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Annual Review of Clinical Psychology

Catherine Monk, Claudia Lugo-Candelas, Caroline Trumpff
The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis applied to neurodevelopmental outcomes asserts that the fetal origins of future development are relevant to mental health. There is a third pathway for the familial inheritance of risk for psychiatric illness beyond shared genes and the quality of parental care: the impact of pregnant women's distress-defined broadly to include perceived stress, life events, depression, and anxiety-on fetal and infant brain-behavior development. We discuss epidemiological and observational clinical data demonstrating that maternal distress is associated with children's increased risk for psychopathology: For example, high maternal anxiety is associated with a twofold increase in the risk of probable mental disorder in children...
February 22, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Bridget Callaghan, Heidi Meyer, Maya Opendak, Michelle Van Tieghem, Chelsea Harmon, Anfei Li, Francis S Lee, Regina M Sullivan, Nim Tottenham
Children's development is largely dependent on caregiving; when caregiving is disrupted, children are at increased risk for numerous poor outcomes, in particular psychopathology. Therefore, determining how caregivers regulate children's affective neurobiology is essential for understanding psychopathology etiology and prevention. Much of the research on affective functioning uses fear learning to map maturation trajectories, with both rodent and human studies contributing knowledge. Nonetheless, as no standard framework exists through which to interpret developmental effects across species, research often remains siloed, thus contributing to the current therapeutic impasse...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Dara S Manoach, Robert Stickgold
There is overwhelming evidence that sleep is crucial for memory consolidation. Patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected relatives have a specific deficit in sleep spindles, a defining oscillation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) Stage 2 sleep that, in coordination with other NREM oscillations, mediate memory consolidation. In schizophrenia, the spindle deficit correlates with impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation, positive symptoms, and abnormal thalamocortical connectivity. These relations point to dysfunction of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), which generates spindles, gates the relay of sensory information to the cortex, and modulates thalamocortical communication...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Mary I Butler, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
The gut microbiome is implicated in the pathophysiology of a wide range of psychological disorders. Preclinical studies have provided us with key insights into the mechanisms by which the microbiome influences bidirectional gut-brain communication. There are many signaling pathways involved, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune modulation, tryptophan and serotonin metabolism, bile acid transformation, microbial production of neuroactive compounds, and regulation of the endocannabinoid system...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Adam Bryant Miller, Mitchell J Prinstein
Suicide is the second leading cause of death worldwide for adolescents. Despite decades of research on correlates and risk factors for adolescent suicide, we know little about why suicidal ideation and behavior frequently emerge in adolescence and how to predict, and ultimately prevent, suicidal behavior among youths. In this review, we first discuss knowledge regarding correlates, risk factors, and theories of suicide. We then review why adolescence is a period of unique vulnerability, given changing biology and social network reorganization...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Kimberly M Albert, Paul A Newhouse
This article reviews the interactions of estrogen changes and psychosocial stress in contributing to vulnerability to major depressive disorder (MDD) in women. Estrogen modulates brain networks and processes related to changes in stress response, cognition, and emotional dysregulation that are core characteristics of MDD. Synergistic effects of estrogen on cognitive and emotional function, particularly during psychosocial stress, may underlie the association of ovarian hormone fluctuation and depression in women...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Joel T Braslow, Stephen R Marder
We live in an age of psychopharmacology. One in six persons currently takes a psychotropic drug. These drugs have profoundly shaped our scientific and cultural understanding of psychiatric disease. By way of a historical review, we try to make sense of psychiatry's dependency on psychiatric drugs in the care of patients. Modern psychopharmacology began in 1950 with the synthesis of chlorpromazine. Over the course of the next 50 years, the psychiatric understanding and treatment of mental illness radically changed...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Lauren A M Lebois, Antonia V Seligowski, Jonathan D Wolff, Sarah B Hill, Kerry J Ressler
Although the fear response is an adaptive response to threatening situations, a number of psychiatric disorders feature prominent fear-related symptoms caused, in part, by failures of extinction and inhibitory learning. The translational nature of fear conditioning paradigms has enabled us to develop a nuanced understanding of extinction and inhibitory learning based on the molecular substrates to systems neural circuitry and psychological mechanisms. This knowledge has facilitated the development of novel interventions that may augment extinction and inhibitory learning...
January 30, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Jennifer L Tackett, Cassandra M Brandes, Kevin M King, Kristian E Markon
Despite psychological scientists' increasing interest in replicability, open science, research transparency, and the improvement of methods and practices, the clinical psychology community has been slow to engage. This has been shifting more recently, and with this review, we hope to facilitate this emerging dialogue. We begin by examining some potential areas of weakness in clinical psychology in terms of methods, practices, and evidentiary base. We then discuss a select overview of solutions, tools, and current concerns of the reform movement from a clinical psychological science perspective...
January 23, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Kristian E Markon
Bifactor and other hierarchical models have become central to representing and explaining observations in psychopathology, health, and other areas of clinical science, as well as in the behavioral sciences more broadly. This prominence comes after a relatively rapid period of rediscovery, however, and certain features remain poorly understood. Here, hierarchical models are compared and contrasted with other models of superordinate structure, with a focus on implications for model comparisons and interpretation...
January 16, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Colin MacLeod, Ben Grafton, Lies Notebaert
There is substantial evidence that heightened anxiety vulnerability is characterized by increased selective attention to threatening information. The reliability of this anxiety-linked attentional bias has become the focus of considerable recent interest. We distinguish between the potential inconsistency of anxiety-linked attentional bias and inconsistency potentially reflecting the psychometric properties of the assessment approaches used to measure it. Though groups with heightened anxiety vulnerability often exhibit, on average, elevated attention to threat, the evidence suggests that individuals are unlikely to each display a stable, invariant attentional bias to threat...
January 16, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Bethany A Teachman, Elise M Clerkin, William Cunningham, Sarah Dreyer-Oren, Alexandra Werntz
Implicit cognitive processing is theorized to have a central role in many forms of psychopathology. In the current review, we focus on implicit associations, by which we mean evaluative representations in memory that are difficult to control and do not require conscious reflection to influence affect, cognition, or behavior. We consider definitional and measurement challenges before examining recent empirical evidence for these associations in anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, posttraumatic stress, depressive, and alcohol use disorders...
January 11, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Peter Tyrer, Roger Mulder, Youl-Ri Kim, Mike J Crawford
The nomenclature of personality disorders in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems represents the most radical change in the classification history of personality disorders. A dimensional structure now replaces categorical description. It was argued by the Working Group that only a dimensional system was consistent with the empirical evidence and, in the spirit of clinical utility, the new system is based on two steps. The first step is to assign one of five levels of severity, and the second step is to assign up to five prominent domain traits...
January 2, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Martin Sellbom
This article describes the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) and situates the instrument in contemporary psychopathology and personality literature. The historical evolution of the MMPI instruments is highlighted, including how failure to update the test for several decades resulted in increasing disinterest by basic researchers and how the restructuring efforts beginning in the 2000s promised to realign the instrument with basic research. In this regard, the construct validity associated with MMPI-2-RF scores in the context of contemporary dimensional models of psychopathology is considered...
January 2, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Joseph W Ditre, Emily L Zale, Lisa R LaRowe
Pain and substance use are highly prevalent and co-occurring conditions that continue to garner increasing clinical and empirical interest. Although nicotine and tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis each confer acute analgesic effects, frequent or heavy use may contribute to the development and progression of chronic pain, and pain may be heightened during abstinence. Additionally, pain can be a potent motivator of substance self-administration, and it may contribute to escalating use and poorer substance-related treatment outcomes...
December 19, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Thompson E Davis, Thomas H Ollendick, Lars-Göran Öst
One-session treatment is a well-established evidence-based treatment for specific phobias in youths that incorporates reinforcement, cognitive challenges, participant modeling, psychoeducation, and skills training into a single, massed session of graduated exposure. This review begins by briefly examining the phenomenology, etiology, epidemiology, and assessment of specific phobias and then pivots to a description of One-Session Treatment. We examine the use of One-Session Treatment with children and adolescents, briefly discussing its components and application, and subsequently review almost two decades of research supporting its efficacy...
December 14, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Pim Cuijpers, Mirjam Reijnders, Marcus J H Huibers
Psychotherapies may work through techniques that are specific to each therapy or through factors that all therapies have in common. Proponents of the common factors model often point to meta-analyses of comparative outcome studies that show all therapies have comparable effects. However, not all meta-analyses support the common factors model; the included studies often have several methodological problems; and there are alternative explanations for finding comparable outcomes. To date, research on the working mechanisms and mediators of therapies has always been correlational, and in order to establish that a mediator is indeed a causal factor in the recovery process of a patient, studies must show a temporal relationship between the mediator and an outcome, a dose-response association, evidence that no third variable causes changes in the mediator and the outcome, supportive experimental research, and have a strong theoretical framework...
December 14, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Martin E P Seligman
As president of APA in 1998, I organized researchers and practitioners to work on building well-being, not just on the traditional task of reducing ill-being. Substantial research then found that well-being causes many external benefits, including better physical and mental health. Among the applications of Positive Psychology are national psychological accounts of wellbeing, Positive Psychotherapy, the classification of strengths and virtues, Comprehensive Soldier Fitness, and Positive Education. Positive Psychology has spread beyond psychology into neuroscience, health, psychiatry, theology, and even to the humanities...
December 10, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Joseph Wielgosz, Simon B Goldberg, Tammi R A Kral, John D Dunne, Richard J Davidson
Mindfulness meditation is increasingly incorporated into mental health interventions, and theoretical concepts associated with it have influenced basic research on psychopathology. Here, we review the current understanding of mindfulness meditation through the lens of clinical neuroscience, outlining the core capacities targeted by mindfulness meditation and mapping them onto cognitive and affective constructs of the Research Domain Criteria matrix proposed by the National Institute of Mental Health. We review efficacious applications of mindufulness meditation to specific domains of psychopathology including depression, anxiety, chronic pain, and substance abuse, as well as emerging efforts related to attention disorders, traumatic stress, dysregulated eating, and serious mental illness...
December 10, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Matthew S Lebowitz, Paul S Appelbaum
Mental disorders are increasingly conceptualized as biomedical diseases, explained as manifestations of genetic and neurobiological abnormalities. Here, we discuss changes in the dominant explanatory accounts of psychopathology that have occurred over time and the driving forces behind these shifts, lay out some real-world evidence for the increasing ascendancy of biomedical explanations, and provide an overview of the types of attitudes and beliefs that may be affected by them. We examine theoretical and conceptual models that are relevant to understanding how biomedical conceptualizations might affect attitudes and beliefs about mental disorders, and we review some empirical evidence that bears on this question...
November 16, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
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