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AIDS Research and Therapy

Xi Hu, Bingyu Liang, Chongxing Zhou, Junjun Jiang, Jiegang Huang, Chuanyi Ning, Jie Liu, Bo Zhou, Ning Zang, Jinzhen Lai, Rongfeng Chen, Yanyan Liao, Peijiang Pan, Xin Liu, Guanghua Lan, Xianwu Pang, Li Ye, Zhiyong Shen, Hao Liang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HIV late presentation and advanced HIV disease and to identify the factors associated with HIV late presentation and advanced HIV disease among patients with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, in Southwestern China. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed HIV registered in the HIV surveillance system of Guangxi Centers for Disease Control between January 2012 and December 2016 were included in this study...
March 16, 2019: AIDS Research and Therapy
Sarah E Rutstein, Jane S Chen, Julie A E Nelson, Samuel Phiri, William C Miller, Mina C Hosseinipour
High rates of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) resistance was a key consideration in the WHO policies transitioning first-line regimens to include integrase inhibitors (dolutegravir [DTG]). However, recent data suggests a relationship between DTG and neural tube defects among women exposed during conception, giving providers and policymakers pause regarding the planned regimen changes. We examined HIV drug resistance among a cohort of 46 acutely infected persons in Malawi. Our data demonstrates high levels of transmitted resistance, 11% using standard resistance surveillance mutations and 20% when additional NNRTI polymorphisms that may affect treatment response are included...
February 22, 2019: AIDS Research and Therapy
Larissa Danielle Bahls, Pedro Henrique Canezin, Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche, José Carlos Couto Fernandez, José Ricardo Colleti Dias, Vera Alice Fernandes Meneguetti, Luis Toshio Ueda, Dennis Armando Bertolini
BACKGROUND: Despite the advances in therapy, the occurrence of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a major obstacle to successful treatment. This study aimed to characterize the genetic diversity and to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) between individuals recently or chronically diagnosed with HIV-1 from Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 260 HIV-1 positive antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients were recruited to participate on the study, of which 39 were recently diagnosed...
February 5, 2019: AIDS Research and Therapy
Art F Y Poon, Emmanuel Ndashimye, Mariano Avino, Richard Gibson, Cissy Kityo, Fred Kyeyune, Immaculate Nankya, Miguel E Quiñones-Mateu, Eric J Arts
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of HIV-1 and antiretroviral treatment (ART) is strongly biased towards subtype B, the predominant subtype in North America and western Europe. Efforts to characterize the response to first-line treatments in other HIV-1 subtypes have been hindered by the availability of large study cohorts in resource-limited settings. To maximize our statistical power, we combined HIV-1 sequence and clinical data from every available study population associated with the Joint Clinical Research Centre (JCRC) in Uganda...
January 22, 2019: AIDS Research and Therapy
Dominic Bukenya, Billy Nsubuga Mayanja, Sarah Nakamanya, Richard Muhumuza, Janet Seeley
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) use by people living with HIV reduces HIV transmission, morbidity, mortality, and improves quality of life. Good ART adherence is required to achieve these benefits. We investigated how the environmental, social, economic and behavioural experiences of people living with HIV with poor viral suppression could explain their non-adherence to long term ART. METHODS: This qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted in Uganda between September 2015 and April 2016...
January 21, 2019: AIDS Research and Therapy
Karam Mounzer, Ricky Hsu, Jennifer S Fusco, Laurence Brunet, Cassidy E Henegar, Vani Vannappagari, Chris M Stainsby, Mark S Shaefer, Leigh Ragone, Gregory P Fusco
BACKGROUND: HLA-B*57:01 screening was added to clinical care guidelines in 2008 to reduce the risk of hypersensitivity reaction from abacavir. The uptake of HLA-B*57:01 screening and incidence of hypersensitivity reaction were assessed in a prospective clinical cohort in the United States to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention. METHODS: We included all patients initiating an abacavir-containing regimen for the first time in the pre-HLA-B*57:01 screening period (January 1, 1999 to June 14, 2008) or the post-HLA-B*57:01 screening period (June 15, 2008 to January 1, 2016)...
January 16, 2019: AIDS Research and Therapy
Carole Khaw, Daniel Richardson, Gail Matthews, Tim Read
Patients who are HIV-positive and co-infected with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. This is of clinical significance. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of STIs, particularly syphilis, gonorrhoea, Mycoplasma genitalium and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-positive patients. The reasons for this are multifactorial, but contributing factors may include effective treatment for HIV, increased STI testing, use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and use of social media to meet sexual partners...
December 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Antonio Mastroianni, Paolo Gaibani, Giada Rossini, Caterina Vocale, Maria Carla Re, Gianfranco Ravaglia, Vittorio Sambri, Stefania Varani
BACKGROUND: The management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in HIV-infected patients is often complex with patients experiencing higher mortality rates, more toxic side effects and a higher possibility of treatment failure and relapse than HIV-negative individuals with VL. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on successful salvage therapy in two HIV-infected patients suffering with disseminated cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, recalcitrant to therapy with liposomal amphotericin B...
December 20, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Michelle L Giles, Coral Gartner, Mark A Boyd
The World Health Organization estimates that smoking poses one of the greatest global health risks in the general population. Rates of current smoking among people living with HIV (PLHIV) are 2-3 times that of the general population, which contributes to the higher incidence of non-AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in PLHIV. Given the benefit of smoking cessation, strategies to assist individuals who smoke to quit should be a primary focus in modern HIV care. Tobacco harm reduction focuses on reducing health risk without necessarily requiring abstinence...
December 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Heather S Pomerantz, Xiaohe Xu, James White, T S Sunil, Robert G Deiss, Anuradha Ganesan, Brian K Agan, Jason F Okulicz
BACKGROUND: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation is common but difficult to predict in HIV-infected persons. OBJECTIVE: Since qualitative VZV antibodies can determine past VZV disease or vaccination, we evaluated whether quantitative VZV antibody levels over time can predict future zoster. STUDY DESIGN: US Military HIV Natural History (NHS) participants with a zoster diagnosis at least 5 years after HIV diagnosis (n = 100) were included...
December 11, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
O Galárraga, P Shah, M Wilson-Barthes, D Ayuku, P Braitstein
BACKGROUND: Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a critical component of HIV prevention. VMMC policies have achieved initial targets in adult men yet continue to fall short in reaching younger men and adolescents. SETTING: We present the cost and scale-up implications of an education-based, VMMC intervention for adolescent street-connected males, for whom the street has become their home and/or source of livelihood. The intervention was piloted as part of the Engaging Street Youth in HIV Interventions Project in Eldoret, Kenya...
November 29, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Anita Shet, Ramalingam Srinivasan, G N Sanjeeva, Sudha Subramanyan, Suba Sunderesan, Karunaianantham Ramesh, Bindu Gopalan, Elumalai Suresh, Navaneethan Poornagangadevi, Luke E Hanna, Chockalingam Chandrasekar, Christine Wanke, Soumya Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: Studies relating to long-term virological outcomes among children on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) from low and middle-income countries are limited. METHODS: Perinatally HIV infected, ART-naive children, between 2 and 12 years of age, initiating NNRTI-based ART during 2010-2015, with at least 12 months of follow-up, were included in the analysis. CD4 cell counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA were measured every 24 weeks post-ART initiation. Immunologic failure was defined as a decrease in the CD4 count to pre-therapy levels or below and virologic failure as HIV-RNA of > 1000 copies/ml at 48 weeks after ART initiation...
November 26, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Stephen J Kent, Charles Flexner
Ageing is the result of biological events that progressively and irreversibly compromise the function of vital organs and eventually result in death. There is a general perception that ageing is accelerated in people living with HIV, with an increasing body of evidence to support this view. With the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy, the life expectancy of people living with HIV has improved. Since people with HIV are living longer than previously, while also ageing faster than the general population, there is an increase in HIV-positive patients living with age-related comorbidities...
November 24, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Erica S Sanga, Ferdinand C Mukumbang, Adiel K Mushi, Willyhelmina Olomi, Wondwossen Lerebo, Christina Zarowsky
BACKGROUND: Like other countries, Tanzania instituted mobile and outreach testing approaches to address low HIV testing rates at health facilities and enhance linkage to care. Available evidence from hard-to-reach rural settings of Mbeya region, Tanzania suggests that clients testing HIV+ at facility-based sites are more likely to link to care, and to link sooner, than those testing at mobile sites. This paper (1) describes the populations accessing HIV testing at mobile/outreach and facility-based testing sites, and (2) compares processes and dynamics from testing to linkage to care between these two testing models from the same study context...
November 20, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Kolab Chhim, Gitau Mburu, Sovannary Tuot, Ratana Sopha, Vohith Khol, Pheak Chhoun, Siyan Yi
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have worse treatment adherence, viral suppression, and mortality rates compared to adults. This study investigated factors associated with viral non-suppression among adolescents living with HIV in Cambodia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2016 among 328 adolescents living with HIV aged 15-17 years who were randomly selected from 11 ART clinics in the capital city of Phnom Penh and 10 other provinces...
November 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Mark Bloch
The life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLHIV) has dramatically improved with effective and well-tolerated antiretroviral therapy. This presents a new challenge in caring for this patient population, with up to 28% of older PLHIV being identified as frail. Studies suggest that the prevalence of frailty is higher in PLHIV compared to the general population, and that the onset of frailty occurs at an earlier age. Frail individuals often present with multiple and non-specific health complaints, fluctuating disability, falls and delirium, and are at higher risk for multiple adverse outcomes, post-operative complications, poor responses to vaccination and functional decline...
November 16, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Nicholas Silver, Mary Paynter, Georgina McAllister, Maureen Atchley, Christine Sayir, John Short, Dane Winner, David J Alouani, Freddie H Sharkey, Kicki Bergefall, Kate Templeton, David Carrington, Miguel E Quiñones-Mateu
BACKGROUND: The widespread global access to antiretroviral drugs has led to considerable reductions in morbidity and mortality but, unfortunately, the risk of virologic failure increases with the emergence, and potential transmission, of drug resistant viruses. Detecting and quantifying HIV-1 drug resistance has therefore become the standard of care when designing new antiretroviral regimens. The sensitivity of Sanger sequencing-based HIV-1 genotypic assays is limited by its inability to identify minority members of the quasispecies, i...
November 8, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Patrick G Clay, Wei C Yuet, Christiane H Moecklinghoff, Inge Duchesne, Krzysztof L Tronczyński, Sandip Shah, Dong Shao
OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes with single tablet regimens (STR) versus multi-tablet regimens (MTR) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment using published data. DESIGN: Systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of literature on approved and investigational HIV regimens. METHODS: The research followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Single or un-blinded studies reporting a direct comparison between STR and MTR were eligible for the meta-analysis...
October 30, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
P Cornejo-Juárez, D Cavildo-Jerónimo, P Volkow-Fernández
BACKGROUND: Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs) have been an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV. There is no data on the spectrum of NADCs in Mexico. We describe the type of neoplasms, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of HIV-infected patients with NADCs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of all patients with confirmed diagnosis of NADC attending the HIV/AIDS clinic at the National Cancer Institute in Mexico City (a tertiary-care center for adult patients with cancer) from January 1990 to December 2016...
October 27, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Stephen Okoboi, Barbara Castelnuovo, David M Moore, Joseph Musaazi, Andrew Kambugu, Josephine Birungi, Pontiano Kaleebu, Mastula Nanfuka, Moses R Kamya, Annelies Van Rie
BACKGROUND: While the effects of initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) on risky sexual behavior have been extensively studied, less is known about the long-term changes in risky sexual behavior over time in resource-poor settings. METHODS: We conducted a secondary longitudinal analysis of one rural and one urban cohort of patients who initiated ART in Uganda between April 2004 and July 2007 followed up-to 2016. Data on sexual behavior were collected every 6 months for 3...
October 19, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
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