dyslipidemic rats to study the health benefits of the volatile oils (VOs) of fennel and rosemary in its original and nano-form using chitosan as carrier. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into 6 groups; normal control, dyslipidemic control and 4 test groups with dyslipidemia and treated by VOs of fennel and rosemary and their respective nano-forms separately...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Muddasir Basheer, Seema Rai, Hindole Ghosh, Younis Ahmad Hajam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrinological and metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age which leads to infertility/subfertility. The present study was commenced to elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of melatonin in the pathogenesis of letrozole induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Wistar rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Letrozole was administered orally (1 mg kg-1) to induce PCOS condition in Wistar female rats for a period of 2-3 weeks followed by a dose of melatonin (200 µg/100 g b...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Ashwag Yosef Shami, Abdulhadi Almasri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Infecting agents (e.g., bacteria, fungi, virus and parasite) have comprised high levels of multidrug resistance (MDR) with increased morbidity and mortality; so the main aim of this study was to investigate and demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of deer musk on multidrug-resistance bacteria and to proof that musk had a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against MDR bacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Deer musk evaluated 11 multi-drug resistance (MDR) species were selected, namely, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumanni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis the MDR strain were tested by means of disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) by the time-kill method recommendation by CLSI...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Chandrima Emtia, Kazuro Ohno
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Flower resources are prerequisites for survival and reproduction of aphidophagous hoverflies adults. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate their foraging behavior with regards to different flowering species in order to utilize hoverflies to enhance conservation biological control (CBC) of aphids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The foraging behavior of the female hoverfly, Sphaerophoria macrogaster (Thomson) was observed in coriander (Coriandrum sativum Linnaeus) and blue salvia (Salvia farinacea Bentham) flower patches using a focal sampling method combined with continuous recording...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
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