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Social Development

Marc H Bornstein, Diane L Putnick, Joan T D Suwalsky
This within-family longitudinal study accomplishes a novel multivariate assessment of socioemotional parenting cognitions and practices in mothers and their sibling children's socioemotional behaviors. Mothers participated with their 20-month-old firstborns and again, an average of 3 years later, with their 20-month-old secondborns (55 families, 165 participants). Continuity and stability in maternal cognitions and practices between the two times, and similarities, differences, and correspondences in siblings' behaviors, are assessed and compared...
February 2019: Social Development
Reagan S Breitenstein, Leah D Doane, Sierra Clifford, Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant
Children's sleep has both environmental and genetic influences, with stressful family environmental factors like household chaos and marital conflict associated with sleep duration and quality (El-Sheikh, Buckhalt, Mize, & Acebo, 2006; Fiese, Winter, Sliwinski, & Anbar, 2007). However, it is less clear whether sibling conflict is related to sleep duration and children's sleep problems (e.g., nighttime wakings, parasomnias). In addition, few studies have tested whether associations between sleep and stressful family environmental factors are accounted for by an underlying set of genes or shared and unique environmental factors...
November 2018: Social Development
Melissa K Peckins, Daniel S Shaw, Rebecca Waller, Luke W Hyde
The present study tested whether attitudes toward violence mediate the association between intimate partner violence exposure and antisocial behavior across adolescence, and whether cortisol level moderates these pathways in an ethnically diverse sample of 190 boys from low-income, urban families. Results suggest that a pathway from intimate partner violence exposure at age 12 to antisocial behavior at age 17 is explained by pro-violence attitudes at age 15. Boys with greater exposure to intimate partner violence endorsed stronger pro-violence attitudes, which predicted increases in antisocial behavior...
November 2018: Social Development
Vanessa L Castro, Amy G Halberstadt, Patricia T Garrett-Peters
Parents' supportive reactions to children's negative emotions are thought to promote children's social adjustment. Research heretofore has implicitly assumed that such reactions are equally supportive of children's adjustment across ages. Recent findings challenge this assumption, suggesting that during middle childhood, socialization practices previously understood as supportive may in fact impede children's social adjustment. We explored this possibility in a sample of 203 third-grade children and their mothers...
August 2018: Social Development
Matthew R J Vandermeer, Haroon I Sheikh, Shiva S Singh, Daniel N Klein, Thomas M Olino, Margaret W Dyson, Sara J Bufferd, Elizabeth P Hayden
Stably elevated behavioural inhibition (BI) is an established risk factor for internalizing disorders. This stability may be related to genetic factors, including a valine-to-methionine substitution on codon 66 ( val66met ) of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Past work on the BDNF met variant has inconsistently linked it to vulnerability to internalizing problems; some of this inconsistency may stem from the failure to consider gene-trait interactions in shaping the course of early BI. Toward elucidating early pathways to anxiety vulnerability, we examined gene-by-trait interactions in predicting the course of BI over time in 476 children, assessed for BI using standardized laboratory methods...
August 2018: Social Development
Margaret Wolan Sullivan, Dennis P Carmody
Approach behavior, defined as differences in behavior to an incentive event and anger at its removal, was assessed during contingency learning in 87 5-month-olds was related to maternal ratings of mastery behaviors at two years. Mothers reported on infants' concurrent temperament, as well as the occurrence of anger and tantrums, and their own anger at 12 months. Approach behavior was expected to predict persistence with objects and persistent motor behavior, but not negative reactions to failure. Negative reactions to failure were expected to be mediated by a distress-prone temperament...
August 2018: Social Development
Sara S Nozadi, Lauren K White, Kathryn A Degnan, Nathan A Fox
Utilizing multiple measures of interpretive biases, the current study examined the roles of toddlers' behavioral inhibition (BI) and maternal supportive reactions to children's negative emotions in relation to children's interpretive biases across middle to late childhood. Toddlers' BI was measured during several laboratory tasks ( n = 248) at 2 and 3 years of age. Mothers reported on their reactions to children's negative emotional expressions when children were 7 years old ( n = 203), and children's interpretations of social cues were assessed at 7 and 10 years of age ( ns = 179 and 161, respectively)...
August 2018: Social Development
Andres Molano, Stephanie M Jones
In this paper, we build on key findings in the sociological literature regarding different patterns of association between social centrality and overt aggressive behavior in the context of same-and-cross gender social interactions. We explore these associations in a population of urban elementary school students ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mover> <mml:mi>Age</mml:mi> <mml:mo>^</mml:mo> </mml:mover> <mml:mo> </mml:mo> <mml:mo>=</mml:mo> <mml:mspace/> <mml:mn>8...
May 2018: Social Development
Elizabeth B Raposa, Constance Hammen
Early life stressors are associated with maladaptive social functioning in childhood and adolescence, but it is unclear whether and how the negative interpersonal effects of stress persist into adulthood. Daily diary surveys were used to examine young adults' social behavior and mood reactivity to social stressors as a function of experiences of early family adversity. Stressful early family environments predicted more daily reassurance seeking, but not aggression, withdrawal, or positive social behavior. Early family adversity also moderated the within-person effects of social stressors on next-day mood, such that individuals with high levels of adversity had elevated next-day negative affect in response to higher than average social stress...
May 2018: Social Development
Caitlin C Turpyn, Jennifer A Poon, Corynne E Ross, James C Thompson, Tara M Chaplin
Parents' emotional functioning represents a central mechanism in the caregiving environment's influence on adolescent affective brain function. However, a paucity of research has examined links between parental emotional arousal and regulation and adolescents' affective brain function. Thus, the present study examined associations between parents' self-rated negative emotion, parent emotion regulation difficulties, and adolescent brain responsivity to negative and positive emotional stimuli. Participants included 64 12-14 year-old adolescents (31 females) and their female primary caregivers...
February 2018: Social Development
Michelle Heron-Delaney, Paul C Quinn, Fabrice Damon, Kang Lee, Olivier Pascalis
Children's experiences with differently aged faces changes in the course of development. During infancy, most faces encountered are adult, however as children mature, exposure to child faces becomes more extensive. Does this change in experience influence preference for differently aged faces? The preferences of children for adult versus child, and adult versus infant faces were investigated. Caucasian 3- to 6-year-olds and adults were presented with adult/child and adult/infant face pairs which were either Caucasian or Asian (race consistent within pairs)...
February 2018: Social Development
Kathryn A Kerns, Kaela L Stuart-Parrigon, Karin G Coifman, Manfred H M van Dulmen, Amanda Koehn
Despite interest in human-animal interaction, few studies have tested whether the presence of a dog facilitates children's emotional responding. Preadolescents ( n = 99) were randomly assigned to complete the Trier Social Stress Test either with or without their pet dog. Children rated their positive and negative affect, and high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) was assessed throughout the session. Children reported higher positive affect when they completed the task with their pet dog, although there were no differences for negative affect or HF-HRV...
February 2018: Social Development
Daniel C Kopala-Sibley, Elizabeth P Hayden, Shiva M Singh, Haroon I Sheikh, Katie R Kryski, Daniel N Klein
Evidence suggests that parenting is associated cross-generationally and that children's genes may elicit specific parenting styles (evocative gene-environment correlation). This study examined whether the effect of children's genotype, specifically 5-HTTLPR, on mothers' parenting behaviors was moderated by her own parenting experiences from her mother. Two independent samples of three-year-olds (N = 476 and 405) were genotyped for the serotonin transporter gene, and observational measures of parenting were collected...
November 2017: Social Development
Sunhye Bai, Bridget M Reynolds, Theodore F Robles, Rena L Repetti
This study examined how academic and peer problems at school are linked to family interactions at home on the same day, using eight consecutive weeks of daily diary data collected from early adolescents (60% female; M age = 11.28, SD = 1.50), mothers and fathers in 47 families. On days when children reported more academic problems at school, they, but not their parents, reported less warmth and more conflict with mothers, and more conflict and less time spent around fathers. These effects were partially explained by same-day child reports of higher negative mood...
November 2017: Social Development
Emily C Merz, Susan H Landry, Janelle J Montroy, Jeffrey M Williams
In this study, we examined bidirectional associations between parental responsiveness and executive function (EF) processes in socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Participants were 534 3- to 5-year-old children (71% Hispanic/Latino; 28% African American; 1% European American) attending Head Start programs. At Time 1 (T1) and 6.5 months later at Time 2 (T2), parents and children participated in a videotaped free play session and children completed delay inhibition (gift delay-wrap, gift delay-bow) and conflict EF (bear/dragon, dimensional change card sort) tasks...
August 2017: Social Development
Angela K Henneberger, Donna L Coffman, Scott D Gest
This study uses propensity scores to statistically approximate the causal effect of having aggressive friends on aggressive behavior in childhood. Participants were 1,355 children (53% girls; 31% minority) in 97 third and fifth grade classrooms enrolled in the Classroom Peer Ecologies Project. Propensity scores were calculated to control for the impact of 21 relevant confounder variables related to having aggressive friendships and aggressive behavior. The 21 variables included demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics measured at the beginning of the school year...
May 2017: Social Development
Darlene A Kertes, Jingwen Liu, Nathan J Hall, Natalie A Hadad, Clive D L Wynne, Samarth S Bhatt
The present study tested whether pet dogs have stress-buffering effects for children during a validated laboratory-based protocol, the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Participants were 101 children aged 7-12 years with their primary caregivers and pet dogs. Children were randomly assigned in the TSST-C to a pet present condition or one of two comparison conditions: parent present or no support figure present. Baseline, response, and recovery indices of perceived stress and cortisol levels were computed based on children's self-reported feelings of stress and salivary cortisol...
May 2017: Social Development
Lisa H Rosen, Kurt J Beron, Marion K Underwood
Social victimization refers to being targeted by behaviors intended to harm one's social status or relationships (Underwood, 2003), including malicious gossip, friendship manipulation, and social exclusion (both verbal and non-verbal). The current study examined social victimization experiences longitudinally from middle childhood through late adolescence. Participants (N = 273, 139 females) reported on their social victimization experiences in grades 4-11 (ages 9 to 16 years). Using mixture (group-based) modeling, four social victimization trajectories were identified: low, medium decreasing, medium increasing, and elevated...
May 2017: Social Development
Maciel M Hern√°ndez, Nancy Eisenberg, Carlos Valiente, Tracy L Spinrad, Sarah K VanSchyndel, Anjolii Diaz, Kassondra M Silva, Rebecca H Berger, Jody Southworth
This study evaluated whether positive and anger emotional frequency (the proportion of instances an emotion was observed) and intensity (the strength of an emotion when it was observed) uniquely predicted social relationships among kindergarteners ( N = 301). Emotions were observed as naturally occurring at school in the fall term and multiple reporters (peers and teachers) provided information on quality of relationships with children in the spring term. In structural equation models, positive emotion frequency, but not positive emotion intensity, was positively related to peer acceptance and negatively related to peer rejection...
February 2017: Social Development
Amanda R Burkholder, Kalsea J Koss, Camelia E Hostinar, Anna E Johnson, Megan R Gunnar
This study examined children's ( N = 79; 9-10 years) and adolescents' ( N = 82; 15-16 years) ability to regulate their emotion expressions of anxiety as they completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Approximately half in each age group were internationally adopted from institutional care ( N = 79) and half were non-adopted, age-matched peers ( N = 82). Institutional care was viewed as a form of early life stress. Coders who were reliable and blind to group status watched videos of the session to assess anxiety expressions using the Child and Adolescent Stress and Emotion Scale developed for this study...
November 2016: Social Development
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