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Journal of Opioid Management

Wenling Jian, Damoon Rejaei, Ahmed Shihab, Theodore A Alston, Jingping Wang
Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a possible complication of various surgical procedures, which can impair patients' quality of life while also contributing to chronic opioid use. Multiple biopsychosocial factors put patients at risk for CPSP. Multimodal analgesia with the use of various pharmacologic and regional anesthetic techniques can help reduce the incidence and severity of CPSP. However, the relationship between various perioperative analgesic strategies and the development of CPSP is not fully understood...
November 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Taylor Rogerson, Anthony Houston, Garrett Lyman, Jenna Ogden, Kevin Paschall, Mark Penaranda, Alexandria Rios, Robert Wetzel, Joseph Horzempa
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a group of problems associated with withdrawal symptoms of a newborn who was exposed to maternal opiate use while in the womb. West Virginia (WV) is of utmost concern as this state exhibits among the highest rates of opioid abuse and consequently, NAS. In this manuscript, we review factors associated with the prevalence of NAS in WV. We provide evidence suggesting that states exhibiting high Medicaid participation demonstrate a high NAS rate, further associating these two factors...
November 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Nadav Friedmann, Michael R Marsman, Annelies W de Kater, Lindsay H Burns, Lynn R Webster
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the nasal abuse deterrence of REMOXY ER, a novel high-viscosity extended-release oxycodone formulation. DESIGN: An Institutional Review Board-approved, single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo, and active-controlled, four-way crossover study of intranasal REMOXY ER gel, manipulated or intact, and ground oxycodone immediate-release (IR). An open label extension examined pharmacokinetics of OxyContin® ER in the first 20 subjects...
November 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Shawn A Kucera, Michael S Zamloot, Michael M Crowley, Lindsay H Burns, Nadav Friedmann, Remi Barbier
OBJECTIVE: These in vitro studies compared abuse-deterrent properties of REMOXY ER (extended-release oxycodone), a novel, high-viscosity gel formulation, versus the two currently marketed ER oxycodone formulations. METHODS: Tampering methods were tailored to each product to maximize oxycodone release with the least complexity, time, and effort, based on the physical/chemical properties of each formulation. Oral abuse was simulated by extracting oxycodone from each manipulated formulation in Common Ingestible Liquids and in Advanced Solvents (not ingestible and requiring additional separation)...
November 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Robert Taylor, Jo Ann LeQuang, John Bisney, Robert B Raffa, Fabianna Pergolizzi, Daniel Colucci, Lisa Batastini
Opioids affect the central nervous system and are known to produce dizziness, sleepiness, mood changes, and other actions that in some people have a negative impact on psychomotor or mental performance. The negative effects can be exacerbated in persons who are taking other prescription medications or illegal substances. Opioid-abusing drivers clearly represent an unnecessary danger to the public; although the vast majority of patients taking prescription opioids for pain safely drive to work and other activities, a subset may be impaired, but not be aware of or recognize the problem...
November 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Kellye Donovan, Stephen Kogut, Ashley Buchanan, Xuerong Wen, Robert Crausman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of tramadol prescribing among commercially insured adults receiving medication-assisted therapy (MAT) with buprenorphine/naloxone. DESIGN: The authors conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to evaluate the use of tramadol among patients prescribed buprenorphine/suboxone for MAT. SETTING: This study utilized data from 2010 to 2013 Optum® Clinformatics® Data Mart. This cohort is an administrative health claims database from a large national insurer...
November 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Stacey McCaffrey, Kelly A Manser, Kimberlee J Trudeau, Gwendolyn Niebler, Colville Brown, Donna Zarycranski, Simon H Budman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective, observational pilot study was to explore change in route of administration (RoA) and motivation for changing RoA during the course of opioid abuse. DESIGN: This retrospective pilot study involved collecting and analyzing semistructured interview data. SETTING: Interviews were conducted with patients undergoing outpatient substance abuse treatment at a buprenorphine clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty adult patients (50 percent male) participated in the interviews...
November 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
David M Erekson, Liliana Bautista, Dallin Albright
OBJECTIVE: Opioid misuse risk assessment has been highlighted as an important part of clinical practice, but there is a paucity of research identifying an effective approach to assessment. Currently, practitioners use patient history, interviews, and formal questionnaires, and these data are weighed clinically to assign risk. The authors propose the use of an actuarial method-the Bayesian nomogram-as a simple, standard, evidence-based approach to opioid misuse risk assessment. INTERVENTIONS: The Bayesian nomogram relies solely on empirically established relationships between risk factors and risk and has been found in other fields to be both more efficient and more consistent than clinical judgment...
September 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Jennifer G Erensen, J David Haddox, Maigh S Attre, Luis N Bauza
OBJECTIVE: To characterize pharmacy-related theft data reported to the Rx Pattern Analysis Tracking Robberies and Other Losses (RxPATROL®) database during the time periods before (2007-2010) and after (2011-2016) the August 2010 switch to reformulated OxyContin® (oxycodone hydrochloride) extended-release tablets (Purdue Pharma L.P.). METHODS: The RxPATROL® database was queried to identify characteristics associated with theft of drug products. Variables analyzed included incident counts, drugs involved (OxyContin or other oxycodone products), pharmacy-security features, and other incident-related information...
September 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Diana Meske, Ernest A Kopecky, Steven Passik, Megan J Shram
OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the human abuse potential and pharmacokinetics (PK) of Oxycodone DETERx (Xtampza® ER) after intact and chewed oral administration. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, triple-dummy, active- and placebo-controlled, single-dose, six-period, crossover comparison study. SETTING: Clinical research unit. SUBJECTS: Adult, nondependent recreational opioid users who liked the effects of crushed immediate-release (IR) oxycodone in solution and were able to differentiate the effects from placebo solution...
September 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Valerie Hruschak, Gerald Cochran, Ajay D Wasan
OBJECTIVE: Opioid misuse in the context of chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) is a multifaceted and complex issue. As opioid misuse and corresponding rates of addiction and overdose deaths exceed epidemic proportions, there is an urgent need for research in this area. The objective of this review is to evaluate the literature addressing psychosocial interventions targeting CNCP and prescription opioid misuse. DESIGN: A systematic search of PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, ClinicalTrials...
September 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Guillermo Alberto Keller, Cecilia Villa Etchegoyen, Nicolás Fernandez, Nancy Mónica Olivera, Patricia Noemí Quiroga, Roberto Alejandro Diez, Guillermo Di Girolamo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate frequency and risk factors for dextropropoxypheneinduced QT-interval prolongation in the clinical setting. DESIGN: Prospective, noninterventional, observational, longitudinal cohort approach. Electrocardiograms were blindly evaluated by independent professionals. SETTING: General ward of a public hospital of metropolitan Buenos Aires. PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-two patients with indication of receiving dextropropoxyphene for analgesic purposes were included consecutively...
September 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Elias Youssef, Han Tony Gao, Conor Russell, Shorok Hassan, Brahim Ardolic, Barry Hahn
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aim to identify and discuss the clinical and demographic characteristics of previous emergency department (ED) patient visits, at one of the only two medical centers in Staten Island, the epicenter of the opioid epidemic within Staten Island, who subsequently present to the ED with an opioid overdose. DESIGN: This was a retrospective, observational study of all patients presenting to the emergency ED between July 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015...
September 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Julianna Fernandez, James Douglas Thornton, Sanika Rege, Benjamin Lewing, Shweta Bapat, Qingqing Xu, Marc L Fleming
OBJECTIVE: To qualitatively assess prescribers) perceptions regarding the consequences associated with hydrocodone rescheduling among geriatric patients being discharged from inpatient settings. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator in a metropolitan academic medical center in January 2016. PARTICIPANTS: Prescribers who manage noncancer pain for geriatric patients were recruited...
September 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Jeannie S Huang, Cynthia L Kuelbs
OBJECTIVE: Little is known regarding clinician prescribing of opioid medications and of patient use of prescribed opioid medications in pediatrics. The authors sought to learn more about pediatric clinician opioid prescribing practices and patient utilization and disposal of prescribed opioids. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. SETTING: Tertiary care pediatric healthcare center. PARTICIPANTS: Pediatric clinicians who prescribe opioid medications and parents of children prescribed an opioid medication...
September 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Jessica J Wyse, Benjamin J Morasco, Steven K Dobscha, Michael I Demidenko, Thomas H A Meath, Travis I Lovejoy
OBJECTIVE: Urine drug testing (UDT) is increasingly performed as a means of identifying aberrant behavior that may be grounds for discontinuation of long-term opioid therapy (LTOT). Little is known, however, about the ways in which positive UDT results may differentially inform decisions to discontinue LTOT based on the type of substance for which the UDT screened positive. The aim of this study was to examine the likelihood of clinician-initiated discontinuation of LTOT attributed to positive UDT results across three discrete categories of substances: (1) cannabis, (2) alcohol or illicit substances (excluding cannabis), and (3) controlled prescription medications that were not prescribed...
July 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Amitabh Dutta, Nitin Sethi, Prabhat Choudhary, Jayashree Sood, Bhuwan Chand Panday, Parul Takkar Chugh
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is commonly attributed to opioid analgesics; consequently, perioperative opioid dosage reduction is a common practice. However, inadequate fentanyl analgesia may have adverse implications (sympathetic activation, pain). We conducted this randomized clinical study to analyze whether preinduction fentanyl 3 µg kg-1 administered by different techniques increases incidence of PONV. DESIGN: Randomized-control, prospective, investigator and observer blinded, two-arm, single-center comparison...
July 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Ulrike Ott, Matthew S Thiese, Brenden B Ronna, Kristine Hegmann, Kurt T Hegmann
OBJECTIVES: Working-age adults are disproportionately impacted by opioid misuse. Factors associated with opioid misuse in people with workers compensation (WC) claims are not well studied. WC in some states is a "captured" market making it a more efficient site for researching the opioids epidemic. A pilot study was conducted to identify factors associated with opioid use using a large WC insurer's claims in Utah. METHODS: This was a case-control study using a large WC insurer's database...
July 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Diana Ladkany, Peter M Mullins, Sergey Motov, Jeanmarie Perrone, Lewis S Nelson, Jesse M Pines
OBJECTIVE: To examine recent trends in and predictors of hydromorphone administration in US emergency departments (EDs) compared with other opioids. DESIGN: Retrospective review of data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2007 to 2014. PARTICIPANTS: All adult ED visits where an opioid analgesic was administered were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends in and predictors of hydromorphone administration were assessed using survey-weighted logistic regression, comparing hydromorphone visits with ED visits where other opioids were administered...
July 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
John W Shumway, Renzhong Ran, Jeff McClusky, Zubaid Rafique, Cedric Dark, W Frank Peacock, Alexie Cintron, Michelle Ludwig
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the rescheduling of hydrocodone-combination products (HCPs) and associated changes in prescriber patterns in an urban county healthcare system in Texas. METHODS: Pharmacy data were obtained electronically for tramadol, hydrocodone-acetaminophen, and acetaminophen-codeine from 180 days before and after the schedule change on October 6, 2014. x 2 and t tests were used to calculate the significance of changes between the medications over the studied time...
July 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
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