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Current Hypertension Reviews

McCall Walker, Paras Patel, Osung Kwon, Ryan J Koene, Daniel A Duprez, Younghoon Kwon
Hypertension is one of the most well-established risk factors for atrial fibrillation. Long-standing untreated hypertension leads to structural remodeling and electrophysiologic alterations causing an atrial myopathy that forms a vulnerable substrate for the development and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Hypertension-induced hemodynamic, inflammatory, hormonal, and autonomic changes all appear to be important contributing factors. Furthermore, hypertension is also associated with several atrial fibrillation-related comorbidities...
May 2, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Konstantinos Tziomalos
It is estimated that 5-10% of hypertensive patients have secondary hypertension. The main causes of secondary hypertension are parenchymal renal disease, primary aldosteronism and renovascular hypertension. The identification of these patients is important because it enables the etiological management of the underlying disease and in some cases leads to blood pressure control without antihypertensive medications. On the other hand, diagnostic evaluation for secondary hypertension often includes complex and expensive tests and should be performed only in patients with a strong clinical suspicion for its presence...
April 16, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Chrysoula Boutari, Eleni Georgianou, Alexandros Sachinidis, Alexandra Katsimardou, Konstantinos Christou, Alexia Piperidou, Asterios Karagiannis
Renovascular hypertension (RVH) remains among the most prevalent and important, but also potentially reversible, causes of secondary hypertension. The predominant causes of renal artery stenosis (RAS) are atherosclerotic renovascular arterial stenosis (ARAS) and renal fibromuscular dysplasia. This condition can lead to progressive renal injury, cardiovascular complications and 'flash pulmonary edema'. Duplex Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are the most commonly used diagnostic methods...
April 16, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Katerina Chrysaidou, Athanasia Chainoglou, Vasiliki Karava, John Dotis, Nikoleta Printza, Stella Stabouli
Hypertension is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, not only in adults, but in youths also, as it is associated with long-term negative health effects. The predominant type of hypertension in children is the secondary hypertension, with the chronic kidney disease being the most common cause, however, nowadays, there is a rising incidence of primary hypertension due to the rising incidence of obesity in children. Although office blood pressure has guided patient management for many years, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring provides useful information, facilitates the diagnosis and management of hypertension in children and adolescents, by monitoring treatment and evaluation for secondary causes or specific phenotypes of hypertension...
April 16, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Gabriel T do Vale, Carlos R Tirapelli
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reactive derivatives of oxygen metabolism. The ROS generation can be mediated by distinctive enzymatic systems including NADPH oxidases. The components of this enzyme are expressed in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, adventitial fibroblasts, and infiltrating monocytes/macrophages. Oxidative stress is a molecular dysregulation in ROS generation/elimination, which plays a key role in the development of vascular dysfunction in distinctive conditions including hypertension...
April 16, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Alexandra Katsimardou, Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Alexandros Sachinidis, Michalis Doumas, Vasilios Athyros
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by the simultaneous presence of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in an individual, leading to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. It affects almost 35% of the US adult population, while its' prevalence increases with age. Elevated blood pressure is the most frequent component of the syndrome; however, up to date, the optimal antihypertensive regiment has not been defined. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to present the proposed definitions for the metabolic syndrome, as well as the prevalence of hypertension in this condition...
April 15, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Konstantinos Imprialos, Vasilios Papademetriou, Charles Faselis, Kostas Tsioufis, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Michael Doumas
BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism is one of the most common causes of secondary hypertension. Patients with this endocrine syndrome are at increased cardiovascular risk, higher than hypertensive individuals with equal blood pressure levels. OBJECTIVES: To thoroughly present and critically discuss the novel insights in the field of primary aldosteronism, focusing in the clinically meaningful aspects. METHOD: We meticulously evaluated existing data in the field of primary aldosteronism in order to summarize future perspectives in this narrative review...
April 15, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Michail Natsis, Christina Antza, Ioannis Doundoulakis, Stella Stabouli, Vasilios Kotsis
Backround: The relationship between obesity and hypertension has been established in both adults and children. The combination of obesity, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors significantly increases the likelihood of adverse cardiovascular effects and raises concerns about aggressive treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE: Despite the impressive elements which indicate an important role for excessive weight gain in increasing blood pressure, not all obese patients are hypertensive...
April 15, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Anila Duni, Evangelia Dounousi, Paraskevi Pavlakou, Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Vassilios Liakopoulos
Management of arterial hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major challenge due to its high prevalence and its associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CKD progression. Several clinical trials and meta-analyses have demonstrated that aggressive treatment of hypertension in patients with and without CKD lowers the risk of CVD and all-cause mortality, nevertheless the effects of blood pressure (BP) lowering in terms of renal protection or harm remain controversial. Both home and ambulatory BP estimation have shown that patients with CKD display abnormal BP patterns outside of the office and further investigation is required, so as to compare the association of ambulatory versus office BP measurements with hard outcomes and adjust treatment strategies accordingly...
April 15, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Jamaira Aparecida Victorio, Ana Paula Davel
Most of the systemic blood vessels are surrounded by the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). Healthy PVAT is anticontractile and anti-inflammatory, but a dysfunctional PVAT has been suggested to link cardiometabolic risk factors to vascular dysfunction. Vascular oxidative stress is an important pathophysiological event in cardiometabolic complications of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. PVAT-derived adipocytes generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide that might signal to vascular wall...
April 10, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Peter E Levanovich, Alexander Diaczok, Noreen F Rossi
Advances in molecular research techniques have enabled a new frontier in discerning the mechanisms responsible for monogenic diseases. In this review, we discuss the current research on the molecular pathways governing blood pressure disorders with a Mendelian inheritance pattern, each presenting with a unique pathophysiology. Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism (GRA) and apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) are caused by mutations in regulatory enzymes that induce increased production of mineralocorticoids or inhibit degradation of glucocorticoids, respectively...
April 9, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Shane A Phillips, Kendra Osborn, Chueh-Lung Hwang, Ahmad Sabbahi, Mariann R Piano
Oxidative stress is implicated in the etiology of many ethanol-induced pathologies. Oxidative stress has been shown to contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension. This review details mechanisms of vascular function, the role of oxidative stress in vascular biology and how ethanol consumption may alter endothelial and smooth muscle cell function as well as microvascular function. Also reviewed are data from human investigations that have examined the association between alcohol consumption and changes in blood pressure and increased risk for hypertension...
March 25, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Atsuko Kawamura, Junko Inagaki, Seiji Umemoto, Katsuko Kajiya, Hiroko Kishi, Makoto Mitarai, Hiroshi Oda, Sei Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: We previously reported the nutritional characteristics and effects of the DASH-JUMP diet, which is a WASHOKU-modified DASH diet, in Japanese participants with untreated high-normal blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension. The dietary adherence of the DASH diet in Japanese participants has never been evaluated before. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the relationships between dietary adherence, self-efficacy, and health behavior change among study participants who received the DASH-JUMP diet by home delivery...
March 18, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Anthony Wilson, Jason Gandhi, Yiji Suh, Gunjan Joshi, Noel L Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
Background- Advances in treatment and increased awareness have improved the prognosis for many patients with hypertension (HTN). Resistant hypertension (RH) refers to a subset of hypertensive individuals that fail to achieve a desired blood pressure (BP) despite concurrent use of 3 different classes antihypertensive agents, one being a diuretic, and proper lifestyle changes. The prevalence and prognosis of RH are unclear owning to its heterogeneous etiologies, risk factors, and secondary comorbidities. Previous research has provided evidence that increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) within the renal artery contributes to RH development...
March 1, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Gary D James
In recent years, there has been interest in evaluating the morbidity and mortality risk of circadian, diurnal, or nocturnal blood pressure variation. Variation is a normative property of blood pressure, necessary for survival. Like many physiological functions, blood pressure undergoes allostasis, meaning that the body does not defend a particular blood pressure value, but rather blood pressure maintains bodily stability through continual change that is initiated by constantly fluctuating internal and external environmental stimuli...
March 1, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Zahid Hussain Khan, Milad Minagar, Mohammad Dehghan-Tezerjani
We are of the opinion that fasting during the Muslims month of Ramadhan could cause hypertension secondary to dehydration that inevitably follows. Dehydration initiates a cascade of hormonal events that finally culminate in hypertension. This hypothesis however need to be tested in a randomized trial to be confirmed.
February 13, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Pasquale Palmiero, Annapaola Zito, Maria Maiello, Annagrazia Cecere, Anna Vittoria Mattioli, Roberto Pedrinelli, Pietro Scicchitano, Marco Matteo Ciccone
Primary prevention of cardiovascular events in older adults is a relevant problem, because of lack of evidence for safe and efficacious therapy, its costs and elderly quality of life, Italy's aging population is constantly increasing, so cardiovascular disease (CVD) primary prevention in the elderly is a prime objective. Life expectancy has dramatically increased over the last 2 decades,the proportion of individuals aged 80 years and older has grown rapidly in Europe and United States,but cost / effective ratio of CVD prevention through risk factors control is debated...
February 11, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Kjell Haram, Jan Helge Mortensen, Ole Myking, Everett F Magann, John C Morrison
Oxidative stress is a consequence of a reduction in the antioxidant capacity and an excessive production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS). Oxidative agents, which are overproduced due to ischemic-reperfusion injury in the placenta, may overwhelm the normal antioxidant activity. This imbalance is a key feature in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. A decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity is associated with the synthesis of vasoconstrictive eicosanoids such as F2-isoprostanes and thromboxane, which are known to be upregulated in preeclampsia...
January 19, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Mehdi Jafari Oori, Farahnaz Mohammadi, Kian Norozi, Masoud Fallahi Khoshknab, Abbas Ebadi, Reza Ghanei
INTRODUCTION: prevalence of hypertension (HTN) is increasing in the developing countries like Iran. Various studies have reported different rates of HTN in Iran. The purpose of this study was to estimate an overall prevalence of HTN in Iran. METHODOLOGY: Using the English and Persian key derived from Mesh, the databases including MagIran, Iran Medex, SID, Web of Sciences, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar as a searching engine were reviewed: from 2004 to 2018...
January 18, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Giulia Alessandra Wiggers, Alessandra Simão Padilha, Maylla RonacherSimões
The use of heavy metals is closely linked to the history of mankind. They have been used as important materials in a wide variety of human activities such as manufacturing utensils and tools. Such extended use has significantly increased professional and environmental exposure to mercury, lead and cadmium. These metals are known to produce hypertension in humans and animals and, among other effects, they can also affect endothelial function. Results described here suggest that mercury, lead and cadmium affect vascular reactivity, even at low doses or concentrations...
January 15, 2019: Current Hypertension Reviews
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