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Current Pediatric Reviews

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734680/tinea-imbricata-an-overview
#1
Alexander K C Leung, Kin Fon Leong, Joseph M Lam
BACKGROUND: Tinea imbricata is a chronic superficial mycosis caused exclusively by Trichophyton concentricum. The condition mainly affects individuals living in primitive and isolated environment in developing countries and is rarely seen in developed countries. Physicians in nonendemic areas might not be aware of this fungal infection. OBJECTIVE: To familiarize physicians with the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of tinea imbricata. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key terms "Tinea imbricata" and "Trichophyton concentricum"...
February 7, 2019: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663571/role-of-breathing-exercises-and-yoga-pranayam-in-childhood-asthma-a-systematic-review
#2
Rashmi Ranjan Das, Jhuma Sankar, Sushil Kumar Kabra
BACKGROUND: Various complementary or alternative medicines (including breathing exercises and yoga/pranayama) have been tried as an attractive option to pharmacotherapy in childhood asthma. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of breathing exercise and yoga/pranayama as add on therapy to the "pharmacologically recommended treatment" of childhood asthma. METHODS: We searched the published literature through the major databases: Medline via Ovid, PubMed, CENTRAL, Embase, and Google Scholar till June 2018...
January 21, 2019: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657041/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-an-update
#3
Despoina Gkentzi, Gabriel Dimitriou
Neonates represent a vulnerable population for infections and neonatal sepsis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Therefore, antimicrobials are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Setting but unfortunately are quite often used inappropriately with various short and long-term effects. The rational use of antimicrobials is of paramount importance in this population and structured antimicrobial stewardship interventions should be in place. These interventions are slightly different from those used in adults and older children due to the particularities of the neonatal medicine...
January 17, 2019: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30582482/the-role-of-probiotics-in-the-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#4
Ivana Trivić, Ana Savić Mlakar, Iva Hojsak
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a frequent and severe life-threatening disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract of preterm infants. Given that NEC occurs in a well-defined population of patients, there might be a considerable benefit in identifying specific pharmacological and nutritional preventive strategies, that could reduce the incidence of NEC. Amongst nutritional strategies emphasis has been put on the use of probiotics. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize currently available evidence on the role of probiotics in general, as well as the role of specific probiotic strains or their combinations, in the prevention of NEC...
December 24, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30499415/long-term-outcome-of-infants-with-nec
#5
S Federici, L De Biagi
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a significant complication for premature newborns. Infants who survive NEC are at increased risk of having poor long-term physiological and neurodevelopmental growth. The objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive description of the long-term consequences of NEC. Despite the rise in incidence of NEC there is a paucity of data regarding long-term outcomes of these infants that can be divided into two groups. The first group includes gastrointestinal complications that could occur in relation to the bowel disease, the surgical treatment and quality of the residual bowel...
November 30, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30499416/non-transplant-surgical-management-of-short-bowel-syndrome-in-children-an-overview
#6
Riccardo Coletta, Antonino Morabito
Management of severe Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) is still one of the largest challenges of the medicine. Vast majority of the short bowel patients are children, the conditions that lead to this possible outcome most often are necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), small intestinal volvulus as a result of intestinal malrotation, gastroschisis and the "apple peel" syndrome. Therefore paediatricians and paediatric surgeons face this challenge most often. The non-surgical treatment appears to be effective using surgical procedure to increase absorptive surface and to reduce the transit time, but in some cases these procedure are enough to weaning of TPN...
November 29, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30474531/human-breast-milk-acquired-cytomegalovirus-infection-certainties-doubts-and-perspectives
#7
Flaminia Bardanzellu, Vassilios Fanos, Alessandra Reali
Breast Milk (BM) is the best source of nutrition for newborns, especially if premature. In fact, its beneficial impact on short- and long-term neonatal outcome has was deeply described. Unfortunately, BM could not be always so safe, especially due to the possible presence of maternal viruses that can shed and transferred to the breastfed neonate. Among these, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can potentially lead to a serious and acute illness, mostly in case of low gestational age. Some studies also report the association of CMV-acquired infection to an increased risk of structural and functional brain modifications and neurological impairment...
November 25, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30474530/bone-manifestation-of-faulty-perinatal-hormonal-imprinting-a-review
#8
G Csaba
Hormonal imprinting takes place at the first encounter between the developing receptor and its target hormone and the encounter determines the receptor's binding capacity for life. In the critical period of development, when the window for imprinting is open, the receptor can be misdirected by related hormones, synthetic hormones, and industrial or communal endocrine disruptors which cause faulty hormonal imprinting with life-long consequences. Considering these facts, the hormonal imprinting is a functional teratogen provoking alterations in the perinatal (early postnatal) period...
November 25, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30465511/childhood-solitary-cutaneous-mastocytoma-clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-evaluation-and-management
#9
Alexander K C Leung, Joseph M Lam, Kin Fon Leong
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of solitary cutaneous mastocytoma is mainly clinical, based on lesion morphology, the presence of a positive Darier sign, and absence of systemic involvement. Knowledge of this condition is important so that an accurate diagnosis can be made. OBJECTIVE: To familiarize physicians with the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of a solitary cutaneous mastocytoma. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "solitary cutaneous mastocytoma"...
November 20, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30421680/the-unlicensed-and-off-label-prescription-of-medications-in-general-paediatric-ward-an-observational-study
#10
Alícia Dorneles Dornelles, Lisiane Hoff Calegari, Lucian de Souza, Patrícia Ebone, Tiago Silva Tonelli, Clarissa Gutierrez Carvalho
BACKGROUND: The unlicensed (UL) and off-label (OL) prescription of medications is common in paediatrics and does not constitute negligent practice, since there is often no approved alternative. AIM: to determine the current frequency of UL and OL prescriptions in children from one month to 12 years of age in a paediatric inpatient unit (PIU). METHODS: Observational, prospective study, reviewing the prescriptions of all patients admitted to the PIU in a university hospital in a single week in August 2014 and a single week in January 2015...
November 12, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30421679/breath-holding-spells-in-pediatrics-a-narrative-review-of-the-current-evidence
#11
Alexander K C Leung, Amy A M Leung, Alex H C Wong, Kam Lun Hon
BACKGROUND: Breath-holding spells are common, frightening, but fortunately benign events. Familiarity with this condition is important so that an accurate diagnosis can be made. OBJECTIVE: To familiarize physicians with the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of children with breath-holding spells. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "breath-holding spells". The search strategy included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, observational studies, and reviews...
November 12, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30421678/alpha1-antitrypsin-deficiency-transition-of-care-for-the-child-with-aat-deficiency-into-adulthood
#12
Henry C Lin, Nagraj Kasi, J Antonio Quiros
IMPORTANCE Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a common, but underdiagnosed genetic condition, affecting 1 in 1500 individuals, which can present insidiously with liver disease in children. Although clinical practice guidelines exist for the management of AAT deficiency, especially with regards to pulmonary involvement, there are no published recommendations that specifically relate to the management of the liver disease and monitoring for lung disease associated with this condition, particularly in children...
November 12, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30394212/tall-stature-a-challenge-for-clinicians
#13
Beatriz Corredor, Mehul Dattani, Chiara Gertosio, Mauro Bozzola
Clinician generally use the term "tall stature" to define a height more than two standard deviations above the mean for age and sex. In most cases, these subjects present with familial tall stature or a constitutional advance of growth which is diagnosed by excluding the other conditions associated with overgrowth. Nevertheless, it is critical to be able to identify situations in which tall stature or an accelerated growth rate indicate an underlying disorder. A careful physical evaluation allows the classification of tall patients into two groups: those with a normal appearance and those with an abnormal appearance including disproportion or dysmorphism...
November 4, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30387398/pathophysiology-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-an-update
#14
Catalina Bazacliu, Josef Neu
NEC is a devastating disease that, once present, is very difficult to treat. In the absence of an etiologic treatment, preventive measures are required. Advances in decoding the pathophysiology of NEC are being made but a more comprehensive understanding is needed for the targeting of preventative strategies. A better definition of the disease as well as diagnostic criteria are needed to be able to specifically label a disease as NEC. Multiple environmental factors combined with host susceptibility appear to contribute to enhanced risks for developing this disease...
November 2, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30387397/management-of-nec-surgical-treatment-and-role-of-traditional-x-ray-versus-ultrasound-imaging-experience-of-a-single-centre
#15
G De Bernardo, D Sordino, C De Chiara, M Riccitelli, F Esposito, M Giordano, A Tramontano
Necrotizing enterocolitis is the most common cause of the postnatal critical conditions and remains one of the dominant cause of newborns' death in Neonatal Intensive Care. The morbidity and mortality associated with necrotizing enterocolitis remains largely unchanged and the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis continues to increase. There is no general agreement regarding the surgical treatment of the necrotizing enterocolitis. In this paper, we want to evaluate the results obtained in our centre from different types of necrotizing enterocolitis's surgical treatment and to analyse the role of traditional X-ray versus ultrasound doppler imaging in the evolutionary phases of necrotizing enterocolitis...
November 2, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30381081/a-cross-sectional-study-of-two-chemotherapy-protocols-on-long-term-neurocognitive-functions-in-egyptian-children-surviving-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#16
Laila M Sherief, Reda Sanad, Alaa ElHaddad, Adel Shebl, Elhamy R Abdelkhalek, Eman R Elsafy, Tamer H Hassan, Nelly Raafat, Naglaa M Kamal, Eman I Attia
Introduction: Subtle neurocognitive deficits have been recently observed in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) survivors. Aim: We aim to assess the neurocognitive functions of ALL survivors who had been treated with chemotherapy only using two different protocols, and to identify treatment-related risk factors. Patients and Methods: We carried a multicenter study involving 3 pediatric oncology centers on 100 children who were treated for ALL. Fifty patients were treated by the modified Children’s Cancer Group (CCG) 1991 protocol with low dose methotrexate and 50 children were treated by Total XV protocol with high dose methotrexate...
October 31, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30280670/iron-bisglycinate-chelate-and-polymaltose-iron-for-the-treatment-of-iron-deficiency-anemia-a-pilot-randomized-trial
#17
Jose Joao Name, Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos, Cristina Valzachi Rocha Maluf
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major public health problem worldwide. Iron bisglycinate chelate (FeBC) and polymaltose iron (FeP) are used for the treatment of IDA and exhibit good tolerability with a low incidence of adverse effects. However, these compounds have important differences in their structures and bioavailability. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of oral supplementation with FeBC and FeP in anemic children. METHODS: In this double-blind study, children aged 1 to 13 years who were diagnosed with IDA were randomly divided into two groups: i) FeBC, supplemented with iron bisglycinate chelate, and ii) FeP, supplemented with polymaltose iron (3...
October 2, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30124157/hydrops-fetalis-and-the-parvovirus-b-19
#18
E N Kontomanolis, Z Fasoulakis
DEFINITION: Hydrops fetalis (HF) or fetal hydrops is identified as an abnormal interstitial collection of fluid in at least 2 or more compartments of the fetal torso (peritoneal cavity, pleura, and pericardium). An alternative definition discusses about liquor accumulation in two fetal anatomical areas or an effusion in one site and anasarca. BACKGROUND: Parvovirus B-19 is a common childhood illness; the virus can cause fetal anemia, non-immune fetal hydrops, and spontaneous abortion and might lead to fetal demise...
August 20, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30101715/preterm-birth-long-term-cardiovascular-and-renal-consequences
#19
Hassib Chehade, Umberto Simeoni, Jean-Pierre Guignard, Farid Boubred
Cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases are part of non-communicable chronic diseases, the leading causes of premature death worldwide. They are recognized as having early origins through altered developmental programming, due to adverse environmental conditions during development. Preterm birth is increasingly recognized as such an adverse factor. Rates of preterm birth have increased the last decades, however, with the improvement in perinatal and neonatal care, a growing cohort have survived to the neonatal period and are now entering adulthood...
August 13, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29998808/neonatal-and-long-term-consequences-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#20
Marina Colella, Alice Frerot, Aline Rideau Batista Novais, Olivier Baud
Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) is one of the most common noxious antenatal conditions in humans, affecting 10% of all pregnancies, inducing a substantial proportion of preterm delivery and leading to a significant increase in perinatal mortality, neurological handicaps and chronic diseases in adulthood. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the postnatal consequences of FGR, with a particular emphasis on the long-term consequences on respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological structures and functions...
July 11, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
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