journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38284338/pediatric-immunology-and-allergy-clinical-aspects
#21
EDITORIAL
Roberto Bernardini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37828757/old-and-new-challenges-in-pediatrics
#22
EDITORIAL
Giuseppe Buonocore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37702169/treatment-of-allergic-rhinitis-in-clinical-practice
#23
REVIEW
Maria Angela Tosca, Chiara Trincianti, Matteo Naso, Valentina Nosratian, Giorgio Ciprandi
Allergic rhinitis is a prevalent condition among children, with its occurrence reaching up to 40% of the general population in some geographical areas. A type 2 immunity sustains allergic rhinitis. Consequently, type 2 inflammation leads to eosinophilic infiltrate of the nasal mucosa. Allergic inflammation causes the symptom occurrence. Typical nasal symptoms include nasal itching, sneezing, watery rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion. Nasal congestion depends on vasodilation and increased mucus production. These conditions result in nasal obstruction...
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37702168/biological-therapies-for-pediatric-atopic-dermatitis-a-review
#24
REVIEW
Giulia Milano, Stefano Forestieri, Micol Tedeschi, Amelia Licari, Valeria Brazzelli, Gian Luigi Marseglia
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most frequent chronic-recurrent inflammatory skin disease in the pediatric age. It has a complex and multifactorial pathogenesis: the two key actors are impaired skin barrier function and immune system dysregulation, which represent the main targets of AD therapy. Monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the management of moderate-to-severe AD, by selective inhibition of key cytokines in the pathogenetic process. For this reason, there is great interest in exploring AD pathogenetic mechanisms to develop new therapeutic strategies...
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37702165/why-do-some-children-get-sick-with-recurrent-respiratory-infections
#25
REVIEW
Fabio Cardinale, Francesco La Torre, Lucia Grazia Tricarico, Giuseppe Verriello, Carla Mastrorilli
Respiratory tract infections (RTI) represent a frequent condition, particularly among preschool children, with an important burden on the affected children and their families. It has been estimated that recurrent RTIs affect up to 25% of children during the first 4 years of life. These infections are mainly caused by viruses and are generally self-limiting. Social and environmental factors have been studied in determining the incidence of recurrent RTIs and the mostly recognized are precocious day care attendance, tobacco exposure and pollution...
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37526456/infectious-mononucleosis-an-updated-review
#26
REVIEW
Alexander K C Leung, Joseph M Lam, Benjamin Barankin
BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis is common among adolescents and young adults. Although the majority of cases resolve spontaneously, life-threatening manifestations, and complications have been recognised. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to familiarize clinicians with the clinical manifestations, evaluation, diagnosis, and management of infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: A search was conducted in October 2022 in PubMed Clinical Queries using the key terms "infectious mononucleosis" OR "Epstein-Barr virus" OR "EBV"...
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37497686/iron-deficiency-anemia-an-updated-review
#27
REVIEW
Alexander K C Leung, Joseph M Lam, Alex H C Wong, Kam Lun Hon, Xiuling Li
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency disorder and the leading cause of anemia in children, especially in developing countries. When present in early childhood, especially if severe and prolonged, iron deficiency anemia can result in neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits, which may not always be fully reversible even following the correction of iron deficiency anemia. OBJECTIVE: This article aimed to familiarize physicians with the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and management of children with iron deficiency anemia...
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37013431/metabolic-associated-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-mechanisms-of-a-silent-epidemic-and-therapeutic-options
#28
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Antonella Mosca, Luca Della Volpe, Maria Rita Sartorelli, Donatella Comparcola, Silvio Veraldi, Anna Alisi, Giuseppe Maggiore
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now identified as a hepatic sign of metabolic syndrome and is the most frequent cause of chronic liver disease in all ages. It is assumed that a genetic predisposition associated with epigenetic factors participates in the evolution of this condition. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance (IR) have always been considered the most important causative factors of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and NAFLD, but currently, the interaction between genetic heritage and environmental factors is increasingly considered fundamental in the genesis of metabolic disorders associated with NAFLD...
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36043723/febrile-seizures-an-updated-narrative-review-for-pediatric-ambulatory-care-providers
#29
REVIEW
James Sze-Chuck Leung
BACKGROUND: While generally self-limited, febrile seizures result in significant familial distress. Ambulatory pediatric care providers must be prepared to counsel families on the causes, risk factors, management principles, and prognosis of children with febrile seizures. OBJECTIVE: To provide an updated, evidence-based review of febrile seizures focused on the needs of an ambulatory pediatric care provider. METHODS: A narrative review of the literature prioritizing landmark articles, metanalyses, longitudinal population longitudinal cohort studies and national level guidelines...
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36043722/common-childhood-sleep-problems-and-disorders
#30
REVIEW
Theresa Ngan Ho Leung, Kin Lok Wong, Anthony Kam Chuen Chan, Albert Martin Li
BACKGROUND: Sleep insufficiency and disturbances affect the physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being of children. OBJECTIVE: To perform a narrative review on common sleep problems and disorders encountered in primary care for children and adolescents. METHODS: A search of English literature in the Pubmed and Google Scholar databases published from 1 January 2000 till 31 October 2021 was conducted with the keywords "sleep problem" or "sleep disorder" and "child" or "adolescent"...
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37937576/perinatal-exposure-to-trace-elements-the-dubious-culprit-of-autistic-spectrum-disorder-in-children
#31
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kriti Mohan, Balram Ji Omar, Swathi Chacham, Ajay Bharti
There is evidence that few trace elements in the environment work as hazardous materials in terms of their exposure in the perinatal period, causing autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in children, and avoiding these exposures in the environment can reduce the number of new cases. This perspective study provides preliminary evidence to consider a few trace elements as culprits for ASD. More studies with larger cohorts are needed, but meanwhile, as per available evidence, exposure to these hazardous materials must be warranted during pregnancy and early stages of life...
November 6, 2023: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37927073/diagnostic-and-new-therapeutic-approaches-to-two-challenging-pediatric-metabolic-bone-disorders-hypophosphatasia-and-x-linked-hypophosphatemic-rickets
#32
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Fahad Aljuraibah, Ibrahim Alalwan, Abdelhadi Habeb
The diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disease among children can be challenging. This difficulty could be due to many factors, including limited awareness of these rare conditions, the complex pathophysiology of calcium and phosphate homeostasis, the overlapping phenotype with more common disorders (such as rickets), and the lack of specific treatments for these rare disorders. As a result, affected individuals could experience delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis, leading to improper management. In this review, we describe the challenges facing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to two metabolic bone disorders (MBD) among children: hypophosphatasia (HPP) and X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH)...
November 3, 2023: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37929737/late-relapse-in-neuroblastoma-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#33
Rejin Kebudi, Begum Koc, Banu Oflaz Sozmen
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in children. The survival rate of relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma is dismal. Late recurrence may occur rarely. CASE PRESENTATION: We have, herein, presented a case with stage IV neuroblastoma who relapsed after 11 years and had a subsequent relapse after 15 years from the initial diagnosis, and reviewed cases with late relapsed (after >5 years) neuroblastoma in the literature. The case presented with recurrent disease at the T7 vertebra after 11 years from the initial diagnosis...
October 27, 2023: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37929736/the-effect-of-probiotics-on-phototherapy-for-bilirubin-reduction-in-term-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#34
Fatemeh Eghbalian, Mohammad Kazem Sabzehei, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Ruya Raeisi, Soroush Taheri Talesh
BACKGROUND: This interventional study aimed to assess the impact of combining probiotics with phototherapy compared to using phototherapy alone on bilirubin reduction in term neonates hospitalized in neonatal wards in hospitals of western Iran. METHODS: This clinical trial study included 150 term neonates with a gestational age of 37 to 42 weeks, birth weight of more than 2500 g, and diagnosed with neonatal jaundice. Patients were equally assigned to two groups of phototherapy (wavelength 420-450 nm) with oral probiotics (PediLact drop, 10 drops daily) and phototherapy alone through a simple random sampling method...
October 27, 2023: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37877152/a-survey-of-the-course-how-to-successfully-write-a-scientific-article
#35
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Tamara Sljivancanin Jakovljevic, Nadja Nikolic, Jelena Martic
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present survey was to analyze the knowledge and skills in medical paper writing of physicians who attended the course "how to write successfully a scientific paper." METHODS: A blind survey was used to analyze participants' knowledge on the topic of the course "how to write successfully a scientific paper." Before starting the workshop, participants anonymously filled out the input questionnaire containing 12 preliminary data questions...
October 17, 2023: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37873951/acute-bronchiolitis-the-less-the-better
#36
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Fabrizio Virgili, Raffaella Nenna, Greta Di Mattia, Luigi Matera, Laura Petrarca, Maria Giulia Conti, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: Acute bronchiolitis is a viral infection of the lower respiratory tract affecting infants aged under 12 months, variably presenting with respiratory distress, diffuse crackles and inflammatory wheezing. The main causative agent is Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). The diagnosis is clinical and treatment mainly supportive. Despite the availability of more than 30 international guidelines, consistent management recommendations are lacking and considerable variability in patients' care persists among different providers...
October 16, 2023: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37724678/sleep-bruxism-in-children-a-narrative-review
#37
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alexander K C Leung, Alex H C Wong, Joseph Lam, Kam Lun Hon
Sleep bruxism, characterized by involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible during sleep, is common in children. Sleep bruxism occurs while the patient is asleep. As such, diagnosis can be difficult as the affected child is usually unaware of the tooth grinding sounds. This article aims to familiarize physicians with the diagnosis and management of sleep bruxism in children. A search was conducted in May 2023 in PubMed Clinical Queries using the key terms "Bruxism" OR "Teeth grinding" AND "sleep"...
September 15, 2023: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37702166/reactive-arthritis-in-children-case-report-and-narrative-review-and-proposed-therapy
#38
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Milad Alshaya, Abdulrahman Alrasheed, Nouf Almutairi, Ihtifal Albanaqi, Ronald M Laxer, Abdullah Alhammad
Reactive arthritis is an acute inflammatory aseptic arthritis that is preceded by an infectious process in genetically predisposed individuals. It has been associated with gastrointestinal or genitourinary infection. Reactive arthritis is rare in children. In this review, we present two index cases that need biologic treatment followed by a thorough review of reactive arthritis in children and adolescents with proposed treatment algorithm.
September 13, 2023: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37702167/hyper-ige-syndromes
#39
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Serena Gracci, Tommaso Novelli, Sofia D'Elios, Roberto Bernardini, Diego Peroni
The Hyper IgE Syndromes are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by eczema, recurrent skin and respiratory infections and elevated serum IgE levels. Nowadays a genetic-molecular characterization is possible and allows the distinction in various monogenic pathologies, which share some clinical characteristics but also important differences. In addition to long-known STAT3 and DOCK8 gene mutations, in fact, also ZNF341, CARD11, ERBB2IP, IL6R and IL6ST genes mutations can cause the disease. The main clinical manifestations are represented by newborn rash, eczema similar to atopic dermatitis, bacterial and viral skin infections, cold abscesses, respiratory infections with possible pulmonary complications, allergies, gastrointestinal manifestations, malignancies and connective tissue abnormalities...
September 12, 2023: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37702164/biological-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-uncontrolled-severe-asthma-in-children
#40
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Cristiana Indolfi, Angela Klain, Chiara Lucia Bencivenga, Elisabetta D'Addio, Giulio Dinardo, Alberto Decimo, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice
The introduction of biological drugs for the treatment of severe allergic asthma in children, almost twenty years ago, had a substantial impact on both the pathology's clinical course and the quality of life of the patients who receive treatment. Over the years, several molecules have been developed that inhibit molecular targets involved in the pathogenesis of the asthmatic disease. Biological drugs demonstrate a significant improvement in several key clinical parameters in patients with severe asthma. In this review, we provide a concise summary of the evidence on biological therapy for children and adolescents with severe asthma...
September 12, 2023: Current Pediatric Reviews
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