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Cellular & Molecular Immunology

Simona Sivori, Paola Vacca, Genny Del Zotto, Enrico Munari, Maria Cristina Mingari, Lorenzo Moretta
NK cells play important roles in innate defenses against viruses and in the control of tumor growth and metastasis. The regulation/induction of NK cell function is mediated by an array of activating or inhibitory surface receptors. In humans, major activating receptors involved in target cell killing are the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) and NKG2D. Activating receptors recognize ligands that are overexpressed or expressed de novo upon cell stress, viral infection, or tumor transformation. The HLA-class I-specific inhibitory receptors, including KIRs recognizing HLA-class I allotypic determinants and CD94/NKG2A recognizing the class-Ib HLA-E, constitute a fail-safe mechanism to avoid unwanted NK-mediated damage to healthy cells...
February 18, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Yanhong Li, Di Zhang, Ling Xu, Lin Dong, Ji Zheng, Yikong Lin, Jiefang Huang, Yanyun Zhang, Yu Tao, Xingxing Zang, Dajin Li, Meirong Du
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are pluripotent cells with immunomodulatory properties, have been considered good candidates for the therapy of several immune disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, concanavalin A-induced liver injury, and graft-versus-host disease. The embryo is a natural allograft to the maternal immune system. A successful pregnancy depends on the timely extinction of the inflammatory response induced by embryo implantation, followed by the switch to a tolerant immune microenvironment in both the uterus and the system...
February 18, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Tian Deng, Caixia Suo, Jiali Chang, Rui Yang, Jingyu Li, Ting Cai, Ju Qiu
OX40L is one of the co-stimulatory molecules that can be expressed by splenic lymphoid tissue inducer (Lti) cells, a subset of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). OX40L expression in subsets of intestinal ILC3s and the molecular regulation of OX40L expression in ILC3s are unknown. Here, we showed intestinal ILC3s marked as an OX40Lhigh population among all the intestinal leukocytes and were the dominant source of OX40L in Rag1-/- mice. All ILC3 subsets expressed OX40L, and NCR- ILC3s were the most abundant source of OX40L...
February 13, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Anil Dangi, Shuangjin Yu, Xunrong Luo
Newly emerging technologies are rapidly changing conventional approaches to organ transplantation. In the modern era, the key challenges to transplantation include (1) how to best individualize and possibly eliminate the need for life-long immunosuppression and (2) how to expand the donor pool suitable for human transplantation. This article aims to provide readers with an updated review of three new technologies that address these challenges. First, single-cell RNA sequencing technology is rapidly evolving and has recently been employed in settings related to transplantation...
February 13, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Pawan K Gupta, Christine M McIntosh, Anita S Chong, Maria-Luisa Alegre
Donor-specific transplantation tolerance that enables weaning from immunosuppressive drugs but retains immune competence to non-graft antigens has been a lasting pursuit since the discovery of neonatal tolerance. More recently, efforts have been devoted not only to understanding how transplantation tolerance can be induced but also the mechanisms necessary to maintain it as well as how inflammatory exposure challenges its durability. This review focuses on recent advances regarding key peripheral mechanisms of T cell tolerance, with the underlying hypothesis that a combination of several of these mechanisms may afford a more robust and durable tolerance and that a better understanding of these individual pathways may permit longitudinal tracking of tolerance following clinical transplantation to serve as biomarkers...
February 13, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Man Li, Adam S Lazorchak, Xinxing Ouyang, Huihui Zhang, Hongzhi Liu, Omotooke A Arojo, Lichong Yan, Jingsi Jin, Yuheng Han, Guojun Qu, Yuhong Fu, Xiaocao Xu, Xiaobo Liu, Wenqian Zhang, Zhengfeng Yang, Chuan Ruan, Qijun Wang, Dou Liu, Chuanxin Huang, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang, Fubin Li, Bing Su
Proper control of B cell growth and metabolism is crucial for B-cell-mediated immunity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study, Sin1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), specifically regulates B cell growth and metabolism. Genetic ablation of Sin1 in B cells reduces the cell size at either the transitional stage or upon antigen stimulation and severely impairs metabolism. Sin1 deficiency also severely impairs B-cell proliferation, antibody responses, and anti-viral immunity...
January 31, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Xiao-Qiu Wang, Wen-Jie Zhou, Xin-Xin Hou, Qiang Fu, Da-Jin Li
In this article, published online 27 March 2018, in the "ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS", it should be supplemented as follows: "This study was funded by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China, number 81490744, awarded to Da-Jin Li." The authors regret the omission.
January 22, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Christelle Vincent-Fabert, Alexis Saintamand, Amandine David, Mehdi Alizadeh, François Boyer, Nicolas Arnaud, Ursula Zimber-Strobl, Jean Feuillard, Nathalie Faumont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Haoyu Sun, Cheng Sun, Weihua Xiao, Rui Sun
Efficient immune responses against invading pathogens often involve coordination between cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. For multiple decades, it has been believed that CD8+ memory T cells and natural killer (NK) cells constantly and uniformly recirculate. Only recently was the existence of noncirculating memory T and NK cells that remain resident in the peripheral tissues, termed tissue-resident memory T (TRM ) cells and tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells, observed in various organs owing to improved techniques...
January 11, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Tessa Dhaeze, Laurence Tremblay, Catherine Lachance, Evelyn Peelen, Stephanie Zandee, Camille Grasmuck, Lyne Bourbonnière, Sandra Larouche, Xavier Ayrignac, Rose-Marie Rébillard, Josée Poirier, Boaz Lahav, Pierre Duquette, Marc Girard, Robert Moumdjian, Alain Bouthillier, Catherine Larochelle, Alexandre Prat
CD70 is the unique ligand of CD27 and is expressed on immune cells only upon activation. Therefore, engagement of the costimulatory CD27/CD70 pathway is solely dependent on upregulation of CD70. However, the T cell-intrinsic effect and function of human CD70 remain underexplored. Herein, we describe that CD70 expression distinguishes proinflammatory CD4+ T lymphocytes that display an increased potential to migrate into the central nervous system (CNS). Upregulation of CD70 on CD4+ T lymphocytes is induced by TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, which promote a pathogenic phenotype...
January 11, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Lin Yi, Zhiqing Li, Tianju Hu, Juan Liu, Nan Li, Xuetao Cao, Shuxun Liu
Epigenetic regulation has been attracting increasing attention due to its role in cell differentiation and behaviors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate human dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and development remain poorly understood. Our previous studies show that extracellular heat shock protein 70-like protein (HSP70L1) is a potent adjuvant of Th1 responses via stimulating DCs when released from cells; however, the role of intracellular HSP70L1 in DC differentiation and maturation remains unknown...
January 11, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
D Feyaerts, A van der Meer, I Joosten, R G van der Molen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Jose-Ignacio Rodriguez-Barbosa, Carlos Fernandez-Renedo, Ana María Bravo Moral, Leo Bühler, Maria-Luisa Del Rio
In this article, one of the grating agencies requested us to incorporate the information, Spanish Government and co-funded by European Union ERDF/ESF, "Investing in your future", in the acknowledgments section. The correct acknowledgement is as follows: "This work has been supported by grants of the Spanish Ministry of Health (Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, PI13/00029, Spanish Government and co-funded by European Union ERDF/ESF, "Investing in your future"), Department of Education of Castilla and Leon Regional Government (Grant# LE093U13) and Mutua Madrileña Foundation (Basic research grants 2012) to J...
January 11, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Xiaokang Zeng, Guangao Liu, Wanwen Peng, Junming He, Chenxu Cai, Wei Xiong, Shasha Chen, Meixiang Yang, Zhongjun Dong
Classical signaling lymphocyte activating molecule (SLAM) family receptors are abundant within many types of immune cells, whereas the nonclassical SLAM family receptors SLAMF8 and SLAMF9, which uniquely lack cytoplasmic signaling motifs, are highly expressed by myeloid cells. Due to the potential redundancy, whether these two receptors regulate macrophage function remains largely unknown. Here, we show that SLAMF8 and SLAMF9 co-regulate macrophage-mediated liver inflammation. To overcome the redundancy, we generated mice that simultaneously lacked SLAMF8 and SLAMF9 using CRISPR-Cas9 technology...
December 14, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Allan Randrup Thomsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Yifan Zhan, Nancy Wang, Ajithkumar Vasanthakumar, Yuxia Zhang, Michael Chopin, Stephen L Nutt, Axel Kallies, Andrew M Lew
A wide array of chemokine receptors, including CCR2, are known to control Treg migration. Here, we report that CCR2 regulates Tregs beyond chemotaxis. We found that CCR2 deficiency reduced CD25 expression by FoxP3+ Treg cells. Such a change was also consistently present in irradiation chimeras reconstituted with mixed bone marrow from wild-type (WT) and CCR2-/- strains. Thus, CCR2 deficiency resulted in profound loss of CD25hi FoxP3+ Tregs in secondary lymphoid organs as well as in peripheral tissues. CCR2-/- Treg cells were also functionally inferior to WT cells...
December 11, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Zurong Wan, Xingxing Shao, Xingyu Ji, Lihui Dong, Jiacheng Wei, Zhuqing Xiong, Wanli Liu, Hai Qi
The B7-family inducible costimulator (ICOS) activates phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) and augments calcium mobilization triggered by the T-cell receptor (TCR). We surprisingly found that the entire cytoplasmic domain of ICOS is dispensable for its costimulation of calcium mobilization. This costimulatory function relies on the unique transmembrane domain (TMD) of ICOS, which promotes association with the tyrosine kinase Lck. TMD-enabled Lck association is also required for p85 recruitment to ICOS and subsequent PI3K activation, and Lck underlies both the bystander and costimulatory signaling activity of ICOS...
December 6, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Nour Ghazzaui, Hussein Issaoui, Ophélie Alyssa Martin, Alexis Saintamand, Jeanne Cook-Moreau, Yves Denizot, François Boyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Hailin Ding, Yimin Dai, Yi Lei, Zhiyin Wang, Dan Liu, Ruotian Li, Li Shen, Ning Gu, Mingming Zheng, Xiangyu Zhu, Guangfeng Zhao, Yali Hu
The disturbance of maternal immune tolerance to a semiallogeneic fetus is recognized as one of the key pathologies of preeclampsia (PE), in which an imbalance between the inflammation-limiting regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the inflammation-mediating Th17 cells plays an essential role. Previously, we reported that the abnormal upregulation of tetraspannin CD81 in trophoblast cells (fetal component) participated in the pathogenesis of PE. However, as one of the potential immune regulatory molecules, whether CD81 induces PE by interfering with the balance of the maternal immune system has not yet been clarified...
November 28, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu, Jiu-Yao Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
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