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Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Keith Morris-Schaffer, Alyssa Merrill, Katrina Jew, Candace Wong, Katherine Conrad, Katherine Harvey, Elena Marvin, Marissa Sobolewski, Günter Oberdörster, Alison Elder, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological studies indicate early-life exposure to air pollution is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Previous studies investigating neonatal exposure to ambient fine and ultrafine particles have shown sex specific inflammation-linked pathological changes and protracted learning deficits. A potential contributor to the adverse phenotypes from developmental exposure to particulate matter observed in previous studies may be elemental carbon, a well-known contributor to pollution particulate...
February 18, 2019: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Yiying Bian, Keunyoung Kim, Thien Ngo, Inho Kim, Ok-Nam Bae, Kyung-Min Lim, Jin-Ho Chung
BACKGROUND: Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are widely used in medical practices owing to their distinct antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer activities. However, with increasing use of AgNP, concerns over its potential toxicity are also escalating. Here, we demonstrated the potential thrombotic effect of AgNP which was mediated by the procoagulant activity of red blood cells (RBCs). RESULTS: In freshly isolated human RBCs, AgNP, but not silver microparticles (AgMP), elicited morphological changes, phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and microvesicles (MV) generation, the key indicators of procoagulant activity in RBCs at concentration ranges (≤ 100 μg/mL) that were free of significant hemolysis...
February 14, 2019: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Stephen J Evans, Martin J D Clift, Neenu Singh, John W Wills, Nicole Hondow, Thomas S Wilkinson, Michael J Burgum, Andy P Brown, Gareth J Jenkins, Shareen H Doak
BACKGROUND: It is well established that toxicological evaluation of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) is vital to ensure the health and safety of those exposed to them. Further, there is a distinct need for the development of advanced physiologically relevant in vitro techniques for NM hazard prediction due to the limited predictive power of current in vitro models and the unsustainability of conducting nano-safety evaluations in vivo. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop alternative in vitro approaches to assess the potential of NMs to induce genotoxicity by secondary mechanisms...
February 13, 2019: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Russell A Morales-Rubio, Isabel Alvarado-Cruz, Natalia Manzano-León, Maria-de-Los-Angeles Andrade-Oliva, Marisela Uribe-Ramirez, Betzabet Quintanilla-Vega, Álvaro Osornio-Vargas, Andrea De Vizcaya-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with an adverse intrauterine environment, which can promote adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Ultrafine particles (UFP) (small size and large surface area/mass ratio) are systemically distributed, induce inflammation and oxidative stress, and have been associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction and arterial vasoconstriction, increasing hypertension risk. Placental stress and alterations in methylation of promoter regions of renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-related elements could be involved in UFP exposure-related programming of hypertension...
January 28, 2019: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Lin Tian, Yidan Shang, Rui Chen, Ru Bai, Chunying Chen, Kiao Inthavong, Jiyuan Tu
BACKGROUND: Nose-to-brain transport of airborne ultrafine particles (UFPs) via the olfactory pathway has been verified as a possible route for particle translocation into the brain. The exact relationship between increased airborne toxicant exposure and neurological deterioration in the human central nervous system, is still unclear. However, the nasal olfactory is undoubtedly a critical junction where the time course and toxicant dose dependency might be inferred. METHOD: Computational fluid-particle dynamics modeling of inhaled nanoparticles (1 to 100 nm) under low to moderate breathing conditions (5 to 14 L/min - human; and 0...
January 25, 2019: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Estefanía Bernal-Meléndez, Marie-Christine Lacroix, Pascaline Bouillaud, Jacques Callebert, Benoit Olivier, Marie-Annick Persuy, Didier Durieux, Delphine Rousseau-Ralliard, Josiane Aioun, Flemming Cassee, Anne Couturier-Tarrade, Sarah Valentino, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer, Henri Schroeder, Christine Baly
BACKGROUND: Airborne pollution, especially from diesel exhaust (DE), is known to have a negative effect on the central nervous system in exposed human populations. However, the consequences of gestational exposure to DE on the fetal brain remain poorly explored, with various effects depending on the conditions of exposure, as well as little information on early developmental stages. We investigated the short-term effects of indirect DE exposure throughout gestation on the developing brain using a rabbit model...
January 17, 2019: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Liza Selley, David H Phillips, Ian Mudway
BACKGROUND: Combustion of biodiesels in place of fossil diesel (FD) has been proposed as a method of reducing transport-related toxic emissions in Europe. While biodiesel exhaust (BDE) contains fewer hydrocarbons, total particulates and carbon monoxide than FD exhaust (FDE), its high nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle content may still promote pulmonary pathophysiologies. MAIN BODY: Using a complement of in vitro and in vivo studies, this review documents progress in our understanding of pulmonary responses to BDE exposure...
January 8, 2019: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Brian C Palmer, Sarah J Phelan-Dickenson, Lisa A DeLouise
BACKGROUND: The effects of carbon nanotubes on skin toxicity have not been extensively studied; however, our lab has previously shown that a carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) exacerbates the 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene induced contact hypersensitivity response in mice. Here we examine the role of carboxylation in MWCNT skin toxicity. RESULTS: MWCNTs were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, zetasizer, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to fully characterize the physical properties...
January 8, 2019: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Jung Duck Park, Jin Kwon Kim, Mi Seong Jo, Young Hun Kim, Ki Soo Jeon, Ji Hyun Lee, Elaine M Faustman, Hong Ku Lee, Kangho Ahn, Mary Gulumian, Günter Oberdörster, Il Je Yu
BACKGROUND: Information on particle deposition, retention and clearance are important for the evaluation of the risk of inhaled nanomaterials to human health. Recent revised OECD inhalation toxicity test guidelines require to evaluate the lung burden of nanomaterials after rodent subacute and subchronic inhalation exposure (OECD 412, OECD 413). These revised test guidelines require additional post-exposure observation (PEO) periods that include lung burden measurements that can inform on lung clearance behavior and translocation...
January 7, 2019: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Keith Morris-Schaffer, Alyssa K Merrill, Candace Wong, Katrina Jew, Marissa Sobolewski, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological studies indicate early-life exposure to pollution particulate is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. The need is arising to evaluate the risks conferred by individual components and sources of air pollution to provide a framework for the regulation of the most relevant components for public health protection. Previous studies in rodent models have shown diesel particulate matter has neurotoxic potential and could be a health concern for neurodevelopment...
January 7, 2019: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Jordan N Smith, Dennis G Thomas, Hadley Jolley, Vamsi K Kodali, Matthew H Littke, Prabhakaran Munusamy, Donald R Baer, Matthew J Gaffrey, Brian D Thrall, Justin G Teeguarden
BACKGROUND: When suspended in cell culture medium, nano-objects composed of soluble metals such as silver can dissolve resulting in ion formation, altered particle properties (e.g. mass, morphology, etc.), and modulated cellular dose. Cultured cells are exposed not just to nanoparticles but to a complex, dynamic mixture of altered nanoparticles, unbound ions, and ion-ligand complexes. Here, three different cell types (RAW 264.7 macrophages and bone marrow derived macrophages from wild-type C57BL/6 J mice and Scavenger Receptor A deficient (SR-A(-/-) ) mice) were exposed to 20 and 110 nm silver nanoparticles, and RAW 264...
December 5, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Tuang Yeow Poh, Nur A'tikah Binte Mohamed Ali, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Mustafa Hussain Kathawala, Magdiel Inggrid Setyawati, Kee Woei Ng, Sanjay Haresh Chotirmall
Our development and usage of engineered nanomaterials has grown exponentially despite concerns about their unfavourable cardiorespiratory consequence, one that parallels ambient ultrafine particle exposure from vehicle emissions. Most research in the field has so far focused on airway inflammation in response to nanoparticle inhalation, however, little is known about nanoparticle-microbiome interaction in the human airway and the environment. Emerging evidence illustrates that the airway, even in its healthy state, is not sterile...
November 20, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Lina Xu, Yanhui Dai, Zhenyu Wang, Jian Zhao, Fei Li, Jason C White, Baoshan Xing
BACKGROUND: Given the tremendous potential for graphene quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical applications, a thorough understanding of the interaction of these materials with macrophages is essential because macrophages are one of the most important barriers against exogenous particles. Although the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of graphene QDs were reported in previous studies, the interaction between nuclei and the internalized graphene QDs is not well understood. We thus systematically studied the nuclear uptake and related nuclear response associated with aminated graphene QDs (AG-QDs) exposure...
November 13, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Alaeddin Bashir Abukabda, Carroll Rolland McBride, Thomas Paul Batchelor, William Travis Goldsmith, Elizabeth Compton Bowdridge, Krista Lee Garner, Sherri Friend, Timothy Robert Nurkiewicz
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular effects of pulmonary exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are poorly understood, and the reproductive consequences are even less understood. Inflammation remains the most frequently explored mechanism of ENM toxicity. However, the key mediators and steps between lung exposure and uterine health remain to be fully defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the uterine inflammatory and vascular effects of pulmonary exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2 )...
November 9, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Chi-Hsiang Shih, Jen-Kun Chen, Li-Wei Kuo, Kuan-Hung Cho, Ta-Chih Hsiao, Zhe-Wei Lin, Yi-Syuan Lin, Jiunn-Horng Kang, Yu-Chun Lo, Kai-Jen Chuang, Tsun-Jen Cheng, Hsiao-Chi Chuang
BACKGROUND: Effects of air pollution on neurotoxicity and behavioral alterations have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology caused by particulate matter (PM) in the brain. We examined the effects of traffic-related particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of < 1 μm (PM1 ), high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air, and clean air on the brain structure, behavioral changes, brainwaves, and bioreactivity of the brain (cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus), olfactory bulb, and serum after 3 and 6 months of whole-body exposure in 6-month-old Sprague Dawley rats...
November 9, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Linda Böhmert, Laura König, Holger Sieg, Dajana Lichtenstein, Niklas Paul, Albert Braeuning, Andreas Voigt, Alfonso Lampen
BACKGROUND: Even though a continuously high number of in vitro studies on nanoparticles are being published, the issue of correct dose matter is often not sufficiently taken into account. Due to their size, the diffusion of nanoparticles is slower, as compared to soluble chemicals, and they sediment slowly. Therefore, the administered dose of particles in in vitro experiments is not necessarily the same (effective) dose that comes into contact with the cellular system. This can lead to misinterpretations of experimental toxic effects and disturbs the meaningfulness of in vitro studies...
October 30, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Taisuke Tomonaga, Hiroto Izumi, Yukiko Yoshiura, Toshihiko Myojo, Takako Oyabu, Byeong-Woo Lee, Takami Okada, Takashi Marui, Ke-Yong Wang, Masaru Kubo, Manabu Shimada, Shingo Noguchi, Chinatsu Nishida, Kazuhiro Yatera, Yasuo Morimoto
BACKGROUND: In order to examine whether myeloperoxidase (MPO) can be a useful marker for evaluating the pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials, we analyzed MPO protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples obtained from previous examinations of a rat model. In those examinations we performed intratracheal instillation exposures (dose: 0.2-1.0 mg) and inhalation exposures (exposure concentration: 0.32-10.4 mg/m3 ) using 9 and 4 nanomaterials with different toxicities, respectively...
October 23, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Antonio Anax Falcão de Oliveira, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, Michelle Francini Dias, Marisa Helena Gennari Medeiros, Paolo Di Mascio, Mariana Veras, Miriam Lemos, Tania Marcourakis, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Ana Paula Melo Loureiro
BACKGROUND: The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo has a unique composition of atmospheric pollutants, and positive correlations between exposure and the risk of diseases and mortality have been observed. Here we assessed the effects of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) on genotoxic and global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation changes, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, in tissues of AJ mice exposed whole body to ambient air enriched in PM2.5 , which was concentrated in a chamber near an avenue of intense traffic in São Paulo City, Brazil...
October 19, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Huimin Liang, Aijie Chen, Xuan Lai, Jia Liu, Junrong Wu, Yiyuan Kang, Xinying Wang, Longquan Shao
BACKGROUND: The extensive biological applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in stomatology have created serious concerns about their biotoxicity. In our previous study, ZnO NPs were confirmed to transfer to the central nervous system (CNS) via the taste nerve pathway and cause neurodegeneration after 30 days of tongue instillation. However, the potential adverse effects on the brain caused by tongue-instilled ZnO NPs are not fully known. METHODS: In this study, the biodistribution of Zn, cerebral histopathology and inflammatory responses were analysed after 30 days of ZnO NPs tongue instillation...
October 19, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Siqi Zhang, Susanne Breitner, Wayne E Cascio, Robert B Devlin, Lucas M Neas, David Diaz-Sanchez, William E Kraus, Joel Schwartz, Elizabeth R Hauser, Annette Peters, Alexandra Schneider
BACKGROUND: Air pollution-induced changes in cardiac electrophysiological properties could be a pathway linking air pollution and cardiovascular events. The evidence of air pollution effects on the cardiac conduction system is incomplete yet. We investigated short-term effects of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 ) and ozone (O3 ) on cardiac electrical impulse propagation and repolarization as recorded in surface electrocardiograms (ECG). METHODS: We analyzed repeated 12-lead ECG measurements performed on 5,332 patients between 2001 and 2012...
October 11, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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