Tomas Buday, Mariana Brozmanova, Zuzana Biringerova, Silvia Gavliakova, Ivan Poliacek, Vladimir Calkovsky, Manjunath V Shetthalli, Jana Plevkova
UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Cough, the most important airways defensive mechanism is modulated by many afferent inputs either from respiratory tussigenic areas, but also by afferent drive from other organs. In animal models, modulation of cough by nasal afferent inputs can either facilitate or inhibit the cough response, depending on the type of trigeminal afferents stimulated. METHODS: In this study we addressed the question of possible bidirectional modulation of cough response in human healthy volunteers by nasal challenges with TRPA1 and TRPM8 agonists respectively...
2012: Cough
Peter V Dicpinigaitis
Capsaicin, the pungent extract of red peppers, has been used in clinical research for almost three decades. Capsaicin has gained favor as the provocative agent of choice to measure cough reflex sensitivity, as it induces cough in a safe, reproducible, and dose-dependent manner. One of the major uses of capsaicin cough challenge testing has been to evaluate the effect of a pharmacological intervention on the human cough reflex. The current review summarizes the published experience with capsaicin inhalation challenge in the evaluation of drug effects on cough reflex sensitivity...
2012: Cough
Xianghuai Xu, Qiang Chen, Siwei Liang, Hanjing Lü, Zhongmin Qiu
Gastroesophageal reflux induced cough is a common cause of chronic cough, and proton pump inhibitors are a standard therapy. However, the patients unresponsive to the standard therapy are difficult to treat and remain a challenge to doctors. Here, we summarized the experience of successful resolution of refractory chronic cough due to gastroesophageal reflux with baclofen in three patients. It is concluded that baclofen may be a viable option for gastroesophageal reflux induced cough unresponsive to proton pump inhibitor therapy...
2012: Cough
Sega Pathmanathan, Jaymin B Morjaria, Warren Jackson, Alyn H Morice
Chronic cough is a common symptom carrying significant morbidity which can occur as a result of oesophageal dysmotility. Here we report 2 patients with musculoskeletal disease presenting with chronic cough to our tertiary cough clinic. Prior to referral both patients had been extensively investigated to determine the basis of their cough, with no cause found. Oesophageal studies, using high resolution oesophageal manometry, demonstrated oesophageal dysmotility with consequent airway reflux. Anti-reflux therapy resulted in a good response in both patients...
2012: Cough
Shoaib Faruqi, Peter Sedman, Warren Jackson, Ian Molyneux, Alyn H Morice
UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Airway reflux is a common cause of chronic cough and this is often refractory to medical therapy. Surgery in the form of Nissen fundoplication has been highly successful in the treatment of the classic reflux symptoms of heartburn and dyspepsia. There is a paucity of data regarding response to fundoplication in patients presenting with chronic cough. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the case notes of patients from the Hull Cough Clinic who had undergone Nissen fundoplication over the past 6 years...
2012: Cough
Julie Turmel, Valérie Bougault, Louis-Philippe Boulet
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced cough is common among athletes. Athletes training in cold air often report an increasingly troublesome cough during the winter season. Chronic airway irritation or inflammation may increase the sensory response of cough receptors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal variability of cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin in elite athletes. METHODS: Fifty-three elite winter athletes and 33 sedentary subjects completed a respiratory questionnaire and a capsaicin provocation test during the summer, fall, and winter...
2012: Cough
Stuart M Brooks
This review dissects the complex human cough reflex and suggests hypotheses about the evolutionary basis for the reflex. A mechanosensory-induced cough reflex conveys through branches of myelinated Aδ nerve fibers is not chemically reactive (i.e., capsaicin, bradykinin); possibly, its evolution is to prevent the harmful effects of aspiration of gastric or particulate contents into the lungs. This became necessary as the larynx moves closer to the opening of the esophagus as human ancestors adapt phonation over olfaction beginning less than 10 million years ago...
November 10, 2011: Cough
Minna Purokivi, Heikki Koskela, John D Brannan, Kirsi Kontra
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms behind asthmatic cough are largely unknown. It is known that hyperosmolar challenges provoke cough in asthmatic but not in the healthy subjects. It has been postulated that isocapnic hyperpnea of dry air (IHDA) and hypertonic aerosols act via similar mechanisms in asthma to cause bronchoconstriction. We investigated whether there is an association between cough response induced by IHDA and hypertonic saline (HS) challenges. METHODS: Thirty-six asthmatic and 14 healthy subjects inhaled HS solutions with increasing osmolalities administered via ultrasonic nebuliser until 15 cumulative coughs were recorded...
October 14, 2011: Cough
Francesco De Blasio, Johann C Virchow, Mario Polverino, Alessandro Zanasi, Panagiotis K Behrakis, Gunsely Kilinç, Rossella Balsamo, Gianluca De Danieli, Luigi Lanata
Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which patients seek medical attention from primary care physicians and pulmonologists. Cough is an important defensive reflex that enhances the clearance of secretions and particles from the airways and protects the lower airways from the aspiration of foreign materials. Therapeutic suppression of cough may be either disease-specific or symptom related. The potential benefits of an early treatment of cough could include the prevention of the vicious cycle of cough...
October 10, 2011: Cough
Ewa Ternesten-Hasséus, Sven Larsson, Eva Millqvist
BACKGROUND: Chronic cough is a common condition, but some patients have no evident medical explanation for their symptoms. A group of patients has been identified, characterized by upper and lower airway symptoms triggered by chemicals and scents, and heightened cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin. Chronic cough is usually a prominent symptom in these patients, and it has been suggested that they suffer from sensory hyperreactivity.Our main aim was to analyse, in a group of patients with chronic cough, the presence of symptoms induced by environmental factors such as chemicals, scents, and cold air, and to measure the social and emotional influences of these symptoms in relation to quality of life...
October 7, 2011: Cough
Akihiro Hori, Masaki Fujimura, Noriyuki Ohkura, Akira Tokuda
BACKGROUND: Exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) is elevated in bronchial asthma patients, and inhaled corticosteroid therapy lowers the elevated ENO levels in such patients. ENO appears to be an inflammatory marker, but its role in the pathophysiology of cough remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between NO and increased cough reflex sensitivity induced by allergic airway reactions. METHODS: Cough reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin was observed under NO depletion caused by NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors in non-sensitized and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pigs...
September 22, 2011: Cough
Sophie Leconte, Giuseppe Liistro, Patrick Lebecque, Jean-Marie Degryse
BACKGROUND: The measurement of cough frequency is problematic and most often based on subjective assessment. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the automatic identification of cough episodes by LR102, a cough frequency meter based on electromyography and audio sensors. METHODS: Ten adult patients complaining of cough were recruited in primary care and hospital settings. Participants were asked to wear LR102 for 4 consecutive hours during which they were also filmed...
2011: Cough
Ivan T Ling, Francesco Piccolo, Siobhain A Mulrennan, Martin J Phillips
OBJECTIVES: To investigate differences between semi-recumbent and supine postures in terms of cough rate, oxygen desaturation, sedative use, and patient comfort during the initial phase of bronchoscopy. METHODS: Consecutive bronchoscopy patients (n = 69) participated in this observational cohort study. Posture was determined by the bronchoscopist's usual practice. Patient demographics, spirometry, pulse, and SpO2 were recorded. The initial phase was defined as the time from bronchoscopy insertion to visualisation of both distal main bronchi...
2011: Cough
Nadia Yousaf, Kai K Lee, Bhagyashree Jayaraman, Ian D Pavord, Surinder S Birring
INTRODUCTION: Acute cough has a significant impact on physical and psychosocial health and is associated with an impaired quality of life (QOL). The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a validated cough-related health status questionnaire designed for patients with chronic cough. The purpose of this study was to validate the LCQ for the assessment of health related QOL in patients with acute cough and determine the clinical minimal important difference (MID). METHODS: 10 subjects with cough due to acute upper respiratory tract infection underwent focused interviews to investigate the face validity of the LCQ...
2011: Cough
Satoru Ebihara, Takae Ebihara, Masashi Kanezaki, Peijun Gui, Miyako Yamasaki, Hiroyuki Arai, Masahiro Kohzuki
BACKGROUND: The effect of aging on the cognitive aspect of cough has not been studied yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the aging effect on the perception of urge-to-cough in healthy individuals. METHODS: Fourteen young, female, healthy never-smokers were recruited via public postings. Twelve elderly female healthy never-smokers were recruited from a nursing home residence. The cough reflex threshold and the urge-to-cough were evaluated by inhalation of citric acid...
2011: Cough
Richard M Jones, Simon Hilldrup, Benjamin Dm Hope-Gill, Ronald Eccles, Nicholas K Harrison
BACKGROUND: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) frequently develop a dry, irritating cough which often proves refractory to anti-tussive therapies. The precise pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for this cough are unknown. We hypothesised that changes in nerves modulating mechanical sensitivity in areas of interstitial fibrosis might lead to enhanced cough response to mechanical stimulation of the chest in IPF. METHODS: We studied 27 non-smoking subjects with IPF (63% male), mean (SD) age 71...
2011: Cough
Kian Fan Chung, Brendan Canning, Lorcan McGarvey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2011: Cough
Alex Molassiotis, Jaclyn A Smith, Mike I Bennett, Fiona Blackhall, David Taylor, Burhan Zavery, Amelie Harle, Richard Booton, Elaine M Rankin, Mari Lloyd-Williams, Alyn H Morice
BACKGROUND: Cough is a common and distressing symptom in lung cancer patients. The clinical management of cough in lung cancer patients is suboptimal with limited high quality research evidence available. The aim of the present paper is to present a clinical guideline developed in the UK through scrutiny of the literature and expert opinion, in order to aid decision making in clinicians and highlight good practice. METHODS: Two systematic reviews, one focusing on the management of cough in respiratory illness and one Cochrane review specifically on cancer, were conducted...
October 6, 2010: Cough
Caroline E Wright, Jennifer Jackson, Rachel L Thompson, Alyn H Morice
UNLABELLED: Protocols measuring cough sensitivity can vary in terms of nebuliser, tussive agent, single and dose response. A definitive method for measuring cough sensitivity needs to be established.The ERS guidelines recommend the KoKo DigiDoser (KD) delivery system. Study aim, was to compare the reproducibility of this citric acid (CA) cough challenge and previously established Mefar dosimeter (MD) protocol.39 (female 26) volunteers mean age (40.4 yrs) were randomised to either KD or MD...
August 10, 2010: Cough
Nicole M Ryan, Anne E Vertigan, Sarah Bone, Peter G Gibson
RATIONALE: Speech language pathology is an effective management intervention for chronic cough that persists despite medical treatment. The mechanism behind the improvement has not been determined but may include active cough suppression, reduced cough sensitivity or increased cough threshold from reduced laryngeal irritation. Objective measures such as cough reflex sensitivity and cough frequency could be used to determine whether the treatment response was due to reduced underlying cough sensitivity or to more deliberate control exerted by individual patients...
July 28, 2010: Cough
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