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Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology

Aleksandra Borowska-Solonynko, Victoria Prokopowicz, Dorota Samojłowicz, Małgorzata Brzozowska, Jarosław Żyłkowski, Leszek Lombarski
Due to their anatomical location, occipital condylar fractures (OCFs) are usually not observed during traditional autopsies and are therefore considered a rare injury. The aim of this study was to determine the true frequency of OCFs using post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in traumatic casualties. We retrospectively analyzed 438 PMCT studies of victims of traffic accidents, falls from height, violence, and low-energy head injuries (324 males and 114 females). OCFs were present in 22.6% of cases (n = 99), mostly in victims of railway accidents (48...
March 12, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Sören Kottner, Sarah Schaerli, Martin Fürst, Wolfgang Ptacek, Michael Thali, Dominic Gascho
Two-dimensional photographic documentation is a substantial part of post-mortem examinations for legal investigations. Additional three-dimensional surface documentation has been shown to assist in the visualization of findings and contribute to the reconstruction of the sequence of events. However, 2D photo documentation and, especially, 3D surface documentation, are time-consuming procedures that require specially trained personnel. In this study a 3D imaging system, called VirtoScan-on-Rails, was developed to automate and facilitate 3D surface documentation for photo documentation in autopsy suites...
March 9, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
J R Busch, S B Lundemose, N Lynnerup, C Jacobsen, M B Jørgensen, J Banner
A decrease in the volume of the hippocampus is associated with severe mental illness, especially schizophrenia, and has been studied extensively in the living using magnetic resonance imaging. Autopsy cohorts also represent a valuable data source for imaging studies. However, post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMRI) is subject to unique challenges, such as the lower core temperature of scanned subjects and the influence of decomposition processes. This study aimed to determine if results from in vivo studies could be replicated on a post-mortem cohort of decedents who suffered from severe mental illness...
March 4, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Marloes E M Vester, Rob A C Bilo, Arjo J Loeve, Rick R van Rijn, Jan Peter van Zandwijk
Inflicted blunt force trauma and/or repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma in infants can cause brain injury. Yet, the exact pathophysiologic mechanism with its associated thresholds remains unclear. In this systematic review an overview of animal models for shaking trauma and their findings on tissue damage will be provided. A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE and Scopus for articles on the simulation of inflicted head injury in animals. After collection, the studies were independently screened by two researchers for title, abstract, and finally full text and on methodological quality...
March 4, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Massimiliano dell'Aquila, Alessandra De Matteis, Giorgio Bolino, Paolo Urciuoli, Vittorio Fineschi, Aniello Maiese
In this paper we describe the case of an 81-year-old Caucasian female (142 cm tall, weighing 45 kg) who suffered from a multinodular goiter for approximately 40 years. Following the onset of a clinical condition characterized by acute respiratory failure, she was transported to the emergency room by ambulance, where she died within a few hours after admission. A recent cardiac examination showed the absence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, sinus tachycardia with a heart rate of 131 bpm, negative objectivity for signs of cardiocirculatory failure, a blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg and modest exertional dyspnea...
February 28, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Kentaro Sakai, Kumiko Asakura, Kazuyuki Saito, Tatsushige Fukunaga
Coronary arteritis is an uncommon cause of sudden death in non-atherosclerotic coronary diseases, and is mostly associated with systemic vasculitis or systemic autoimmune diseases; therefore, sudden death due to isolated coronary arteritis rarely occurs. The case described in this report is that of a 34-year-old man with no significant personal medical history who died suddenly after presenting with nausea. Postmortem examination revealed a significant infiltration of lymphocytes predominantly on the adventitia and periadventitial tissues of the coronary arteries in the epicardium...
February 27, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Marko Andrejevic, Milica Keckarevic Markovic, Biljana Bursac, Milica Mihajlovic, Vanja Tanasic, Miljana Kecmanovic, Dusan Keckarevic
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), especially the gene for cytochrome b (MT-CYB), has been found to be highly informative for species identification. In this study, we present the results of the analysis of a 127 bp long fragment of MT-CYB, amplified using universal primers, variable enough to be used for species identification and discrimination, even in highly degraded animal samples. The total number of analyzed species in this study was 30, including 17 mammalian and 13 bird species. Using a newly created primer pair, we successfully amplified and sequenced the target sequence in almost all tested species...
February 26, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Martin Dobiáš, Klára Marecová, Kateřina Vránová, Petr Handlos
Penile carcinoma is an uncommon but potentially mutilating disease with a heterogeneous etiology. We present a case in which a man died due to severe blood loss from an amputated penis. It was initially regarded as a violent death with an external cause. Autopsy found irregular defects with smooth edges in the external genital area and on both sides of the groin, with yellowish-gray callus-like structures and dried blood at the base of where the penis would have been located. Histological examination revealed the presence of squamous cell carcinoma with signs of keratinization...
February 22, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Armin Alibegović, Stojan Kariž, Metka Volavšek
Drugs for the treatment of depressive disorders, including SNRIs (serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors) venlafaxine and duloxetine, are widely prescribed as they have a high therapeutic to toxicity ratio. In rare cases, adverse effects may be severe, usually due to iatrogenic, accidental or intentional self-overdose that cause the excessive accumulation of serotonin and noradrenaline in synaptic clefts. Lethal intoxication with a combination of venlafaxine and duloxetine (postmortem blood concentrations 24 mg/L and 0...
February 22, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Jan Peter van Zandwijk, Marloes E M Vester, Rob A Bilo, Rick R van Rijn, Arjo J Loeve
Various types of complex biomechanical models have been published in the literature to better understand processes related to inflicted head injury by shaking trauma (IHI-ST) in infants. In this systematic review, a comprehensive overview of these models is provided. A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE and Scopus for articles using physical (e.g. dolls) and mathematical (e.g. computer simulations) biomechanical models for IHI-ST. After deduplication, the studies were independently screened by two researchers using PRISMA methodology and data extracted from the papers is represented in a "7-steps description", addressing the different processes occurring during IHI-ST...
February 20, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Natalie Ambrose, Karen A Waters, Michael L Rodriguez, Kendall Bailey, Rita Machaalani
In the original version of this manuscript Table 3, SIDS I column currently reads 1/8 (13) for the following: Bed share/co-sleeping (%), Found prone and co-sleep/bed-share (%), Co-sleep/bedshare and smoke exposure (%). However, the correct value should be '0/8 (0)'. Consequently, the correct p value.
January 26, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Roger W Byard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Yuluo Liu, Yue Liang, Fang Tong, Weisheng Huang, Lopsong Tinzing, Jehane Michael Le Grange, Feixiang Wang, Yiwu Zhou
Cerebral capillary telangiectasia (CCT) is a type of vascular malformation that is incidentally encountered in clinical practice. Diseased vessels are small and usually clinically benign over the course of a patient's life. Although most CCT patients are asymptomatic, the situation becomes complicated when trauma is encountered. A case of sudden death due to an epileptic episode after very mild head trauma is reported, including a retrospective study of 12 cases, to remind peers to pay close attention to CCT especially when located in important functional regions of the brain...
January 16, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Hsiao-Lin Hwa, Ming-Yih Wu, Chih-Peng Lin, Wei Hsin Hsieh, Hsiang-I Yin, Tsui-Ting Lee, James Chun-I Lee
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiling is an effective means of individual identification and ancestry inferences in forensic genetics. This study established a SNP panel for the simultaneous individual identification and ancestry assignment of Caucasian and four East and Southeast Asian populations. We analyzed 220 SNPs (125 autosomal, 17 X-chromosomal, 30 Y-chromosomal, and 48 mitochondrial SNPs) of the DNA samples from 563 unrelated individuals of five populations (89 Caucasian, 234 Taiwanese Han, 90 Filipino, 79 Indonesian and 71 Vietnamese) and 18 degraded DNA samples...
January 16, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Marek Dokoupil, Klára Marecová, Matěj Uvíra, Marek Joukal, Eva Mrázková, Jana Chmelová, Petr Handlos
Cardiac injury following blunt chest trauma is common in motor vehicle accidents due to a crush or blast injury. Severe cardiac trauma is associated with a very high mortality. If a cardiac injury develops several weeks after non-penetrating chest trauma, establishing a causal link between the traumatic event and the cardiac injury becomes complicated. This article reports a case of fatal delayed hemopericardium and hemothorax following a motor vehicle accident including blunt chest trauma 34 days prior to death...
January 16, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Petr Hejna, Michael Bohnert, Martin Janík
The concept of spontaneous combustion has huge appeal as an historical fiction but it has no scientific background. However, in some deaths involving fire, a body can burn away virtually completely with minimal thermal destruction to the neighboring environment. We report an extraordinary case of the self-immolation of an elderly woman who set herself on fire with suicidal intentions. The unusual appearance and location of the body closely resembled the phenomenon of so-called spontaneous human combustion because the upper parts of the body were almost totally destroyed by fire, while the legs and surrounding structures remained almost untouched by flames...
January 16, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Roger W Byard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Drazen Cuculic, Ivan Sosa
Electrical injuries contribute a small but significant fraction to all burn trauma cases, and an even smaller proportion to those that are lethal. Accidental death rates among teenagers are the highest of all age-groups, and taking a "selfie" has been a practice that has, on rare occasions, led to such a death, often from electrocution. The case of a young man and his friend, who were electrocuted after climbing onto the roof of a parked railway wagon to take selfies is reported. One died at the scene, while the other survived...
January 16, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Kristan Abernathy, Steven Fiester, James W Fulcher
Intravascular devices aid in drug administration and fluid replacement for hospitalized patients and are thus an integral part of modern medical care; however, poor aseptic technique and improper manipulation of infusion devices increase the risk of infections secondary to catheterization that can progress to sepsis and septic shock. We report the case of a woman who presented with altered mental status after receiving normal saline through an intravenous catheter placed by a medically untrained individual...
January 12, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Murilo Sérgio Valente-Aguiar, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
A 16-month-old girl who was hospitalized with pneumonia and treated with antibiotics died after the nurse erroneously connected her intravenous left forearm catheter to the oxygen supply. Autopsy revealed an impressive gas embolism in the left subclavian and brachiocephalic veins, reduced crepitus and enlarged lung volume, and congestion of the meningeal vessels with some areas showing small air bubbles. Dilation of the right atrium and the right ventricle with efflux under pressure of large amounts of air bubbles were observed...
January 11, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
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