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Medical Molecular Morphology

Hiroki Yamamoto, Masazumi Saito, Tsuyoshi Goto, Keiichiro Ueshima, Masashi Ishida, Shigeki Hayashi, Kazuya Ikoma, Osam Mazda, Toshikazu Kubo
Glucocorticoids and hypoxia is considered to promote osteocyte apoptosis and necrosis, which are observed in glucocorticoid-associated osteonecrosis and osteoporosis. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induced by hemin is reported to have cytoprotective effects in ischemic diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of HO-1 on osteocyte death caused by glucocorticoids and hypoxia. We confirmed that hemin induced HO-1 expression in MLO-Y4 mouse osteocytes. MLO-Y4 was cultured with dexamethasone (Dex) under hypoxia (DH group)...
January 31, 2019: Medical Molecular Morphology
Kang Cheng, Zhihua Song, Hao Zhang, Simian Li, Chao Wang, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
So far, the majority of the previous animal studies have focused on the preventive effects of resveratrol (RSV) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rather than the therapeutic effects. In this study, the therapeutic effects of RSV on hepatic oxidative stress (OS), inflammation, and lipid metabolism-related gene expression of obese mice induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) were investigated. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity-related NAFLD model. And then, NAFLD mice were treated with daily RSV oral gavage at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for an additional 4 weeks...
January 23, 2019: Medical Molecular Morphology
Hirofumi Kurose, Yoshiki Naito, Jun Akiba, Reiichiro Kondo, Sachiko Ogasawara, Hironori Kusano, Sakiko Sanada, Hideyuki Abe, Tatsuyuki Kakuma, Kosuke Ueda, Tsukasa Igawa, Hirohisa Yano
Sulfite oxidase (SUOX) is a metalloenzyme that plays a role in ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and has been reported to also be involved in the invasion and differentiation capacities of tumor cells. Here, we performed a clinicopathological investigation of SUOX expression in prostate cancer and discussed the usefulness of SUOX expression as a predictor of biochemical recurrence following surgical treatment in prostate cancer. This study was conducted using Tissue Micro Array specimens obtained from 97 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at our hospital between 2007 and 2011...
January 10, 2019: Medical Molecular Morphology
Penghai Zhang, Yang Liu, Changyu Fu, Ce Wang, Xingbang Duan, Wenting Zou, Tianshu Zhao
This study aimed to investigate the function of glioma stem cells (GSCs) and the role of PCAT1. This study dissociated the differences between GSCs and glioma cells in terms of apoptosis rate and γH2AX positive cells levels after radiation. Microarray was carried out to detect that expressed PCAT1, and it was testified by RT-qPCR. After transfection, GSCs were used to investigate the influence of PCAT1 on radiation sensitivity. Sphere-formation capability was first examined. Cell apoptosis rate after radiation of 0 Gy or 6 Gy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and the level of γH2AX positive cells after 6 Gy radiation were compared...
December 18, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Mariko Kawai, David Herrmann, Alisa Fuchs, Shuofei Cheng, Anna Ferrer-Vaquer, Rebekka Götz, Katrin Driller, Annette Neubüser, Kiyoshi Ohura
Most facial bones, including frontal bones, are derived from neural crest cells through intramembranous ossification. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (Fgfr1) plays a pivotal role in craniofacial bone development, and loss of Fgfr1 leads to cleft palate and facial cleft defects in newborn mice. However, the potential role of the Fgfr1 gene in neural crest cell-mediated craniofacial development remains unclear. To investigate the role of Fgfr1 in neural crest cells, we analyzed Wnt1-Cre;Fgfr1flox/flox mice...
November 29, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yoko Nekooki-Machida, Takashi Nakakura, Yoshimi Nishijima, Hideyuki Tanaka, Kenjiro Arisawa, Yoshiko Kiuchi, Toshio Miyashita, Haruo Hagiwara
Acetylation of α-tubulin is a well-studied posttranscriptional modification, which is mostly catalyzed by α-tubulin N-acetyltransferase (ATAT1). ATAT1 possibly affects various cellular functions related with microtubules, such as intracellular transport, cell motility, cilia formation, and neuronal signaling. Here, we analyzed the subcellular localization of immunolabeled ATAT1 in human fibroblast KD cells through the cell cycle using confocal laser scanning microscopy. ATAT1 dramatically changed its localization through the cell cycle, depending on the mitotic phase...
December 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Huy Bang Nguyen, Yang Sui, Truc Quynh Thai, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Toshiyuki Oda, Nobuhiko Ohno
Impaired nerve conduction, axonal degeneration, and synaptic alterations contribute to neurological disabilities in inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Cerebellar dysfunction is associated with demyelinating disorders, but the alterations of axon terminals in cerebellar gray matter during chronic demyelination are still unclear. We analyzed the morphological and ultrastructural changes of climbing fiber terminals in a mouse model of hereditary chronic demyelination. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analyses using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining for synaptic markers were performed in a demyelination mouse model caused by extra copies of myelin gene (PLP4e)...
December 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Shigeo Ohba, Yuichi Hirose
To become immortalized, cells need to maintain the telomere length via the activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomere. Mutations in IDH1/2 are strongly associated with the early stage of gliomagenesis. Previous work has shown that the accumulation of 2-HG, which is induced by mutant IDH1/2, inhibits α-KG-dependent deoxygenase and leads to genome-wide histone and DNA methylation alterations. These alterations are believed to contribute to tumorigenesis. H-Ras can transform human astrocytes with the inactivation of p53/pRb and expression of hTERT; however, mutant IDH1 can also transform cells...
December 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Tsutomu Namikawa, Kazune Fujisawa, Eri Munekage, Jun Iwabu, Sunao Uemura, Shigehiro Tsujii, Hiromichi Maeda, Hiroyuki Kitagawa, Hideo Fukuhara, Keiji Inoue, Takayuki Sato, Michiya Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Hanazaki
The natural amino acid 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) precursor and a new-generation photosensitive substance that accumulates specifically in cancer cells. When indocyanine green (ICG) is irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light, it shifts to a higher energy state and emits infrared light with a longer wavelength than the irradiated NIR light. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) using ALA and ICG-based NIR fluorescence imaging has emerged as a new diagnostic technique. Specifically, in laparoscopic examinations for serosa-invading advanced gastric cancer, peritoneal metastases could be detected by ALA-PDD, but not by conventional visible-light imaging...
December 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Makoto Toi, Yoshihiro Hayashi, Ichiro Murakami
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a principal role in Vitamin A metabolism and are considered the major matrix-producing cell type in the diseased liver. Rat HSCs are identified by immunohistochemistry with myogenic or mesenchymal (desmin, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin) or neural (e.g., GFAP or neuronal cell adhesion molecule) markers. Embryonic origin of rat HSCs was determined using these markers. Nestin, an intermediate filament protein originally identified in neuronal stem or progenitor cells, is widely used as a stem cell marker, including hepatic stem cells in adult rat livers...
December 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Truc Quynh Thai, Huy Bang Nguyen, Yang Sui, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Toshiyuki Oda, Nobuhiko Ohno
Demyelination leads to axonal changes that involve the functions and dynamics of axonal mitochondria supporting metabolism and survival of axons. However, the changes in the physical interactions between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, called mitochondria-associated membranes, are poorly understood in demyelinated axons. In this study, we investigated the three-dimensional ultrastructural changes in membrane juxtapositions between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in axons of a chronic progressive demyelination mouse model caused by extra copies of proteolipid protein (PLP4e)...
November 17, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Mamoru Ueda, Yoshiya Hashimoto, Yoshitomo Honda, Shunsuke Baba, Shosuke Morita
Generating mesenchymal stem-like cells (MSLCs) from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be a practical method for obtaining the sufficient cells for autologous tissue engineering. Single-cell culturing in specific medium and non-feeder cells is an alternative and promising strategy to overcome problems of embryo culture; however, little is known about how different culture media affect the proliferation and differentiation of MSLCs. We first derived MSLCs from iPSCs with non-integrating episomal plasmid vectors (hereafter 409B2 cells) using three different cell culture media, including single-cell culture medium in feeder-free condition: mTeSR1, DEF-CS500, or StemFit AK02N...
November 16, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Juliana Campos Pinheiro, Caio César da Silva Barros, Larissa Santos Amaral Rolim, Leão Pereira Pinto, Lélia Batista de Souza, Pedro Paulo de Andrade Santos
We performed an epidemiological, clinical and histopathological analysis of oral lymphoid lesions (OLLs) during a 47-year period. Data regarding patient age, sex, duration, location, symptomatology, type of growth, implantation, staining, presence of ulceration and bleeding of all cases were compiled from the clinical data. For the histopathological analyses, all slides stained by H/E were reassessed. During the analyzed period, 14,565 patients with oral and maxillofacial lesions were diagnosed, with 45 cases diagnosed as OLLs...
October 31, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Naoki Kanomata, Junichi Kurebayashi, Takuya Moriya
The development of trastuzumab has significantly improved the prognosis of HER2-positive breast cancer. However, disease recurs in some patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. A new strategy for treating HER2-positive breast cancer is necessary. Although several studies have reported that HER3 is a prognostic factor for HER2-positive breast cancers, phosphorylated HER3 (pHER3) has not been well studied. There has been no survival analysis including immunohistochemistry with trastuzumab as the primary antibody...
October 13, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Y Hirakawa, S Futaki, H Tanizaki, F Furukawa, K Maemura, Y Kondo, S Moriwaki
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a malignant skin tumor originating from cells of the epidermal basal layer and adnexal epithelium, especially in sun-exposed areas. Unlike squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), BCC has a propensity to grow only locally possibly due to differences in the surrounding microenvironment including the basement membrane (BM) and stroma. To investigate the components constituting the BM and surrounding connective tissue in BCC and SCC, we analyzed the expression of BM proteins, nidogen 1 (NID1) and type IV collagen (COL4)...
October 1, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Sasagu Kurozumi, Yuri Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Kenichi Inoue, Masafumi Kurosumi, Tetsunari Oyama, Jun Horiguchi, Takaaki Fujii, Ken Shirabe
The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family plays a vital role in the development of resistance to treatments in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. This study investigated the correlation between protein and mRNA expressions of the HER family in ER-positive breast cancer. We dissected regions of invasive cancer from the frozen tissues of 34 patients with ER-positive breast cancer using laser-capture microdissection, followed by evaluation of the mRNA levels of the ER and HER family (EGFR, HER2, HER3, and HER4) using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay...
September 27, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Kagaku Azuma, Qian Zhou, Kin-Ya Kubo
Although the understanding of the complex pathogenesis for osteoporosis is appreciable, the underlying mechanism is not yet fully elucidated. There is a great need to further characterize the available animal models in osteoporosis research. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) mice have been developed as the spontaneous experimental model for senile osteoporosis. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of current research regarding the bone morphological and molecular alterations and the possible mechanisms involved in these changes...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Hitomi Aoki
Rest is a regulator of neuronal development and has been suggested to function in maintaining the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs); however, this remains controversial. Since Rest null mice show embryonic lethality, we herein generated conditional Rest knockout (CKO) models to investigate Rest functions in more detail. Our results revealed that Rest was not necessary for maintaining the pluripotency of ESCs and instead promoted primitive endoderm differentiation. In contrast to the repressive role of Rest in vitro, including ESCs, neural stem cells, and fibroblasts, on the expression of target neural genes, Rest CKO did not affect the in vivo development of brain tissue...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Fumiya Harada, Osamu Uehara, Tetsuro Morikawa, Daichi Hiraki, Aya Onishi, Seiko Toraya, Bhoj Raj Adhikari, Rie Takai, Koki Yoshida, Jun Sato, Michiko Nishimura, Itsuo Chiba, Ching Zong Wu, Yoshihiro Abiko
Although an association between periodontitis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been suggested, the mechanism involved remains unclear. Herein, we examined the global gene expression profile in a mouse model that showed no acute inflammation in the kidney following stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS). The mice were injected with PG-LPS at a concentration of 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally, every 3 days, for 1 month. Microarray analysis was used to identify 10 genes with the highest expression levels in the kidney stimulated with PG-LPS...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Manabu Hayashi, Kazumichi Abe, Masashi Fujita, Ken Okai, Atsushi Takahashi, Yoshihiro Nozawa, Hiromasa Ohira
Non-invasive predictors for the development of cirrhosis-related conditions are needed for patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We investigated the association between cytokeratin-18 fragments (M30 and M65) and liver histology, treatment response and the development of cirrhosis-related conditions in patients with PBC. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 111 individuals with biopsy-proven PBC. Serum M30 and M65 levels were measured using stored sera. M30 were significantly decreased after treatment, but there was no significant change in the M65 levels...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
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