Anna Degtyareva, Alina Dokshukina, Elena Filippova, Jekaterina Shubina, Ekaterina Tolmacheva, Igor Sadelov, Marina Albegova, Dmitriy Degtyarev
BACKGROUND: Cholestatic liver disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and a leading indication for liver transplantation in children. These include diseases, such as biliary atresia, Alagille syndrome, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, sclerosing cholangitis, bile acid synthesis defects, and many others. CASE PRESENTATION: NGS was used as a diagnostic tool to identify the genetic cause in the patient with cholestatic syndrome and to figure out and describe what mutation will be found...
February 16, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Karen K Y Leung, Joanna Y L Tung, Yan Tung Kelly Lee, Stephanie Tsang, Kam Lun Hon
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication in children with diabetes mellitus. There are considerable differences in the management approaches for DKA between different countries. One of the main areas of differences between guidelines is the administration of fluid, with most guidelines adopting a restrictive approach. This is based on the concern over cerebral oedema, a lethal sequela allegedly to be caused by excessive fluid administration. However, in recent years, new clinical studies suggest that there is no causal relationship between intravenous fluid therapy and DKA-related cerebral injury...
January 31, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Nese Akcan, Ismet Zaimagaoglu
Despite the implementation of global iodine supplementation initiatives in the past decade, the problem of iodine deficiency persists as a significant public health concern in numerous countries. Although cretinism is now rare in developed countries, iodine deficiency can still lead to less severe cognitive deficits, which can negatively impact academic achievement, intellectual capacity, and work productivity. There is a scarcity of studies regarding the status of Cyprus, and the global database does not have any information pertaining to the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Cyprus...
January 30, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Kam Lun Ellis Hon, Daniel K K Ng, Wa Keung Chiu, Alexander K C Leung
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic atopic and inflammatory bronchial disease characterized by recurring symptoms and, episodic reversible bronchial obstruction and easily triggered bronchospasms. Asthma often begins in childhood. International guidelines are widely accepted and implemented; however, there are similarities and differences in the management approaches. There is no national guideline in many cities in Asia. This review aims to provide a practical perspective on current recommendations in the management of childhood asthma, specifically in the following aspects: diagnosis, classification of severity, treatment options, and asthma control, and to provide physicians with up-to-date information for the management of asthma...
January 29, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Alexander K C Leung, Joseph M Lam, Benjamin Barankin, Alex H C Wong, Kin Fon Leong, Kam Lun Hon
BACKGROUND: Pinworm infestation is an important public health problem worldwide, especially among children 5 to 10 years of age in developing countries with temperate climates. The problem is often overlooked because of its mild or asymptomatic clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to familiarize pediatricians with the diagnosis and management of pinworm infestation. METHODS: A search was conducted in August 2023 in PubMed Clinical Queries using the key terms "Enterobius vermicularis," OR "enterobiasis," OR "pinworm...
January 28, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Boskabadi Hassan, Amirkhani Samin, Tahereh Loghmani, Zakerihamidi Maryam
INTRODUCTION: The mechanism of occurrence and complications of asphyxia change in the treatment process and the future prognosis of newborns. One of the discussed mechanisms is the disruption of oxidants to anti-oxidants balance. Therefore, the current study was conducted aiming to systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis on the diagnosis and prognosis of prenatal asphyxia based on oxidant-antioxidant balance. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, up to February 2023 to identify relevant studies examining the association between Prooxidant anti-oxidant balance (PAB) and Malondialdehyde 1 levels with the risk of prenatal asphyxia...
January 25, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Alexander K C Leung, Joseph M Lam, Benjamin Barankin, Kin Fon Leong
BACKGROUND: Lichen striatus is a benign dermatosis that affects mainly children. This condition mimics many other dermatoses. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to familiarize pediatricians with the clinical manifestations of lichen striatus to avoid misdiagnosis, unnecessary investigations, unnecessary referrals, and mismanagement of lichen striatus. METHODS: A search was conducted in June 2023 in PubMed Clinical Queries using the key term "Lichen striatus"...
January 25, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Karen K Y Leung, Pak Leung Ho, Sally C Y Wong, Wilson Y K Chan, Kam Lun Ellis Hon
PURPOSE: The survival of paediatric oncology patients has improved substantially in the past decades due to advances in the field of oncology. Modern cancer treatments often come with life-threatening complications, of which infection is one of the most common causes in this patient population. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and outcomes of common infections in haemato-oncology patients during their stay in paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and to identify any factors associated with these infections...
January 24, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Mohsen Haghshenas-Mojaveri, Forough Alikabranya Omran, Soraya Khafri, Raheleh Mehraein, Ebrahim Hejazian, Zahr Akbarian-Rad
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular hemorrhage) IVH(is the most prevalent type of cerebrovascular accident in premature infants, which can result in lasting neurological complications. The aim of this study was to ascertain the frequency of IVH and its associated risk factors within our particular context. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit of a maternal and neonatal hospital from September 2018 to August 2019...
January 24, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Isoldi Sara, Mallardo Saverio, Quitadamo Paolo, Leter Beatrice, Salvatore Cucchiara
Over the past decades, an increased importance has been given to gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in the management of children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), considering that mucosal healing has been recognized as the optimal endpoint in the treat-to-target paradigm. The recent advances in technology and anesthesia have facilitated the comprehensive evaluation of the GI tract. In this review, we will discuss the role of ileocolonoscopy, upper GI endoscopy, and device-assisted enteroscopy in the work-up and management of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, with particular attention on non-invasive endoscopic techniques, such as wireless capsule endoscopy...
January 23, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Amanda da Silva, Alexia Nadine Puel, Priscilla Moretto, Ana Inês Gonzáles, Anelise Sonza
INTRODUCTION: Submaximal field walking tests are easy to apply and low cost, but it is necessary to standardize their application, especially in the pediatric population. The feasibility and its use in patients with congenital heart disease have been studied. To verify which are the submaximal field walking tests applied in the cardiopulmonary assessment of children and adolescents with CHD and to verify if they are being performed as recommended by the standardization protocols/guidelines...
January 19, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Ginevra Micangeli, Michela Menghi, Giovanni Profeta, Roberto Paparella, Francesca Tarani, Carla Petrella, Christian Barbato, Antonio Minni, Antonio Greco, Giampiero Ferraguti, Luigi Tarani, Marco Fiore
Malignant tumors of the head and neck are rare in children, but it is important to know these lesions and identify them early in order to have a good outcome for these patients. Benign lesions of the head and neck are much more frequent and have an excellent prognosis. For this reason, it is necessary to recognize the warning signs and symptoms and understand when to refer the patient to a reference center for the treatment of these pathologies. The clinical presentation of both benign and malignant lesions in children may be similar as usually, both categories have compressive effects...
January 16, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Nathalia Kanhouche, Gabriela Godoy Pizzi, Nathalia Araujo Bim, Rafael Celestino de Souza, Ana Flávia Bissoto Calvo, Isabela Floriano, Thais Gimenez, José Carlos Pettorossi Imparato, Tamara Kerber Tedesco
AIMS: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis compiling data on the prevalence of bruxism in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Searches were carried out in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus databases to identify the articles published by February 2023. Two independent reviewers, and in duplicate, employed a two-stage process to select publications. The same two reviewers performed the data extraction. Studies were included when the following eligibility criteria were met: performed in children and/or adolescents with cerebral palsy and reporting bruxism...
January 12, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Thanuja Kilari, Ankul Singh S, Anuragh Singh, Rukaiah Begum, Pravin Venkkatesh, Chitra Vellapandian
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is significantly influenced by maternal exposure to Per- and Poly-Fluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) during pregnancy. PFAS exposure occurs through the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR-γ) receptor, leading to increased fat deposition and profound health effects in child growth and development. Despite ongoing investigations, the relationship between maternal serum PFAS concentration and child obesity requires further exploration. OBJECTIVE: This study aimedto review the possible effects of Per and poly-fluoroalkyl substances exposure and their mechanism in overweight/obese children from pregnant ladies...
January 11, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Anup John Thomas, Dhandapany Gunasekaran, Chandrasekaran Venkatesh, Nanda Chhavi, Soundararajan Palanisamy
BACKGROUND: Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is a leading cause of death in premature infants. There are different clinical/ biochemical markers associated with the RDS. One of the potential biochemical markers is cortisol in cord blood. PURPOSE: This study aims to correlate cortisol levels in preterm neonates with RDS and to establish whether cord blood cortisol is a reliable predictor for RDS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective analytical study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital over nine months among fifty preterm neonates...
January 8, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Somayyeh Sarrafi, Samira Pourzeinali, Seyed Kazem Shakouri, Azizeh Farshbaf-Khalili, Alireza Ostadrahimi
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) that are essential for optimal health and development. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of maternal fish oil (containing omega-3 LCPUFA) intake from 21th week of pregnancy to 30 days postpartum for neurodevelopment and growth of infants at 9 and 12 months. METHODS: This was a follow-up study of a triple-blinded clinical trial...
January 3, 2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Arianna Giannetti, Irene Bettini, Eleonora Alfieri, Amina De Bona, Giuliana Giannì, Giampaolo Ricci, Carlo Caffarelli
Fish allergy is the important food allergies in childhood, often persisting into adulthood. It can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions, including fatal anaphylaxis; furthermore, avoiding-fish diet has negative nutritional and psychological effects. Recent research studies focus on epitope structures and aim to develop sensitive and specific diagnostic tools, which have a better correlation with clinical reactions. Protocols with hypoallergenic parvalbumin or other recombinant antigens are also under study and will likely lead to new immunotherapy protocols...
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Roberto Bernardini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Giuseppe Buonocore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
Maria Angela Tosca, Chiara Trincianti, Matteo Naso, Valentina Nosratian, Giorgio Ciprandi
Allergic rhinitis is a prevalent condition among children, with its occurrence reaching up to 40% of the general population in some geographical areas. A type 2 immunity sustains allergic rhinitis. Consequently, type 2 inflammation leads to eosinophilic infiltrate of the nasal mucosa. Allergic inflammation causes the symptom occurrence. Typical nasal symptoms include nasal itching, sneezing, watery rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion. Nasal congestion depends on vasodilation and increased mucus production. These conditions result in nasal obstruction...
2024: Current Pediatric Reviews
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