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Current HIV/AIDS Reports

Sanhita Sinharay, Dima A Hammoud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent developments in PET imaging of neuropathologies underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction (HAND). We concentrate on the recent post antiretroviral era (ART), highlighting clinical and preclinical brain PET imaging studies. RECENT FINDINGS: In the post ART era, PET imaging has been used to better understand perturbations of glucose metabolism, neuroinflammation, the function of neurotransmitter systems, and amyloid/tau protein deposition in the brains of HIV-infected patients and HIV animal models...
February 18, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Kiyomi Tsuyuki, Andrea N Cimino, Charvonne N Holliday, Jacquelyn C Campbell, Noor A Al-Alusi, Jamila K Stockman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This theoretical review identifies physiological mechanisms by which violence against women (VAW) may increase women's susceptibility to HIV through trauma, stress, and immune dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: Research documents systemic and local immune responses are related to stress and trauma from abuse across the life course (i.e., childhood, IPV, adulthood re-victimization). Findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework grounded in the Social Stress Theory and the concept of toxic stress, and highlight the current state of the science connecting: (1) VAW to the physiological stress response and immune dysfunction, and (2) the physiological stress response and inflammation to HIV susceptibility and infection in the female reproductive tract...
February 14, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Blythe Adamson, Lauren Lipira, Aaron B Katz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 and subsequent Medicaid expansion has influenced access to HIV treatment and care in the USA. This review aims to evaluate whether the implementation of these policies has impacted progress toward UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals. RECENT FINDINGS: Preliminary evidence has emerged suggesting that the ACA and Medicaid expansion has increased the likelihood of HIV testing and diagnosis, reduced the number of people unaware of HIV infection, and increased the number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) who are virally suppressed...
February 14, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Karen F Corsi, Steve Shoptaw, Musheng Alishahi, Robert E Booth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reports on the results of a study comparing two behavioral treatments for methamphetamine users. The outcome was the effectiveness of the interventions in reducing meth use. The interventions were contingency management (CM) and contingency management plus strengths-based case management (CM/SBCM). RECENT FINDINGS: CM/SBCM was found to be associated with attending more sessions for people who reported being in a couple. Also, participants who earned more money in the first part of the study were more likely to have more clean urinalysis in the second part of the study...
February 14, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Anthony E Hitch, Nicole K Gause, Jennifer L Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: People living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (PLWHA) experience high prevalence of substance use disorders (SUD). HIV care settings represent a unique opportunity to identify possible SUD, to provide SUD interventions, and to improve linkage to SUD treatment. The aims of this paper are to (a) review and critique the extant literature examining substance use screening approaches among PLWHA in HIV care settings and (b) provide recommendations for future clinical practice...
February 12, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Marina Tolou-Shams, Anna Harrison, Matthew E Hirschtritt, Emily Dauria, Jill Barr-Walker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses recent advances in research on the intersection of HIV prevention and substance use among youth involved with the justice system. We discuss current themes of recent findings and provide guidance for researchers, policymakers, and clinicians on the next steps in advancing work in this nascent area. RECENT FINDINGS: Of the 46 studies that measured HIV risk and substance use among justice-involved youth, 56% were cross-sectional designs, 22% were intervention trials, and 22% were longitudinal designs...
February 8, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Rebecca T Veenhuis, Janice E Clements, Lucio Gama
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In addition to preventive protocols and antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 eradication has been considered as an additional strategy to help fight the AIDS epidemic. With the support of multiple funding agencies, research groups worldwide have been developing protocols to achieve either a sterilizing or a functional cure for HIV-infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Most of the studies focus on the elimination or suppression of circulating CD4+ T cells, the best characterized HIV-1 latent reservoir...
February 8, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Florent Colomb, Leila B Giron, Irena Trbojevic-Akmacic, Gordan Lauc, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glycoimmunology is an emerging field focused on understanding how immune responses are mediated by glycans (carbohydrates) and their interaction with glycan-binding proteins called lectins. How glycans influence immunological functions is increasingly well understood. In a parallel way, in the HIV field, it is increasingly understood how the host immune system controls HIV persistence and immunopathogenesis. However, what has mostly been overlooked, despite its potential for therapeutic applications, is the role that the host glycosylation machinery plays in modulating the persistence and immunopathogenesis of HIV...
February 1, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Sybil Hosek, Audrey Pettifor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to review recent data on biomedical, behavioral, and structural HIV prevention interventions for adolescents and young adults. RECENT FINDINGS: While it is accepted that HIV prevention interventions must take an integrated approach to achieve maximum effectiveness, to date, there have been limited, rigorously evaluated combination prevention interventions for adolescents. There are currently a range of effective biomedical, behavioral, and structural approaches that can be integrated into prevention packages to address the prevention needs of adolescents, including oral PrEP, male circumcision, rapid HIV testing, numerous behavioral interventions, and structural interventions such as cash transfers and community mobilization to address gender-based violence...
February 1, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Rebecca Touger, Brian R Wood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes novel interventions that employ technology to improve HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) availability, uptake, and adherence. RECENT FINDINGS: Several notable technology-based programs are increasing access to PrEP in unique ways. We identified multiple models for using telehealth to bolster PrEP dissemination and adherence, such as mobile applications that offer PrEP prescribing without an in-person visit, longitudinal distance telementoring for community provider PrEP education and clinical guidance, and electronic consults for PrEP specialist support in the primary care setting...
January 30, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Laura Fanucchi, Sandra A Springer, P Todd Korthuis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent HIV outbreaks have occurred as a result of the current US opioid epidemic. Providing medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) with methadone, buprenorphine, and extended-release naltrexone is essential to achieving optimal HIV treatment outcomes including viral suppression and retention in treatment. This review describes the pharmacology of MOUD with specific attention to interactions with antiretroviral therapy, and to the effect of MOUD on HIV treatment outcomes...
January 25, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
LaTrice Montgomery, Kara Bagot, Jennifer L Brown, Angela M Haeny
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately 77% of HIV-infected adults report lifetime marijuana use. Given the high rates and social acceptability of marijuana use among HIV-infected individuals, it is important to gain a stronger understanding of if, and how, marijuana impacts HIV care cascade outcomes. The purpose of this study is to systematically review recent articles that assess the relationship between marijuana use and HIV continuum of care outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: One hundred and ninety articles from PubMed were considered for inclusion, and 15 were included in the review...
January 22, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Leah H Rubin, Pauline M Maki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mental health disorders, especially depression, are prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with cognitive impairment (CI) among HIV-uninfected (HIV-) individuals. We conducted a comprehensive review of the link between depression and cognition among PLWH. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies examining depression and cognition in PLWH report high rates of current (median = 24%) and lifetime depression (42%). There is reliable evidence that depression is associated with overall CI among PLWH, and in the cognitive domains of processing speed, executive function, learning and memory, and motor function...
January 19, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Brooke S West
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper presents recent literature on substance using networks and HIV, highlighting renewed and emerging themes in the field. The goal is to draw attention to research that holds considerable promise for advancing our understanding of the role of networks in shaping behaviors, while also providing critical information for the development of interventions, programs, and policies to reduce HIV and other drug-related harms. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research advances our understanding of networks and HIV, including among understudied populations, and provides new insight into how risk environments shape the networks and health of substance-using populations...
January 18, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Aylin Yilmaz, Dietmar Fuchs, Richard W Price, Serena Spudich, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Magnus Gisslén
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to examine the synaptic biomarker neurogranin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in different stages of HIV infection and in relation to what is known about CSF neurogranin in other neurodegenerative diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: CSF concentrations of neurogranin are increased in Alzheimer's disease, but not in other neurodegenerative disorder such as Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and Lewy body dementia. Adults with HIV-associated dementia have been found to have decreased levels of neurogranin in the frontal cortex, which at least to some extent, may be mediated by the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8...
January 16, 2019: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Jane M Simoni, Keshet Ronen, Frances M Aunon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optimal design and evaluation of eHealth interventions requires the specification of behavioral targets and hypothesized mechanisms of action-both of which can be enhanced with the use of established health behavior theories (HBTs). In this paper, we describe the major HBTs and examine their use in studies of eHealth interventions for HIV prevention and treatment and assess the contribution of HBT in developing and evaluating eHealth interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on our review of the literature, we argue the field can benefit from more systematic selection, application, and reporting of HBT...
December 3, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Kate M Bell, Jessica E Haberer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current digital technologies are being used for "actionable adherence monitoring"; that is, technologies that can be used to identify episodes of non-adherence to ART in a timely manner such that tailored interventions based on adherence data can be provided when and where they are needed most. RECENT FINDINGS: Current digital communication technologies used to monitor ART adherence include electronic adherence monitors (EAMs), digital ingestion monitors, cellular phones, and electronic pharmacy refill tracking systems...
October 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Ann Chahroudi, Thor A Wagner, Deborah Persaud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The central nervous system (CNS) represents a potential HIV-1 reservoir that may need to be specifically targeted by remission strategies. Perinatally HIV-1-infected children and youth are exposed to HIV-1 at a critical period of brain development. This review summarizes the current literature regarding HIV-1 and the CNS in perinatal infection. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV-1-associated encephalopathy is prevalent with perinatal infection and neurocognitive impairment persists even following antiretroviral treatment (ART)-mediated suppression of viremia...
October 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Stephanie M Mathis, Nicholas Hagemeier, Angela Hagaman, John Dreyzehner, Robert P Pack
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to (1) conceptualize the complexity of the opioid use disorder epidemic using a conceptual model grounded in the disease continuum and corresponding levels of prevention and (2) summarize a select set of interventions for the prevention and treatment of opioid use disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic data indicate non-medical prescription and illicit opioid use have reached unprecedented levels, fueling an opioid use disorder epidemic in the USA...
October 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Kassem Bourgi, Celestine Wanjalla, John R Koethe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to provide an in-depth review of recent literature highlighting the role of inflammation involving the adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscles, and gastrointestinal tract in the development of metabolic complications among persons living with HIV (PLWH). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies in PLWH have demonstrated a significant association between circulating inflammatory markers and development of insulin resistance and metabolic complications...
October 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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