Stuart B Mazzone, Alice E McGovern, Seung-Kwon Yang, Ariel Woo, Simon Phipps, Ayaka Ando, Jennifer Leech, Michael J Farrell
There is an overwhelming body of evidence to support the existence of higher brain circuitries involved in the sensory detection of airways irritation and the motor control of coughing. The concept that cough is purely a reflex response to airways irritation is now superseded by the recognition that perception of an urge-to-cough and altered behavioral modification of coughing are key elements of cough disorders associated with airways disease. Understanding the pathways by which airway sensory nerves ascend into the brain and the patterns of neural activation associated with airways irritation will undoubtedly provide new insights into disordered coughing...
March 6, 2013: Cough
Ewa Ternesten-Hasséus, Christel Larsson, Sven Larsson, Eva Millqvist
BACKGROUND: A subgroup of patients with chronic cough is recognised as having airway symptoms resulting exposure to chemicals and scents related to enhanced cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin. Sensory hyperreactivity, which has an estimated prevalence of more than 6%, is one possible explanation for the symptoms experienced by these patients. We hypothesized that a number of patients diagnosed with chronic unexplained cough also have coughing provoked by chemical irritants associated with augmented capsaicin cough reaction, but the extent of such a relation is not known...
February 28, 2013: Cough
Hideyasu Shimizu, Masamichi Hayashi, Yuji Saito, Yuki Mieno, Yasuo Takeuchi, Fumihiko Sasaki, Hiroki Sakakibara, Kensei Naito, Mitsushi Okazawa
BACKGROUND: Chronic cough is one of the most challenging symptoms to diagnose and treat, not only because of the variety of underlying disorders but also its varying susceptibility to treatments. Etiological studies of chronic cough vary depending on the clinical settings and the particular interests of investigators. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were first to categorize the etiology of chronic cough by its response to systematic diagnostic treatments starting from the β2 agonist and second to sub-categorize β2 agonist responsive cough (BRC) by the airway hyperresponsiveness...
February 7, 2013: Cough
Junzo Kamei, Yuki Nakanishi, Megumi Asato, Hiroko Ikeda
UNLABELLED: <AbstractText Label="BACKGROUND" NlmCategory="BACKGROUND">Although the mechanism of fentanyl-induced cough is unclear, several lines of evidence suggest that allergic mediators, such as histamine, may play a role in the production of fentanyl-induced coughs. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of fentanyl on cough sensitivity to inhaled citric acid and on histamine release in BALF in mice. METHODS: The cough reflex was induced by the inhalation of citric acid...
February 1, 2013: Cough
Josephine C Ojoo, Caroline F Everett, Siobhain A Mulrennan, Shoaib Faruqi, Jack A Kastelik, Alyn H Morice
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic cough is a common symptom the aetiology of which can be challenging to diagnose. Diagnostic protocols for chronic cough have required the use of specialist investigations which are not always easily available. We wanted to determine whether patients with chronic cough can be successfully managed using a clinical algorithm. METHODS: 112 consecutive patients with chronic cough were prospectively recruited into this study. They were assessed by history, physical examination, chest radiograph, spirometry and reversibility to nebulised salbutamol...
January 24, 2013: Cough
Juergen Fischer, Uwe Dethlefsen
OBJECTIVE: Cineole has mucolytic, bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory properties and reduces the exacerbation rate in patients suffering from COPD, as well as ameliorates symptoms in patients suffering from asthma and rhinosinusitis. Based on these effects, we therefore postulated the hypothesis that patients with acute bronchitis would also benefit from therapy with Cineole. METHODS: As part of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center-study, a total of 242 patients with confirmed acute bronchitis was randomly selected to participate...
2013: Cough
Naohiro Kashiwazaki, Satoru Ebihara, Peijun Gui, Norihiro Katayama, Kumiko Ito, Ryuhei Sato, Chika Oyama, Takae Ebihara, Masahiro Kohzuki
BACKGROUND: Non-pharmacological options for symptomatic management of cough are desired. Although chest wall mechanical vibration is known to ameliorate cough reflex sensitivity, the effect of mechanical vibrations on perceptions of urge-to-cough has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mechanical vibration of cervical trachea, chest wall and femoral muscle on cough reflex sensitivity, perceptions of urge-to-cough as well as dyspnea. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy male never-smokers were investigated for cough reflex sensitivity, perceptions of the urge-to-cough and dyspnea with or without mechanical vibration...
2013: Cough
Agreta Gecaj-Gashi, Zorica Nikolova-Todorova, Vlora Ismaili-Jaha, Musli Gashi
OBJECTIVE: Fentanyl-induced cough is usually mild and transitory, but it can be undesirable in patients with increased intracranial pressure, open wounds of the eye, dissecting aortic aneurism, pneumothorax, and reactive airway disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine in suppressing fentanyl-induced cough in children during induction in general anesthesia. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-six children of both sexes, aged between 4-10 years, ASA physical status I and II, and scheduled for elective surgery, were recruited for the study...
2013: Cough
Krishna M Sundar, Sarah E Daly, Alika M Willis
BACKGROUND: Chronic cough patients are rendered therapies for gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD), upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) and cough-variant asthma (CVA) with varying benefit. Idiopathic or unexplained cough has emerged as an important clinical entity in both primary care and subspecialty clinics. Recent evidence points to a link between chronic cough and untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: A prospective observational study was done to evaluate the effect of OSA therapy in patients with chronic cough...
2013: Cough
Peter Ma Calverley
Over the last 40 years the assessment and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has focused primarily on airflow obstruction with little significance given to the problem of cough. The reasons for this include a view that cough arises simply from the direct irritant and inflammatory effect of cigarette smoke or the presence of excess mucus in the airways. Doubt that cough is of any consequence to patients or responsive to current therapies has reinforced this opinion. At odds with this is the emerging evidence that cough impacts adversely on patients' health status and forms an important component of recently validated quality of life instruments...
2013: Cough
Heikki O Koskela, Minna K Purokivi
BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic cough respond to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids but it is difficult to predict which patients are likely to respond. The primary aim of the present study was to define the capability of hypertonic saline cough provocation test to predict the responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids in chronic cough. The secondary aim was to assess the ability of the saline test to monitor the healing of cough during corticosteroid treatment. METHODS: Forty-three patients with chronic cough were recruited...
2013: Cough
Kian Fan Chung, Jay A Nadel, Giovanni Fontana
John Widdicombe has made substantial contributions to respiratory physiology and to the field of cough particularly. He was one of the first to characterise Aδ-myelinated fibres in the airways that could mediate cough and increased breathing. Later on, he initiated the series of international London Cough Symposia that gathered researchers and clinicians on a two-yearly basis to discuss recent results and concepts regarding cough. John Widdicombe was interested in all aspects of cough from the definition to potential new antitussives...
2013: Cough
Nicholas Kim Harrison
Cough is a common symptom in people who develop interstitial lung diseases (ILD). The pathological features of the ILDs are many and varied suggesting that the cause of cough may also vary with each disease. This article reviews what is currently known about cough in sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; two of the commonest ILDs. It also outlines some of the theories which have been proposed to explain why cough develops in these conditions and describes what little is known about how to treat it.
2013: Cough
Haruhiko Ogawa, Masaki Fujimura, Yasuo Takeuchi, Koichi Makimura
UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: The presence of basidiomycetous (BM) fungi in induced sputum is an important clinical finding in chronic idiopathic cough (CIC). However, the efficacy of anti-fungal therapy for CIC has not been evaluated. METHODS: We selected 10 patients with CIC and carried out allergological examinations for Bjerkandera adusta, a BM fungus that has been shown to enhance cough severity. The efficacy of low-dose itraconazole (ITCZ) therapy (50 mg/day) for 14 days as an adjunctive therapy was estimated with use of Cough Visual Analog Scale (Cough VAS) and the Japanese version of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (J-LCQ)...
2013: Cough
Antony Barton, Patrick Gaydecki, Kimberley Holt, Jaclyn A Smith
UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that objectively quantifying coughing in audio recordings offers a novel means to understand coughing and assess treatments. Currently, manual cough counting is the most accurate method for quantifying coughing. However, the demand of manually counting cough records is substantial, demonstrating a need to reduce record lengths prior to counting whilst preserving the coughs within them. This study tested the performance of an algorithm developed for this purpose...
December 12, 2012: Cough
Charlotte Van de Kerkhove, Pieter C Goeminne, Pascal Van Bleyenbergh, Lieven J Dupont
UNLABELLED: <AbstractText Label="BACKGROUND" NlmCategory="BACKGROUND">Chronic idiopathic cough (known as cough hypersensitivity syndrome) is defined by cough in the absence of an identifiable cause. Gabapentin has been suggested as a treatment but evidence is scarce. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical features of patients with unexplained chronic cough and to investigate the effect of gabapentin (600 mg twice a day for a minimal duration of 4 weeks) in reducing cough symptoms...
November 1, 2012: Cough
Brendan J Canning, Nanako Mori, Anders Lehmann
UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of chronic cough. Both acid and nonacid reflux is thought to play a role in the initiation of coughing and cough hypersensitivity. The GABAB receptor agonist lesogaberan was developed as a peripherally restricted anti-reflux therapy that reduces the frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESR; the major cause of reflux) in animals and in patients with GERD...
October 1, 2012: Cough
Peter W West, Angela Kelsall, Samantha Decalmer, Winifred Dove, Paul W Bishop, James P Stewart, Ashley A Woodcock, Jaclyn A Smith
UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory tract infection is the most frequent cause of acute cough and is reported at onset in about one third of patients with chronic cough. Persistent infection is therefore one possible explanation for the cough reflex hypersensitivity and pulmonary inflammation reported in chronic cough patients. METHODS: Bronchoscopic endobronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts were obtained from ten healthy volunteers and twenty treatment resistant chronic cough patients (10 selected for lavage lymphocytosis)...
September 14, 2012: Cough
Kefang Lai, Wei Luo, Guangqiao Zeng, Nanshan Zhong
Chronic cough is a very common complaint in clinics throughout China. Clinical and basic science research on chronic cough started late, but in recent years the effort has yielded promising findings regarding the etiological diagnosis, treatment and pathogenesis. We found that inflammation in nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis has some similarities to cough variant asthma but also a number of distinct differences. Recent evidence has also suggested a mechanistic link between airway neurogenic inflammation and and gastroesophageal reflux cough (GERC)...
July 28, 2012: Cough
Francesco De Blasio, Peter V Dicpinigaitis, Bruce K Rubin, Gianluca De Danieli, Luigi Lanata, Alessando Zanasi
BACKGROUND: Cough is one of the most frequent symptoms in children and is the most common symptom for which children visit a health care provider. METHODS: This is an observational study on acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children. The study evaluates the epidemiology and impact of cough on quality of sleep and children's activities, and the outcome of cough with antitussive treatments in pediatric routine clinical practice...
January 23, 2012: Cough
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