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Personalized Medicine

Jason H Moore, Mary Regina Boland, Pablo G Camara, Hannah Chervitz, Graciela Gonzalez, Blanca E Himes, Dokyoon Kim, Danielle L Mowery, Marylyn D Ritchie, Li Shen, Ryan J Urbanowicz, John H Holmes
Personalized medicine is being realized by our ability to measure biological and environmental information about patients. Much of these data are being stored in electronic health records yielding big data that presents challenges for its management and analysis. Here, we review several areas of knowledge that are necessary for next-generation scientists to fully realize the potential of biomedical big data. We begin with an overview of big data and its storage and management. We then review statistics and data science as foundational topics followed by a core curriculum of artificial intelligence, machine learning and natural language processing that are needed to develop predictive models for clinical decision making...
February 14, 2019: Personalized Medicine
Leah H Biller, Matthew B Yurgelun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2019: Personalized Medicine
Dipak Kalra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2019: Personalized Medicine
Junjie Jiang, Zhiwu Zhang, Yuanchen Yu, Mingchun Luan, Zhenjie Ma, Fei Gao, Shengjun Yu
AIM: To screen the differential genes in NogoA/NTR-related pathways that associate with sciatic nerve injury. RESULTS: There was no difference in the expression of NogoA, NTR and Ntrk2. Differential genes existed in 11 differential pathways that include NogoA, NTR and Ntrk2. Pathways closely related to sciatic nerve injury are MAPK, endophagocytosis, apoptosis, neurotrophin signaling and inflammatory mediators. NTRK1, FASLG, LDLR ADRB1 and HTR2A in model rats were downregulated compared with control rats, IL1R1, CSF1R, BCL2L1 and HRH1 in model rats were upregulated compared with control rats...
January 29, 2019: Personalized Medicine
Hui-Ying Ma, Zhi-Fen Liu, Yi-Fan Xu, Xiao-Dong Hu, Ning Sun, Xin-Rong Li, Ke-Rang Zhang
AIM: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder with a complicated pathogenesis and genetic predisposition. The objective of this article is to explore the relationship between the four SNPs of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) gene (rs11932595, rs12504300, rs3805148, rs534654) and the efficacy of antidepressants. Materials & methods: This study enrolled a total of 600 patients, who met the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for MDD. All subjects were treated with single selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors...
December 20, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Kimberly M Deininger, Robert L Page, Yee Ming Lee, Yardlee S Kauffman, Samuel G Johnson, Kris Oreschak, Christina L Aquilante
AIM: To evaluate factors influencing cardiologists' perspectives about pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing in clinical practice. PATIENTS & METHODS: Semistructured interviews with practicing cardiologists were qualitatively analyzed to identify common themes. RESULTS: Five themes were identified among 16 cardiologists from four specialties (n = 5 general cardiology, n = 3 electrophysiology, n = 2 adult congenital and n = 6 heart failure/transplant): cardiologists' knowledge and needs, perceived clinical validity and utility of PGx testing, dissemination and management of PGx results, patient-related considerations and incidental findings...
December 13, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Ebony Torrington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Katherine Hyland, Kathryn Garber, Shoumita Dasgupta
Rapid advances in genomic technologies combined with drastic reductions in cost and a growing number of clinical genomic tests are transforming medical practice. While enthusiasm about applications of precision medicine is high, the existing clinical genetics workforce is insufficient to meet present demands and will fall increasingly short as the use of genetic and genomic testing becomes more routine. To address this shortage, physicians in all areas of medicine will require genomic literacy. Undergraduate medical students, therefore, need a solid foundation in genetics and genomics so they can apply genomic medicine across a range of specialties...
November 29, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Lidija Bach-Rojecky, Dalia Vađunec, Katarina Žunić, Jelena Kurija, Sara Šipicki, Ryan Gregg, Ivan Mikula, Dragan Primorac
Successful pain management requires the delivery of analgesia with minimal risk of adverse drug reactions. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids remain the mainstay of treatment for the majority of patients. Unfortunately, almost 50% of all patients experience inadequate pain relief and serious side effects. Allelic variants in genes coding for target proteins, transporters and enzymes, which govern analgesic drugs action and their fate in the organism, might explain inter-individual variability in pain severity and in drug-induced pain relief and toxicities...
November 28, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Noor Ullah, Atika Mansoor, Shazia Micheal, Bushra Mirza, Raheel Qamar, Kehkashan Mazhar, Saima Siddiqi
AIM: 5,10-MTHFR-single nucleotide polymorphisms are important for normal functioning of the enzyme that plays a key role in DNA synthesis, folate-metabolism and methylation reactions. Methodology & results: Male-infertility association of C665T and A1298C polymorphisms was explored, this topic is still debatable. Infertile men (232) and controls (114) were genotyped and statistically analyzed. Comparison of patients (6180) and controls (5744) of Caucasian populations was performed by meta-analysis...
November 23, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Şükrü Tüzmen, Galen Hostetter, Aprill Watanabe, Cumhur Ekmekçi, Patricia E Carrigan, Ishaiahu Shechter, Olli Kallioniemi, Laurence J Miller, Spyro Mousses
 To help characterize the FDFT1 gene and protein expression in cancer. Cholesterol represents an important structural component of lipid rafts. These specializations can be involved in pathways stimulating cell growth, survival and other processes active in cancer. This cellular compartment can be expanded by acquisition of cholesterol from the circulation or by its synthesis in a metabolic pathway regulated by the FDFT1 enzyme. Given the critical role this might play in carcinogenesis and in the behavior of cancers, we have examined the level of this enzyme in various types of human cancer...
November 23, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Thomas M Maddox, Philip Ro Payne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Tahereh Mazoochi, Mohammad Karimian, Hassan Ehteram, Ali Karimian
AIM: To investigate the possible association between survivin c.-31G>C (rs9904341) gene polymorphism and urinary system cancers by a meta-analysis approach. METHODS: Standard electronic literature databases were searched to find eligible studies. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were estimated to find the associations possibility. RESULTS: Overall meta-analysis revealed significant associations between c.-31G>C transversion and risk of urinary tract cancers in dominant (OR: 1...
November 22, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Said El Shamieh, Christy Costanian, Rayan Kassir, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Nisrine Bissar-Tadmouri
AIM: We first investigated the distribution of APOE genotypes in Lebanese general population and Alzheimer's disease study (ADS) groups, and compared it with 1000 genomes populations. Then, we assessed eventual association between APOE genotypes, hypercholesterolemia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). MATERIALS & METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 591 individuals. Clinical and biological data were collected, DNA was extracted and genotyped using Kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP™) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphis (PCR-RFLP)...
November 20, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Mehdi Ariana, Majid Pornour, Saeedeh Sarafraz Mehr, Hajar Vaseghi, Shahla Mohammad Ganji, Mohammad R Alivand, Maryam Salari, Mohammad E Akbari
AIM: Modifications of oxytocin (OT) concentration and OT receptor (OXTR) expression level have different effects on breast cancer-derived cells. This study was conducted to evaluate OT variation in breast cancer patients and to evaluate OXTR expression changes in breast cancer tissues. METHODS: The plasma concentrations of OT in both breast cancer patients and healthy individuals' samples were assessed. OXTR variations were then assessed in both cancerous and noncancerous breast tissues...
November 19, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Michael A Kiebish, Niven R Narain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Lukas Perkhofer, Pierre-Olivier Frappart, Martin Müller, Alexander Kleger
The establishment of organoid culture systems represents a milestone on the route toward successful personalized medicine. This mini review provides an update on the current status of organoid technology and summarizes their applications in personalized medicine. Organoids can be defined as 3D structures derived either from pluripotent or organ restricted stem cells harboring the ability to mimic in vivo architecture and multi lineage differentiation of terminally differentiated tissues. Due to their unique ability of virtually unlimited self-renewal, organoid cultures should be distinguished from previous 'sphere'-culture assays, for example, 'tumor spheres' that have already been described and applied over the last decades...
November 12, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Qaisar Ali, Arshad Jamal, Muhammad Imran, Sajjad Ullah, Irfan Kalam, Shafi Ullah, Ahmed B Waqar
AIM: There is a strong correlation of IL28B rs12979860 genetic variations and gender with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. MATERIALS & METHODS: HCV-infected subjects were categorized into HCV spontaneous clearance (SC) group and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) group on the basis of anti-HCV antibodies and HCV RNA level and follow-up of 6 months. 35 subjects were classified in SC group and 165 subjects were classified in CHC group. IL28B rs12979860 genotypes were determined by allele-specific PCR...
November 6, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Nicoletta Urbano, Manuel Scimeca, Elena Bonanno, Orazio Schillaci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Birendra K Yadav, Chhagan Bihari
AIM: India has a high hepatobiliary disease burden, yet very little research has been done in this field. A major roadblock in the translational research is the unavailability of quality biosamples with standardized clinical annotations. Having a national level biobank facility can circumvent the problem. The Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences being a premier liver institute, undertook the initiative to establish the national liver disease biobank. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a survey among the potential users of biobank resources...
November 5, 2018: Personalized Medicine
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