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Acta Biomaterialia

Mark J Bradshawa, Gwendolyn A Hoffmann, Joyce Y Wong, Michael L Smith
Viscoelasticity is a fundamental property of virtually all biological materials, and proteinaceous, fibrous materials that constitute the extracellular matrix (ECM) are no exception. Viscoelasticity may be particularly important in the ECM since cells can apply mechanical stress resulting from cell contractility over very long periods of time. However, measurements of ECM fiber response to long-term constant force loading are scarce, despite the increasing recognition that mechanical strain regulates the biological function of some ECM fibers...
February 16, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Hui Yang, Lai Wei, Chen Liu, Weiyi Zhong, Bin Li, Yuncan Chen, Rui Han, Jiexian Zhuang, Jianxun Qu, Hongyue Tao, Haiyan Chen, Chen Xu, Qianqian Liang, Chao Lu, Ruizhe Qian, Sifeng Chen, Wenshuo Wang, Ning Sun
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a primary cardiovascular disease threatening human health and quality of life worldwide. The development of engineered heart tissues (EHTs) as a transplantable artificial myocardium provides a promising therapy for MI. Since most MIs occur at the ventricle, engineering ventricular-specific myocardium is therefore more desirable for future applications. Here, by combining a new macroporous 3D iron oxide scaffold (IOS) with a fixed ratio of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived ventricular-specific cardiomyocytes and human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells, we constructed a new type of engineered human ventricular-specific heart tissue (EhVHT)...
February 16, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Maria Pierantoni, Vlad Brumfeld, Lia Addadi, Steve Weiner
We investigate the structures and mechanical properties of leaf midribs of Ficus microcarpa and Prunus dulcis, which deposit calcium oxalate crystals, and of Olea europaea midribs which contain no mineral deposits, but do contain lignified fibers. The midrib mechanical performance contributes to the leaf's ability to maintain a flat conformation for light harvesting and to efficiently reconfigure to reduce wind drag. We use a novel approach involving 3D visualization of the vein structure during mechanical load...
February 16, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Jing Cai, Michael F Burrow, David J Manton, Yuka Tsuda, Eman G Sobh, Joseph E A Palamara
Treatment of carious root surfaces remains challenging due to the complex pathological processes and difficulty in restoring the original structure of root dentine. Current treatments targeting the de-/re-mineralisation processes are not entirely satisfactory in terms of the protection of the dentinal organic matrix and the highly organised structure of dentine. In this in vitro study, a cross-linking agent - proanthocyanidin (PA) was used in conjunction with a fluoride-based treatment - silver diammine fluoride/potassium iodide (SDF/KI) to putatively stabilise the organic dentinal framework as well as strengthen the collagen-mineral phase interaction...
February 15, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
David M Kingsley, Cassandra L Roberge, Alena Rudkouskaya, Denzel E Faulkner, Margarida Barroso, Xavier Intes, David T Corr
3D multicellular aggregates, and more advanced organotypic systems, have become central tools in recent years to study a wide variety of complex biological processes. Most notably, these model systems have become mainstream within oncology (multicellular tumor spheroids) and regenerative medicine (embryoid bodies) research. However, the biological behavior of these in vitro tissue surrogates is extremely sensitive to their aggregate size and geometry. Indeed, both of these geometrical parameters are key in producing pathophysiological gradients responsible for cellular and structural heterogeneity, replicating in vivo observations...
February 15, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Tsuyoshi Kurobane, Yukari Shiwaku, Takahisa Anada, Ryo Hamai, Kaori Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi Baba, Masahiro Iikubo, Tetsu Takahashi, Osamu Suzuki
Effect of octacalcium phosphate/gelatin composite (OCP/Gel) on angiogenesis was studied by its implantation in rat calvaria critical-sized defect in relation to bone regeneration for 2 and 4 weeks. The implantation of OCP/Gel disks was analyzed by radiomorphometry using a radiopaque material perfusion (Microfil®) method and histomorphometry by hematoxylin and eosin (HE)-staining before and after the decalcification. Effect of the OCP dose in the range up to 4 mg per well on the capillary-like tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was also examined in a transwell cell culture...
February 15, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Ju Fang, Pengfei Li, Xiong Lu, Liming Fang, Xiaoying Lv, Fuzeng Ren
The design of hydrogels with adequate mechanical properties and excellent bioactivity, osteoconductivity, and capacity for osseointegration is essential to bone repair and regeneration. However, it is challenging to integrate all these properties into one bone scaffold. Herein, we developed a strong, tough, osteoconductive hydrogel by a facile one-step micellar copolymerization of acrylamide and urethacrylate dextran (Dex-U), followed by the in situ mineralization of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals. We show that the soft, flexible, and hydrophobically associated polyacrylamide (PAAm) network is strengthened by the stiff crosslinked Dex-U phase, and that the mineralized HAp simultaneously improves the mechanical properties and osteoconductivity...
February 14, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Michail E Klontzas, Supachai Reakasame, Raquel Silva, Jose C F Morais, Spyros Vernardis, Robert J MacFarlane, Manolis Heliotis, Eleftherios Tsiridis, Nicki Panoskaltsis, Aldo R Boccaccini, Athanasios Mantalaris
Oxidized alginate hydrogels are appealing alternatives to natural alginate due to their favourable biodegradability profiles and capacity to self-crosslink with amine containing molecules facilitating functionalization with extracellular matrix cues, which enable modulation of stem cell fate, achieve highly viable 3-D cultures, and promote cell growth. Stem cell metabolism is at the core of cellular fate (proliferation, differentiation, death) and metabolomics provides global metabolic signatures representative of cellular status, being able to accurately identify the quality of stem cell differentiation...
February 14, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
David G Leach, Simon Young, Jeffrey D Hartgerink
Macroscale biomaterials, such as preformed implantable scaffolds and injectable soft materials, possess powerful synergies with anti-cancer immunotherapies. Immunotherapies on their own typically have poor delivery properties, and often require repeated high-dose injections that result in serious off-tumor effects and/or limited efficacy. Rationally designed biomaterials allow for discrete localization and controlled release of immunotherapeutic agents, and have been shown in a large number of applications to improve outcomes in the treatment of cancers via immunotherapy...
February 13, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Yueting Peng, Zhongyuan Chen, Yu Chen, Shun Li, Ying Jiang, Hong Yang, Chunhui Wu, Fengming You, Chuan Zheng, Jie Zhu, Youhua Tan, Xiang Qin, Yiyao Liu
Tumors are characterized by extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening. The importance of ECM stiffness in cancer is well known. However, the biomechanical behavior of tumor cells and the underlying mechanotransduction pathways remain unclear. Here, we used polyacrylamide (PAA) substrates to simulate tissue stiffness at different progress stages of breast cancer in vitro, and we observed that moderate substrate stiffness promoted breast cancer cell motility. The substrate stiffness directly activated integrin β1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which accelerate focal adhesion (FA) maturation and induce the downstream cascades of intracellular signals of the RhoA/ROCK pathway...
February 13, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Rui-Qing Hou, Nico Scharnagl, Regine Willumeit-Römer, Frank Feyerabend
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) or fetal bovine serum (FBS), as the protein component, is usually added into solution to study the influence of proteins on Mg degradation. However, the specific character of proteins used and the interaction between organic molecules in FBS do not draw enough attention. This study investigated the influence of BSA, fibrinogen (Fib) and FBS on Mg degradation in Hanks' balanced salt solution without (HBSS) or with calcium (HBSSCa) and Dulbecco's modified eagle medium Glutamax-I (DMEM)...
February 13, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Jake P Newsom, Karin A Payne, Melissa D Krebs
Biopolymer microgels are emerging as a versatile tool for aiding in the regeneration of damaged tissues due to their biocompatible nature, tunable microporous structure, ability to encapsulate bioactive factors, and tailorable properties such as stiffness and composition. These properties of microgels, along with their injectability, have allowed for their utilization in a multitude of different tissue engineering applications. Controlled release of growth factors, antibodies, and other bioactive factors from microgels have demonstrated their capabilities as transporters for essential bioactive molecules necessary for guiding tissue reconstruction...
February 12, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Jihoon Kim, Margaret P Manspeaker, Susan N Thomas
Despite the recent approvals of multiple cancer immunotherapies, low tumor immunogenicity and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments prevent a large portion of patients from responding to these treatment modalities. Given the immunomodulatory and adjuvant effects of conventional chemotherapy as well as its widespread clinical use, the use of chemotherapy in combination with immunotherapy (so-called chemoimmunotherapy) is an attractive approach to potentiate the effects of immunotherapy in more patient populations...
February 12, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Nicholas N Ashton, Gina Allyn, Scott T Porter, Travis J Haussener, Paul R Sebahar, Ryan E Looper, Dustin L Williams
Biofilm-related infection is among the worst complication to prosthetic joint replacement procedures; once established on the implant surface, biofilms show strong recalcitrance to clinical antibiotic therapy, frequently requiring costly revision procedures and prolonged systemic antibiotics for their removal. A well-designed active release coating might assist host immunity in clearing bacterial contaminants within the narrow perioperative window and ultimately prevent microbial colonization of the joint prosthesis...
February 12, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Di Jiang, Minjun Xu, Yuanyuan Pei, Yukun Huang, Yu Chen, Fenfen Ma, Huiping Lu, Jun Chen
Emergence of drug resistance in tumors causes therapeutic failure or tumor relapse. Combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy holds significant promise to treat drug-resistant tumors. However, stubborn hydrophobicity of photosensitizer (PS), low encapsulation efficiency and leaking problem of PS in organic carrier, and disparate physicochemical properties of PS and chemotherapeutics make the combination unachievable. Thus how to efficiently co-deliver the two functional agents to enable photo-chemotherapy seems to be one of the key challenges...
February 11, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Dina G Moussa, Alex Fok, Conrado Aparicio
Dental caries, i.e., tooth decay mediated by bacterial activity, is the most widespread chronic disease worldwide. Carious lesions are commonly treated using dental resin composite restorations. However, resin composite restorations are prone to recurrent caries, i.e., reinfection of the surrounding dental hard tissues.Recurrent caries is mainly a consequence of waterborne and/or biofilm-mediated degradation of the tooth-restoration interface through hydrolytic, acidic and/or enzymatic challenges. Here we use amphipathic antimicrobial peptides to directly coat dentin to provide resin composite restorations with a 2-tier protective system, simultaneously exploiting the physicochemical and biological properties of these peptides...
February 9, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Bo-Yu Yang, Guo-Ying Deng, Rui-Zhe Zhao, Chen-Yun Dai, Chen-Yi Jiang, Xing-Jie Wang, Yi-Feng Jing, Xi-Jian Liu, Shu-Jie Xia, Bang-Min Han
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients experience complications after surgery. We studied oxidative stress scavenging by porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres in prostatic urethra wound healing after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Beagle dogs were randomly distributed into two groups after establishing TURP models. Wound recovery and oxidative stress levels were evaluated. Re-epithelialization and the macrophage distribution at the wound site were assessed by histology. The mechanism by which porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres regulated macrophage polarization was investigated by qRT-PCR, western blotting, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and dual luciferase reporter gene assays...
February 9, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Afshin Anssari-Benam, Yuan-Tsan Tseng, Gerhard A Holzapfel, Andrea Bucchi
This paper presents an experimental investigation and evidence of rate-dependency in the planar mechanical behaviour of semilunar heart valves. Samples of porcine aortic and pulmonary valves were subjected to biaxial deformations across 1000-fold stretch rate, ranging from λ̇=0.001 to 1s-1 . The experimental campaign encompassed protocols covering (i) tests on samples without preconditioning, (ii) preconditioning immediately followed by tensile tests; and (iii) tensile tests at different rates performed on the same preconditioned specimen...
February 9, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Xiao-Tao He, Xuan Li, Yu Xia, Yuan Yin, Rui-Xin Wu, Hai-Hua Sun, Fa-Ming Chen
Recently, we found that although high-stiffness matrices stimulated osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs), the macrophages (Mφs) in high-stiffness transglutaminase crosslinked gelatins (TG-gels) tended to undergo M1 polarization and hence compromised cell osteogenesis. In this study, we hypothesized that the copresentation of interleukin (IL)-4 and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α in high-stiffness TG-gels may enhance periodontal regeneration by modulating Mφ polarization and promoting endogenous stem cell recruitment...
February 5, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Yan-Wen Bao, Xian-Wu Hua, Yan-Hong Li, Hao-Ran Jia, Fu-Gen Wu
Lysosomal entrapment and liver accumulation are the two main obstacles faced by many anticancer drugs for achieving satisfactory therapeutic outcomes. Here, we develop a facile one-step hydrothermal synthetic route to prepare trace metal (M)-, N-, and O-doped carbon-dominated nanoparticles (termed as MNOCNPs, M = Ni, Pd, or Cu, metal content: < 0.1 mol %) with exceptional photothermal properties (e.g., the ultrahigh extinction coefficient of 32.7 L g-1 cm-1 ), which can simultaneously realize preferable endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting and specific tumor enrichment without noticeable liver accumulation after poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugation...
February 5, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
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