Layan Sameer Almintakh, Mariam Fahad Al Dossary, Abrar Mohmmadjamal Altesha, Rayanah Fahad Alqahtani, Samiah Mohammad Alsomali, Nuzhat Banu, Mohammad Daud Ali, Ayaz Ahmed
BACKGROUND: An off-label medication involves the use of an approved drug for an unapproved indication, population, route of administration, or dosage.The physiological state of children differs from that of adults, making the adult formulation potentially dangerous to children. Off-label prescribing is quite common in children due to challenges in the development of pediatric formulations. The current study was conducted to determine the awareness, practice, and views of pediatricians, general physicians, and pharmacists about prescribing Off-label medication to pediatric patients in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia...
June 26, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Muntadhar Muhammad Isa, Maimun Syukri, Muchlisin Za, Gunadi, Dian Adi Syahputra, T Yusriadi, Yumna Muzakkir, Siti Maghfirah
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the characteristics of Hirschsprung's Disease (HD) in patients aged<18 who underwent surgical procedure at Dr. Zainoel Abidin (RSUDZA) General Hospital, Banda Aceh, Indonesia, between January 2010 and December 2020. METHODS: This retrospective study collected and analyzed data from medical records of 18-yearold or younger children (n = 180) diagnosed with HD at RSUDZA. The surgical procedures included the Duhamel procedure, Soave procedure, the Soave Transanal Endorectal Pull-through (TEPT) procedure, and the Swenson TEPT procedure...
June 20, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Ana Flávia Conegundes, Isadora Garcia, Bárbara Miranda, Arthur Borges, André Sanglard, Gabriel Ferreira, Rafael Borges, Ana Cristina Simões E Silva
The Prune-Belly (Eagle-Barrett) syndrome (PBS) is a congenital and genetically heterogeneous disease, more prevalent in males, defined by the clinical triad (1) deficiency of abdominal muscles, (2) bilateral cryptorchidism, and (3) urinary tract abnormalities. The abdomen of an infant with PBS has a typical appearance, similar to the aspect of a prune, which gives it its name. Although the etiology of this disorder is still unknown, numerous theories, mutations, and genetic disturbances have been proposed to explain the origin of PBS...
June 14, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Kam Lun Hon, Alexander K C Leung, Paul K S Chan, Su Yun Qian, Kin Tak Wong
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 global pandemic was caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which then became an endemic infection. COVID refers to the World Health Organization's coined acronym for coronavirus disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We have, herein, reported three cases of coronavirus diseases that could have been misdiagnosed as COVID-19. All of these families reported previous COVID-19 infection based on self-administered Rapid Antigen Testing (RAT) and completed a period of home isolation...
May 20, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Michael D Santarelli, Kelly A Davis, Ryan J Stark
Surviving near-lethal insults, such as sepsis, trauma, and major surgery is more common due to advances in medical care. The decline in mortality has unmasked a population of chronic critically ill patients, many with the pathological immunophenotype known as Persistent inflammation, Immunosuppression, and Catabolism Syndrome (PICS). Though initially described in adults, many critically ill children exhibit the hallmarks of PICS, including lymphopenia, hyperinflammation, and evidence of ongoing somatic protein catabolism...
May 14, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Emiliano Barbieri, Maurizio Giordano, Giuseppe Sorgente, Giulia Borgia, Marta Improta, Monica Colonna, Valeria Crisci, Valentina Fattorusso, Flavia Barbieri, Giuseppe Buonocore, Giuseppe De Bernardo
INTRODUCTION: Current guidelines for neonatal resuscitation suggest the use of a laryngeal mask when ventilation with both facemask and endotracheal tube has failed in newborns weighing >2000 g or delivered ≥ 34 weeks of gestation age. Paediatric I-gel® is one of the latest supraglottic airway management devices suitable for children and newborns. I-gel® use was effective in guaranteeing adequate ventilation in patients with anatomic abnormalities in case of respiratory impairment or during surgical procedures after the induction of anaesthesia...
April 29, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Fatemeh Eghbalian, Behnaz Basiri, Behnaz Hatami, Narges Mohammadi Parsa, Ensiyeh Jenabi
BACKGROUND: To date, few studies have compared the effectiveness of exogenous surfactant therapy with Curosurf and Beraksurf in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm neonates. OBJECTIVE: Since surfactant has a significant impact on the treatment of neonates with RDS, this study was conducted to introduce a more effective method for treating preterm neonates with RDS. METHODS: The present clinical trial was conducted on 140 preterm neonates with RDS in the NICU department of two specialized university hospitals in Hamadan, western Iran...
April 15, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Nazanin Farahbakhsh, Deepak Sharma, Somaye Fatahi, Mobina Fathi, Kimia Vakili, Niloofar Deravi, Zohreh Tutunchian, Elahe Ahsan, Shirin Yaghoobpoor, Seyed Ahmad Tabatabaii
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) has a multifactorial etiology. Vitamin E and vitamin D play an important role in lung development and can potentially be beneficial in the prevention of BPD. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to compare the risk of BPD occurrence in preterm neonates supplemented with vitamin D or E versus those who did not get supplementation. METHODS: The literature search was conducted for this systematic review by searching the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases up to December 2022...
April 15, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Parvesh Mohan Garg, Padma P Garg, Jeffrey S Shenberger
The diagnosis of NEC is based on the presence of pneumatosis, dilated bowel loops, portal venous gas, or pneumoperitoneum on the abdominal x-ray. Published studies suggest that the appearance of pneumatosis most likely depends on the gestational age, with a shift occurring between 27-28 weeks. For infants of gestational age under 27 weeks, pneumoperitoneum is the most likely presentation of bowel injury due to the thin bowel wall and the colonization of the gut with the non-gas-producing bacteria. Assessment of postoperative morbidity and white matter injury on the brain MRI at term equivalent age in a cohort of preterm infants failed to identify differences between SIP and NEC groups when confirmed by histology...
April 8, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Amit Singh, Sabyasachi Senapati, Inusha Panigrahi, Preeti Khetarpal
BACKGROUND: LIG4 syndrome, characterized by immunodeficiency, sensitivity to ionizing radiations, intrauterine growth retardation, postnatal growth retardation, and microcephaly, is a rare genetic disorder caused by pathogenic variants of the LIG4 gene. Few patients are presented with no immune dysregulation as well. CASE STUDY: We present here a male child of 2 years and 4 months of age with severe microcephaly and short stature. His birth weight was 1.9 Kg, and his current height, weight, and head circumference are 83...
April 8, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Cyndi Yacira Meneses Castaño, Paola Penagos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Anna Degtyareva, Alina Dokshukina, Elena Filippova, Jekaterina Shubina, Ekaterina Tolmacheva, Igor Sadelov, Marina Albegova, Dmitriy Degtyarev
BACKGROUND: Cholestatic liver disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and a leading indication for liver transplantation in children. These include diseases, such as biliary atresia, Alagille syndrome, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, sclerosing cholangitis, bile acid synthesis defects, and many others. CASE PRESENTATION: NGS was used as a diagnostic tool to identify the genetic cause in the patient with cholestatic syndrome and to figure out and describe what mutation will be found...
February 16, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Karen K Y Leung, Joanna Y L Tung, Yan Tung Kelly Lee, Stephanie Tsang, Kam Lun Hon
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication in children with diabetes mellitus. There are considerable differences in the management approaches for DKA between different countries. One of the main areas of differences between guidelines is the administration of fluid, with most guidelines adopting a restrictive approach. This is based on the concern over cerebral oedema, a lethal sequela allegedly to be caused by excessive fluid administration. However, in recent years, new clinical studies suggest that there is no causal relationship between intravenous fluid therapy and DKA-related cerebral injury...
January 31, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Nese Akcan, Ismet Zaimagaoglu
Despite the implementation of global iodine supplementation initiatives in the past decade, the problem of iodine deficiency persists as a significant public health concern in numerous countries. Although cretinism is now rare in developed countries, iodine deficiency can still lead to less severe cognitive deficits, which can negatively impact academic achievement, intellectual capacity, and work productivity. There is a scarcity of studies regarding the status of Cyprus, and the global database does not have any information pertaining to the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Cyprus...
January 30, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Kam Lun Ellis Hon, Daniel K K Ng, Wa Keung Chiu, Alexander K C Leung
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic atopic and inflammatory bronchial disease characterized by recurring symptoms and, episodic reversible bronchial obstruction and easily triggered bronchospasms. Asthma often begins in childhood. International guidelines are widely accepted and implemented; however, there are similarities and differences in the management approaches. There is no national guideline in many cities in Asia. This review aims to provide a practical perspective on current recommendations in the management of childhood asthma, specifically in the following aspects: diagnosis, classification of severity, treatment options, and asthma control, and to provide physicians with up-to-date information for the management of asthma...
January 29, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Alexander K C Leung, Joseph M Lam, Benjamin Barankin, Alex H C Wong, Kin Fon Leong, Kam Lun Hon
BACKGROUND: Pinworm infestation is an important public health problem worldwide, especially among children 5 to 10 years of age in developing countries with temperate climates. The problem is often overlooked because of its mild or asymptomatic clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to familiarize pediatricians with the diagnosis and management of pinworm infestation. METHODS: A search was conducted in August 2023 in PubMed Clinical Queries using the key terms "Enterobius vermicularis," OR "enterobiasis," OR "pinworm...
January 28, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Boskabadi Hassan, Amirkhani Samin, Tahereh Loghmani, Zakerihamidi Maryam
INTRODUCTION: The mechanism of occurrence and complications of asphyxia change in the treatment process and the future prognosis of newborns. One of the discussed mechanisms is the disruption of oxidants to anti-oxidants balance. Therefore, the current study was conducted aiming to systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis on the diagnosis and prognosis of prenatal asphyxia based on oxidant-antioxidant balance. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, up to February 2023 to identify relevant studies examining the association between Prooxidant anti-oxidant balance (PAB) and Malondialdehyde 1 levels with the risk of prenatal asphyxia...
January 25, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Alexander K C Leung, Joseph M Lam, Benjamin Barankin, Kin Fon Leong
BACKGROUND: Lichen striatus is a benign dermatosis that affects mainly children. This condition mimics many other dermatoses. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to familiarize pediatricians with the clinical manifestations of lichen striatus to avoid misdiagnosis, unnecessary investigations, unnecessary referrals, and mismanagement of lichen striatus. METHODS: A search was conducted in June 2023 in PubMed Clinical Queries using the key term "Lichen striatus"...
January 25, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Karen K Y Leung, Pak Leung Ho, Sally C Y Wong, Wilson Y K Chan, Kam Lun Ellis Hon
PURPOSE: The survival of paediatric oncology patients has improved substantially in the past decades due to advances in the field of oncology. Modern cancer treatments often come with life-threatening complications, of which infection is one of the most common causes in this patient population. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and outcomes of common infections in haemato-oncology patients during their stay in paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and to identify any factors associated with these infections...
January 24, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Mohsen Haghshenas-Mojaveri, Forough Alikabranya Omran, Soraya Khafri, Raheleh Mehraein, Ebrahim Hejazian, Zahr Akbarian-Rad
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular hemorrhage) IVH(is the most prevalent type of cerebrovascular accident in premature infants, which can result in lasting neurological complications. The aim of this study was to ascertain the frequency of IVH and its associated risk factors within our particular context. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit of a maternal and neonatal hospital from September 2018 to August 2019...
January 24, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
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