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Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research

Christopher J Nolan, Marc Prentki
While few dispute the existence of the metabolic syndrome as a clustering of factors indicative of poor metabolic health, its utility above that of its individual components in the clinical care of individual patients is questioned. This is likely a consequence of the failure of clinicians and scientists to agree on a unifying mechanism to explain the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance has most commonly been proposed for this role and is generally considered to be a root causative factor for not only metabolic syndrome but also for its associated conditions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
February 15, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Fahim Abbasi, Paul Jw Tern, Gerald M Reaven
AIM: The aim of this study was to gain insight into the pathophysiological significance of elevated plasma glucose concentrations (mmol/L) 60 min post oral glucose load in apparently healthy individuals. METHODS: Comparison of resistance to insulin action and associated cardio-metabolic risk factors in 490 apparently healthy persons, subdivided into those with a plasma glucose concentration 60 min following a 75-g oral glucose challenge of <8.6 versus ⩾8...
February 13, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Søren Gullaksen, Kristian Løkke Funck, Esben Laugesen, Troels Krarup Hansen, Damini Dey, Per Løgstrup Poulsen
OBJECTIVES: Coronary atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be promoted by regional fat distribution. We investigated the association between anthropometric measures of obesity, truncal fat mass, epicardial adipose tissue and coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients and matched controls. METHODS: We examined 44 patients and 59 controls [mean (standard deviation) age 64.4 ± 9.9 vs 61.8 ± 9.7, male 50% vs 47%, diabetes duration mean (standard deviation) 7...
February 3, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Hsin-Chien Chen, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Chieh-Hua Lu, Wu-Chien Chien
BACKGROUND: The risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss associated with metformin use in patients with diabetes mellitus has not been fully examined. STUDY DESIGN: It is a retrospective matched-cohort study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We examined the medical records of patients with diabetes mellitus over 18 years old in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database for the period between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2013, to establish matched cohorts (14,109 with and 42,327 without metformin use) at a ratio of 1:3 by sex, age and index year...
February 2, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Ralph A DeFronzo, Silvio Inzucchi, Muhammad Abdul-Ghani, Steven E Nissen
Type 2 diabetes individuals are at high risk for macrovascular complications: myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality. Recent cardiovascular outcome trials have demonstrated that agents in two antidiabetic classes (SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists) reduce major adverse cardiovascular events. However, there is strong evidence that an older and now generically available medication, the thiazolidinedione, pioglitazone, can retard the atherosclerotic process (PERISCOPE and Chicago) and reduce cardiovascular events in large randomized prospective cardiovascular outcome trials (IRIS and PROactive)...
February 1, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Deborah Cristina Landi Masquio, Flávia Campos Corgosinho, Danielle Arisa Caranti, Aline de Piano Ganen, Lian Tock, Lila Missae Oyama, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso
AIM: To investigate the association between visceral adipose tissue loss and insulin resistance and hyperleptinemia in adolescents with obesity submitted to interdisciplinary weight-loss therapy. METHODS: A total of 172 post-pubertal adolescents (body mass index greater than the 95th percentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference growth charts) were recruited for the study. The adolescents were assigned to long-term weight-loss therapy. Body composition, visceral and subcutaneous fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and leptin concentration were measured...
January 28, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Marko Banovic, Lavanya Athithan, Gerry P McCann
Aortic stenosis and diabetes mellitus are both progressive diseases which, if left untreated, result in significant morbidity and mortality. There is evidence that the prevalence of diabetes is substantially increased in patients with aortic stenosis and those with diabetes have increased rates of progression from mild to severe aortic stenosis. There are good data supporting the hypothesis that aortic stenosis and diabetes mellitus are associated with diabetes mellitus being detrimental towards the quality of life and survival of patients...
January 9, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Samir Helmy Assaad Khalil, Sulaf Ibrahim Abdelaziz, Affaf Al Shammary, Ali Al Zahrani, Ashraf Amir, Nabil Elkafrawy, Ahmed Ak Hassoun, Ulrike Hostalek, Adel Jahed, Nadim Jarrah, Sanaa Mrabeti, Imran Paruk, Alexey V Zilov
Most data on the burden of diabetes and prediabetes are from countries where local infrastructure can support reliable estimates of the burden of non-communicable diseases. Countries in the Middle East and Africa, together with Russia, have a total population of almost 2 billion, but have been relatively overlooked by authors in this field. We reviewed the prevalence and drivers of prediabetes and diabetes across this large region. A large, and variable, burden of dysglycaemia exists, especially in Middle Eastern and North African countries, associated with high levels of obesity and sedentariness, with a generally lower prevalence in most other parts of Africa...
January 3, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Sharon Nina Admoni, Daniele Pereira Santos-Bezerra, Ricardo Vesoni Perez, Thiago Andrade Patente, Maria Beatriz Monteiro, Ana Mercedes Cavaleiro, Maria Candida Parisi, Arnaldo Moura Neto, Elizabeth Joao Pavin, Marcia Silva Queiroz, Marcia Nery, Maria Lucia Correa-Giannella
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy is a neglected diabetic chronic complication for which genetic predictors are rarely reported. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of microvascular complications, and glutathione peroxidase 4 is involved in the detoxification of peroxides and of reactive oxygen species. Thus, the association of a functional variant in the gene encoding glutathione peroxidase 4 (rs713041) with this diabetic complication was investigated in 341 individuals with type 1 diabetes evaluated for cardiac autonomic neuropathy status (61...
January 1, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Henrik Ø Hjortkjær, Tonny Jensen, Jannik Hilsted, Ulrik M Mogensen, Helle Corinth, Peter Rossing, Per E Sigvardsen, Andreas Fuchs, J Tobias Kühl, Børge G Nordestgaard, Lars Køber, Klaus F Kofoed
AIMS: Type 1 diabetes entails increased cardiovascular morbidity and cardiac chamber sizes are associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to compare cardiac chamber sizes in normoalbuminuric persons with type 1 diabetes to a background population without diabetes. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we examined 71 normoalbuminuric persons with long-term type 1 diabetes without known cardiovascular disease using cardiac multi-detector computed tomography...
January 1, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Asirvatham Alwin Robert, Mohamed Abdulaziz Al Dawish
Diabetes mellitus, besides disrupting the carbohydrate metabolism process, also induces vascular disease and impacts nearly all the types and sizes of blood vessels. In fact, vascular complications cause majority of the morbidity, hospitalizations and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. Retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy (microvascular complications) impact hundreds of millions of diabetics and normally target those having long-term or uncontrolled forms of the disease; however, these disorders can also exist at the time of diagnosis or in those yet to be diagnosed...
January 1, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Sara Rattik, Daniel Engelbertsen, Maria Wigren, Irena Ljungcrantz, Gerd Östling, Margaretha Persson, Gunilla Nordin Fredrikson, Eva Bengtsson, Jan Nilsson, Harry Björkbacka
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanism through which diabetes contributes to cardiovascular disease development remains incompletely understood. In this study, we compared the association of circulating regulatory T cells, naïve T cells, effector memory T cells or central memory T cells with cardiovascular disease in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Percentage of circulating T cell subsets was analysed by flow cytometry in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects with and without prevalent cardiovascular disease as well as in non-diabetic subjects with and without prevalent cardiovascular disease from the Malmö SUMMIT cohort...
December 21, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Mareike Barth, Jessica I Selig, Svenja Klose, Antje Schomakers, Lena S Kiene, Silja Raschke, Udo Boeken, Payam Akhyari, Jens W Fischer, Artur Lichtenberg
Degenerative aortic valve disease in combination with diabetes is an increasing burden worldwide. There is growing evidence that particularly small leucine-rich proteoglycans are involved in the development of degenerative aortic valve disease. Nevertheless, the role of these molecules in this disease in the course of diabetes has not been elucidated in detail and previous studies remain controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study is to broaden the knowledge about small leucine-rich proteoglycans in degenerative aortic valve disease and the influence of diabetes and hyperglycaemia on aortic valves and valvular interstitial cells is examined...
December 19, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Esmé Jansen van Vuren, Leoné Malan, Roland von Känel, Martin Magnusson, Leandi Lammertyn, Nicolaas T Malan
OBJECTIVE: Glucose dysregulation is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease development through synaptic dysfunction resulting in cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to study the interplay between impaired glycaemic metabolism (hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance), cardiac stress (cardiac troponin T and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide) and executive cognitive function prospectively, in a bi-ethnic sex cohort. METHODS: Black and White teachers (N = 338, aged 20-63 years) from the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans study were monitored over a 3-year period...
December 17, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Hsin-Yu Yang, Du-An Wu, Ming-Chun Chen, Bang-Gee Hsu
BACKGROUND: Sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 are extracellular inhibitors of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway, which is implicated in the development of arterial stiffness. However, the correlation between aortic stiffness and sclerostin or Dickkopf-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is unknown. METHODS: Fasting blood samples were collected from 125 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Aortic stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and high aortic stiffness was defined by a carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity of >10 m/s...
December 14, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Sophie Cassidy, Vivek Vaidya, David Houghton, Pawel Zalewski, Jelena P Seferovic, Kate Hallsworth, Guy A MacGowan, Michael I Trenell, Djordje G Jakovljevic
BACKGROUND: This is the first randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of unsupervised high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular autonomic function in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 22 individuals with type 2 diabetes (age 60 ± 2 years, 17 males) lay in a supine position for 20 min for evaluation of cardiovascular autonomic function, which included (1) time domain measures of heart rate variability, (2) frequency domain measures of heart rate variability and blood pressure variability and (3) baroreflex receptor sensitivity...
December 12, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Fernanda-Isadora Corona-Meraz, Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado, Francisco José Ortega, Sandra-Luz Ruiz-Quezada, Milton-Omar Guzmán-Ornelas, Rosa-Elena Navarro-Hernández
OBJECTIVE: The identification of circulating microRNAs related to abnormal metabolic function may be useful in the context of ageing, adiposity and insulin resistance. The miR-33 a/b has been shown to control the expression of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, impaired metabolism and insulin resistance. In this study, we aimed to identify differences in circulating miR-33 a/b levels according to age-related metabolic impairment and increased adiposity. METHODS: This study included 80 individuals (30...
December 11, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Matthew W McDonald, T Dylan Olver, Michelle S Dotzert, Thomas J Jurrissen, Earl G Noble, Jaume Padilla, Cw James Melling
Vascular insulin resistance often precedes endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Strategies to limit vascular dysfunction include intensive insulin therapy (4-9 mM) and aerobic training. To avoid the risk of hypoglycaemia, individuals often prescribed conventional insulin therapy (9-15 mM) and participate in resistance training. In a model of type 1 diabetes mellitus, this study examined insulin-induced vasomotor function in the aorta and femoral artery to determine (1) whether resistance training with conventional insulin therapy provides the same benefits as aerobic training with conventional insulin therapy, (2) whether aerobic training or resistance training, when paired with conventional insulin therapy, results in superior vasomotor function compared to intensive insulin therapy alone and (3) whether vessel-specific adaptations exist...
December 11, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Tarun Pant, Manoj K Mishra, Xiaowen Bai, Zhi-Dong Ge, Zeljko J Bosnjak, Anuradha Dhanasekaran
AIM: This study aims to investigate the altered expression signature of long non-coding RNAs, mRNAs and deregulated pathways related to diabetic cardiomyopathy disease pathogenesis. METHOD: We utilize the previously established in vitro diabetic cardiomyopathy model of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human cardiomyocytes to perform long non-coding RNA and mRNA expression analysis on glucose (11 mM), endothelin-1 (10 nM) and cortisol (1 µM) stimulated human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human cardiomyocytes to interrogate diabetic cardiomyopathy associated RNA expression profile...
November 28, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Myint Aung Moh Moh, Chan-Hee Jung, Bora Lee, Dughyun Choi, Bo-Yeon Kim, Chul-Hee Kim, Sung-Koo Kang, Ji-Oh Mok
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between glucagon-to-insulin ratio and the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease on ultrasonography in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed with data obtained from 172 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted to a University hospital of Korea. Participants were assessed for serum fasting and postprandial serum glucagon-to-insulin ratio and divided into tertiles...
November 14, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
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