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Globalization and Health

Nisachol Cetthakrikul, Sirinya Phulkerd, Nongnuch Jaichuen, Gary Sacks, Viroj Tangcharoensathien
OBJECTIVE: To review the publicly available policies and commitments of selected food companies in Thailand relating to obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) prevention, and to assess these stated policies and commitments against global recommendations. METHODS: Nineteen food and beverage companies, including 13 packaged food, three non-alcoholic beverage, two food retailer, and one fast food company were selected, based on their market share by sector and food category...
February 14, 2019: Globalization and Health
Reema Harrison, Lois Meyer, Ashfaq Chauhan, Maria Agaliotis
BACKGROUND: Globally, health service leaders and managers have a critical role in strengthening health systems. Competency frameworks for health service managers are usually designed to describe expectations of good performance of a health manager within a country-specific health sector context. However, a growing number of health service management roles operate beyond a country-specific level, with managers requiring a global perspective and the skills and knowledge to work effectively across a range of countries and contexts...
February 6, 2019: Globalization and Health
Maryam Shirinzadeh, Babak Afshin-Pour, Ricardo Angeles, Jessica Gaber, Gina Agarwal
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can have a substantial impact in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Community-based programs addressing diet, physical activity, and health behaviors have shown significant benefits on the prevention and management of T2DM, mainly in high-income countries. However, their effects on preventing T2DM in the at-risk population of LMICs have not been thoroughly evaluated. METHODS: The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and two clinical trial registries were searched to identify eligible studies...
February 1, 2019: Globalization and Health
Remina Maimaitijiang, Qiangsheng He, Yanan Wu, Jennifer Z H Bouey, Ahoua Koné, Yucheng Liang, Chun Hao, Jiong Tu, Jing Gu, Yuantao Hao
BACKGROUND: China, which used to be an export country for migrants, has become a new destination for international migrants due to its rapid economic growth. However, little empirical data is available on the health status of and health service access barriers faced by these international migrants. METHODS: Foreigners who visited the Guangzhou Municipal Exit-Entry Administration Office to extend their visas were invited to participate in the study. Quantitative data were collected using electronic questionnaire in 13 languages...
January 25, 2019: Globalization and Health
Wei Xian, Bing Han, Leizhen Xia, Yining Ma, Haodi Xu, Lu Zhang, Li Li, Hongbo Liu
BACKGROUND: Reducing premature deaths is an important step towards achieving the World Health Organization's sustainable development goal. Redeployed miners are more prone to disease or premature death due to the special occupational characteristics. Our aims were to describe the deaths of redeployed miners, assess the losses due to premature death and identify their main health problems. All the records of individuals were obtained from Fuxin Mining Area Social Security Administration Center...
January 22, 2019: Globalization and Health
Arwen Barr, Lauryn Garrett, Robert Marten, Sowmya Kadandale
BACKGROUND: Fragmentation across governance structures, funding, and external actor engagement in Sierra Leone continues to challenge the efficiency and coherence of health sector activities and impedes sustained health system strengthening. Three examples are discussed to highlight the extent, causes, and impacts of health sector fragmentation in Sierra Leone: the community health worker programme, national medical supply chain, and service level agreements. RESULTS: In these examples we discuss factors contributing to fragmentation, the impact on efficiency of systems and sustainability of interventions, and persistent barriers to achieving sustainable improvements in health system performance...
January 22, 2019: Globalization and Health
Lara Gautier, Manuela De Allegri, Valéry Ridde
BACKGROUND: Performance-based financing (PBF) in low- and middle-income settings has diffused at an unusually rapid pace. While many studies have looked at PBF implementation processes and effects, there is an empirical research gap investigating the ways PBF has diffused. Discursive processes are paramount elements of policy diffusion because they explain the origins of essential elements of the political debate on PBF. Using Bacchi's poststructural approach that emphasises problem representations embedded in the discourse, the present study analyses the construction of the global discourse on PBF...
January 15, 2019: Globalization and Health
Paul H Caldron
This case study was extracted from an administrative report generated for Project Salud y Paz (SYP), a non-governmental organization (NGO) that supports short term global health clinical experiences (STGHCE) in Guatemala. As a basis to generate criticisms and offer recommendations, the analysis used the shared themes of two sets of standards recently published by Globalization and Health (GH) and the American College of Physicians (ACP). These standards respectively address the ethical responsibilities of organizations and of physicians in the conduct of STGHCE...
January 9, 2019: Globalization and Health
Eleanor Black, Robyn Richmond
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The prevention and control of breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is an increasingly critical public health issue. Breast cancer is the most frequent female cancer in SSA and mortality rates from this disease are the highest globally. Breast cancer has traditionally been considered a disease of high-income countries, and programs for early detection have been developed and implemented in these settings. However, screening programs for breast cancer in SSA have been less effective than in high-income countries...
January 8, 2019: Globalization and Health
Kyriakos Souliotis, Maria Saridi, Konstantina Banou, Christina Golna, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Angelos Hatzakis, Alyna Smith
BACKGROUND: Population movements have been increasing over the past years in Europe due to socioeconomic factors, global turbulence and conflicts, especially in the area of Middle East. The presence of migrant populations in Europe challenges health systems due to increased requirements for health care provision. However, to date there is limited published data on the burden of disease among this population (in Greece and elsewhere). Our objective was to record burden of disease of undocumented migrants hosted in a Detention Center and therefore generate data for migrant and public health planning...
January 8, 2019: Globalization and Health
Marwa Schumann, Asja Maaz, Harm Peters
BACKGROUND: Migration of physicians has become a global phenomenon with significant implications for the healthcare delivery systems worldwide. The motivations and factors driving physician's migration are complex and continuously evolving. Purpose of this study is to explore the driving forces in a group of Egyptian physicians and final-years medical students preparing to migrate to Germany. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted based on social constructivism epistemology...
January 7, 2019: Globalization and Health
Ronald Labonté
Trade has long been an axiomatic characteristic of globalization, although international rules governing trade are of more recent vintage. Notably in the post-World War II period, an ever increasing number of countries began negotiating treaties to reduce, first, tariff barriers and, later, non-tariff barriers (government measures of any sort) that could impede the cross-border flow of goods. The rationale, in part, was that countries that became more entwined economically would be less likely to go to war with each other...
January 3, 2019: Globalization and Health
Uttam Bajwa, Denise Gastaldo, Erica Di Ruggiero, Lilian Knorr
BACKGROUND: The "gig" economy connects consumers with contractors (or workers) through online platform businesses to perform tasks (or "gigs"). This innovation in technology provides businesses and consumers access to low-cost, on-demand labour, but gig workers' experiences are more complex. They have access to very flexible, potentially autonomous work, but also deal with challenges caused by the nature of the work, its precariousness, and their relationships with the platform businesses...
December 18, 2018: Globalization and Health
Rachel Sandwell, Deborah Bonser, Emmanuelle Hebert, Katrina Kilroy, Sebalda Leshabari, Feddy Mwanga, Agnes Mtawa, Anne Wilson, Amelie Moritz
This article describes a twinning relationship between the Canadian Association of Midwives (CAM) and the Tanzania Midwives Association (TAMA). It argues that the twinning relationship strengthened both associations. The article briefly reviews the existing literature on professional associations and association strengthening to demonstrate that professional associations are a vital tool for improving the performance of healthcare workers and increasing their capacity to contribute to national and international policy-making...
December 13, 2018: Globalization and Health
Francesca Valeria Hansstein, Fabián Echegaray
BACKGROUND: Wearing a pollution mask is an effective, practical, and economic way to prevent the inhalation of dangerous particulate matter (PM). However, it is not uncommon to observe negligence in adopting such behaviour, and this especially among young segments of the population. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as conceptual framework, this study explores the role of socio-cognitive factors that affect the decision of wearing a pollution mask in the context of young educated people...
December 4, 2018: Globalization and Health
Ho Young Kim, Ju Young Kim, Hwa Yeon Park, Ji Hye Jun, Hye Yeon Koo, In Young Cho, Jinah Han, Yuliya Pak, Hyun Jung Baek, Ju Yeon Lee, Sung Hee Chang, Jung Hun Lee, Ji Soo Choe, Sun-Kyung Yang, Kyung Chul Kim, Jeong Ha Park, Seul Ki Paik
BACKGROUND: With the significant growth of migration and expatriation, facilitated by increased global mobility, the number of Koreans living abroad as of 2016 is approximately 7.4 million (15% of the Korean population). Healthcare utilization or health problems, especially among expatriates in developing countries, have not been well researched despite the various health risks these individuals are exposed to. Consequently, we identified the health utilization patterns and healthcare needs among Korean expatriates in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Uzbekistan...
November 29, 2018: Globalization and Health
Claire Elizabeth Pulker, Georgina S A Trapp, Jane Anne Scott, Christina Mary Pollard
BACKGROUND: Supermarkets have unprecedented political and economic power in the food system and an inherent responsibility to demonstrate good corporate citizenship via corporate social responsibility (CSR). The aim of this study was to investigate the world's largest and most powerful supermarkets' publically available CSR commitments to determine their potential impact on public health. METHODS: The world's largest 100 retailers were identified using the Global Powers of Retailing report...
November 29, 2018: Globalization and Health
Srikanth K Reddy, Sumaira Mazhar, Raphael Lencucha
The World Health Organization (WHO) continues to experience immense financial stress. The precarious financial situation of the WHO has given rise to extensive dialogue and debate. This dialogue has generated diverse technical proposals to remedy the financial woes of the WHO and is intimately tied to existential questions about the future of the WHO in global health governance. In this paper, we review, categorize, and synthesize the proposals for financial reform of the WHO. It appears that less contentious issues, such as convening financing dialogue and establishing a health emergency programme, received consensus from member states...
November 29, 2018: Globalization and Health
Devy Elling, Pamela J Surkan, Sahba Enayati, Ziad El-Khatib
BACKGROUND: Increases in overweight and obesity among youths have resulted in the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at earlier ages. The impact of lifestyle-related factors has been implicated; however, its relation to morbidity and mortality and sex differences remain unclear. We aimed to document the changes in risk factors and sex differences associated with T2DM-related morbidity and mortality during 1995-2015. METHOD: We used mortality rates and morbidity estimates from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2016 using Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY)...
November 28, 2018: Globalization and Health
Kevin K C Hung, Carman K M Mark, May P S Yeung, Emily Y Y Chan, Colin A Graham
BACKGROUND: The global travel and tourism industry has been rapidly expanding in the past decades. The traditional focus on border screening, and by airline and cruise industries may be inadequate due to the incubation period of an infectious disease. This case study highlights the potential role of the hotel industry in epidemic preparedness and response. METHODS: This case study focuses on the epidemic outbreaks of SARS in 2003 and H1N1 swine flu in 2009 in Hong Kong, and the subsequent guidelines published by the health authority in relation to the hotel industry in Hong Kong which provide the backbone for discussion...
November 27, 2018: Globalization and Health
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