journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37594217/neural-mechanisms-linked-to-treatment-outcomes-and-recovery-in-substance-related-and-addictive-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Gemma Mestre-Bach, Marc N Potenza
The present review focuses on potential neural mechanisms underlying recovery from psychiatric conditions characterised by impaired impulse control, specifically substance use disorders, gambling disorder, and internet gaming disorder. Existing treatments (both pharmacological and psychological) for these addictions may impact brain processes, and these have been evaluated in neuroimaging studies. Medication challenge and short-term intervention administration will be considered with respect to treatment utility...
December 2023: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37497602/independent-effects-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-diagnosis-and-metabolic-syndrome-status-on-prefrontal-cortical-thickness-and-subcortical-gray-matter-volumes
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hilmar Klaus Luckhoff, Stefan du Plessis, Heuvel Leigh van den, Robin Emsley, Soraya Seedat
INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with overlapping brain structural differences. These often involve brain structures involved in the regulation of appetite, food intake, satiety, and reward processing. We examined the individual and interactive effects of PTSD diagnosis and MetS on cortical thickness and subcortical gray matter volumes in patients with PTSD ( n  = 104) compared to trauma-exposed controls ( n  = 97)...
December 2023: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37427882/suicidality-risk-after-using-cannabis-and-cannabinoids-an-umbrella-review
#3
REVIEW
Ahmad Shamabadi, Ali Ahmadzade, Kasra Pirahesh, Alireza Hasanzadeh, Hassan Asadigandomani
The increasing prevalence and burden of suicide have led to numerous studies to identify its risk factors. Cannabis is the most common illicit substance detected in suicide victims' toxicology tests. This study aims to identify and appraise systematic reviews investigating suicidality after using cannabis and cannabinoids. Seven databases and two registries were searched without restrictions for systematic reviews investigating cannabis effects on suicidality. AMSTAR-2 was used for quality assessment and corrected covered area and citation matrix were used to determine overlap...
December 2023: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37390849/polysomnographic-parameters-in-long-covid-chronic-insomnia-patients
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alexandre Rouen, Jonathan Taïeb, Gabriela Caetano, Victor Pitron, Maxime Elbaz, Dominique Salmon, Damien Leger
INTRODUCTION: While COVID-19 is predominantly considered to be an acute self-remitting disease, it has been pointed out that a variety of symptoms can linger for several months, a phenomenon identified as long-COVID. Insomnia is particularly prevalent in long-COVID. In the present study, we aimed at confirming and characterising insomnia in long-COVID patients through polysomnography and to identify whether its parameters differ from patients with chronic insomnia and no long-COVID history...
December 2023: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37190759/connectome-based-prediction-of-craving-in-gambling-disorder-and-cocaine-use-disorder
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Stephanie Antons, Sarah W Yip, Cheryl M Lacadie, Javid Dadashkarimi, Dustin Scheinost, Matthias Brand, Marc N Potenza
INTRODUCTION: Craving, involving intense and urgent desires to engage in specific behaviours, is a feature of addictions. Multiple studies implicate regions of salience/limbic networks and basal ganglia, fronto-parietal, medial frontal regions in craving in addictions. However, prior studies have not identified common neural networks that reliably predict craving across substance and behavioural addictions. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging during an audiovisual cue-reactivity task and connectome-based predictive modelling (CPM), a data-driven method for generating brain-behavioural models, were used to study individuals with cocaine-use disorder and gambling disorder...
December 2023: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36924413/effects-of-intermittent-theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cognition-and-hippocampal-volumes-in-bipolar-depression
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ivan J Torres, Ruiyang Ge, Alexander McGirr, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Sharon Ahn, Jayasree Basivireddy, Nazlin Walji, Sophia Frangou, Raymond W Lam, Lakshmi N Yatham
INTRODUCTION: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly used to treat neurocognitive symptoms in mood disorders. Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a brief version of TMS that may preferentially target cognitive functions. This study evaluated whether iTBS leads to cognitive improvements and associated increased hippocampal volumes in bipolar depression. METHODS: In a two-site double-blind randomised sham controlled trial (NCT02749006), 16 patients received active iTBS to the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPF) and 15 patients received sham stimulation across four weeks...
December 2023: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36817972/independent-component-analysis-for-internet-gaming-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Gemma Mestre-Bach, Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Marc N Potenza
Introduction: There is a growing interest in the study of the neurobiological correlates of internet gaming disorder (IGD), and new techniques are beginning to be implemented for this purpose, such as independent component analysis (ICA). Aims: The present narrative review aimed to explore the studies that had used ICA for the study of the different brain networks possibly associated with IGD. Methods: We specifically focussed on three of the main networks: default-mode network, executive-control and salience networks...
2023: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36698618/exercise-addiction-a-narrative-overview-of-research-issues
#8
REVIEW
Aviv Weinstein, Attila Szabo
This narrative overview summarises the work on exercise addiction (EA) over the past 12 years and exposes critical conceptual and methodological issues. More than 1000 articles exist on EA, conceptualised as uncontrolled training harming the individual. Still, EA has no clinical diagnosis criteria at this time. Research is increasing continuously, but it is stale in advancing knowledge. Scalar measurement and lack of differentiation between addictive and instrumental exercise could be reasons for insufficient progress...
2023: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37522807/the-world-federation-of-societies-of-biological-psychiatry-guidelines-on-the-assessment-and-pharmacological-treatment-of-compulsive-sexual-behaviour-disorder
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Daniel Turner, Peer Briken, Joshua Grubbs, Leo Malandain, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Marc N Potenza, Florence Thibaut
OBJECTIVES: The current guidelines aim to evaluate the role of pharmacological agents in the treatment of patients with compulsive sexual behaviour disorder (CSBD). They are intended for use in clinical practice by clinicians who treat patients with CSBD. METHODS: An extensive literature search was conducted using the English-language-literature indexed on PubMed and Google Scholar without time limit, supplemented by other sources, including published reviews. RESULTS: Each treatment recommendation was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for its efficacy, safety, tolerability, and feasibility...
December 2022: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36246995/cardiac-vagal-activity-is-associated-with-gut-microbiome-patterns-in-women-an-exploratory-pilot-study
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sabrina Mörkl, Andreas Oberascher, Josef M Tatschl, Sonja Lackner, Thomaz F S Bastiaanssen, Mary I Butler, Maximilian Moser, Matthias Frühwirth, Harald Mangge, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan, Sandra J Holasek
INTRODUCTION: A functional reciprocity between the gut microbiome and vagal nerve activity has been suggested, however, human studies addressing this phenomenon are limited. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour cardiac vagal activity (CVA) was assessed from 73 female participants (aged 24.5 ± 4.3 years). Additionally, stool samples were subjected to 16SrRNA gene analysis (V1-V2). Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) was used to analyse microbiome data...
2022: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/35860177/graph-theory-in-paediatric-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Raffaele Falsaperla, Giovanna Vitaliti, Simona Domenica Marino, Andrea Domenico Praticò, Janette Mailo, Michela Spatuzza, Maria Roberta Cilio, Rosario Foti, Martino Ruggieri
Graph theoretical studies have been designed to investigate network topologies during life. Network science and graph theory methods may contribute to a better understanding of brain function, both normal and abnormal, throughout developmental stages. The degree to which childhood epilepsies exert a significant effect on brain network organisation and cognition remains unclear. The hypothesis suggests that the formation of abnormal networks associated with epileptogenesis early in life causes a disruption in normal brain network development and cognition, reflecting abnormalities in later life...
2021: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/35860176/translational-chasm-and-dialogues-in-clinical-neuroscience
#12
EDITORIAL
Lakshmi N Yatham, Florence Thibaut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2021: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/35860175/improving-clinical-decision-making-in-psychiatry-implementation-of-digital-phenotyping-could-mitigate-the-influence-of-patient-s-and-practitioner-s-individual-cognitive-biases
#13
REVIEW
Stéphane Mouchabac, Ismael Conejero, Camille Lakhlifi, Ilyass Msellek, Leo Malandain, Vladimir Adrien, Florian Ferreri, Bruno Millet, Olivier Bonnot, Alexis Bourla, Redwan Maatoug
High stake clinical choices in psychiatry can be impacted by external irrelevant factors. A strong understanding of the cognitive and behavioural mechanisms involved in clinical reasoning and decision-making is fundamental in improving healthcare quality. Indeed, the decision in clinical practice can be influenced by errors or approximations which can affect the diagnosis and, by extension, the prognosis: human factors are responsible for a significant proportion of medical errors, often of cognitive origin...
2021: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/35860174/neurocognitive-functioning-in-bipolar-disorder-what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t
#14
REVIEW
Kamyar Keramatian, Ivan J Torres, Lakshmi N Yatham
Introduction: This narrative review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses aims at compiling available evidence in various aspects of neurocognitive functioning in Bipolar Disorder (BD). Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE literature search and identified 38 relevant systematic reviews and metaanalyses. Results: Current evidence suggests that BD is associated with cognitive impairment across multiple domains and during all clinical states. However, there is a considerable cognitive heterogeneity within BD, which cannot be explained by clinical subtypes, and the pattern of neurocognitive impairment in BD overlaps with other psychiatric conditions such as major depression and schizophrenia...
2021: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/35860173/chemical-sex-chemsex-in-a-population-of-french-university-students
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
L Malandain, S Mosser, S Mouchabac, J-V Blanc, C Alexandre, F Thibaut
INTRODUCTION: Chemsex is defined by the use of psychoactive substances to facilitate or improve sexual relations. Our objectives were to assess the prevalence of the practice of 'chemsex' in a population of French university students and to identify socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with this practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have used an anonymous online questionnaire comprising 15 questions on socio-demographic characteristics, chemsex use, sexual satisfaction, the type of substances used in this sexual context and their route of administration...
2021: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/35860172/how-gender-dysphoria-and-incongruence-became-medical-diagnoses-a-historical-review
#16
REVIEW
Marc-Antoine Crocq
This article is a historical review of the medical and psychiatric diagnoses associated with transgender people across epochs. Ancient Greek and Roman writings already mention gender change. Before a diagnosis even existed, historical documents described the lives of numerous people whom we would consider transgender today. The development of medical classifications took off in the nineteenth century, driven by the blooming of natural sciences. In the nineteenth century, most authors conflated questions of sexual orientation and gender...
2021: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/35860171/blood-metabolic-signatures-of-hikikomori-pathological-social-withdrawal
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Daiki Setoyama, Toshio Matsushima, Kohei Hayakawa, Tomohiro Nakao, Shigenobu Kanba, Dongchon Kang, Takahiro A Kato
Background: A severe form of pathological social withdrawal, 'hikikomori,' has been acknowledged in Japan, spreading worldwide, and becoming a global health issue. The pathophysiology of hikikomori has not been clarified, and its biological traits remain unexplored. Methods: Drug-free patients with hikikomori ( n  = 42) and healthy controls ( n  = 41) were recruited. Psychological assessments for the severity of hikikomori and depression were conducted. Blood biochemical tests and plasma metabolome analysis were performed...
2021: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33162773/first-case-report-of-tdcs-efficacy-in-severe-chemsex-addiction
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Léo Malandain, Jean-Victor Blanc, Florian Ferreri, Timothée Giorgiadis, Sophie Mosser, Stéphane Mouchabac, Florence Thibaut
Chemsex is an escalating public health issue among men who have sex with men, with potentially severe somatic and psychiatric consequences. Given the limited knowledge and lack of treatment recommendations available in this area, we proposed the use of noninvasive brain stimulation in order to reduce problematic chemsex behavior. This is the first open-label case report of a positive effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in a patient who was complaining of severe chemsex addiction. Total disappearance of chemsex behavior occurred after 5 days of daily sessions of right prefrontal cortex stimulation and did not return after 8 months of follow-up...
September 2020: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33162772/the-legalization-of-cannabinoid-products-and-standardizing-cannabis-drug-development-in-the-united-states-a-brief-report
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jahan Marcu
This brief report covers recent advances in cannabis and cannabinoid regulation and drug approval. The popularity of cannabis and cannabinoid products continues to rise, and these products are available for the majority of the population in the United States to purchase as easily as alcohol. Although many states have approved programs and research licenses, these activities and products all remain federally illegal. The solution may be for the United States to offer multiple pathways for product approval that adapt to the diversity of the products and the needs of the consumer...
September 2020: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33162771/the-costs-and-benefits-of-cannabis-control-policies
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Wayne Hall
As is the case for most drugs, cannabis use has costs and benefits, and so do the policies that attempt to minimize the first and maximize the second. This article summarizes what we know about the harmful effects of recreational cannabis use and the benefits of medical cannabis use under the policy of prohibition that prevailed in developed countries until 2012. It outlines three broad ways in which cannabis prohibition may be relaxed, namely, the depenalization of personal possession and use, the legalization of medical use, and the legalization of adult recreational use...
September 2020: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
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