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Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

Zhen Li, Qingqing Yin, Binlong Chen, Zenghui Wang, Yue Yan, Tong Qi, Wei Chen, Qiang Zhang, Yiguang Wang
Photothermal therapy (PTT) has been recognized as a promising approach for cancer treatment due to its minimal invasiveness and low systemic side effects. However, developing a photothermal agent with accurate tumor imaging capability is a prerequisite for the efficient PTT. Here, we developed a series of ultra-pH-sensitive indocyanine green (ICG)-conjugated nanoparticles for fluorescence imaging-guided tumor PTT. These nanoparticles exhibited high fluorescence activation ratio (~100-fold) with sharp pH transition (ΔpHon/off <0...
February 11, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Kari Cowden, Marcela Ferreira Dias-Netipanyj, Ketul C Popat
The surface of an implant is important for successful osseointegration and long-term stability as it can aid in cell migration and proliferation, cell differentiation and allow extracellular matrix production. Earlier studies have shown that nanostructuring the surface of titanium can enhance mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Although many studies have evaluated MSC response on nanostructured surfaces, there are only a few studies that have explored the response of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) on titania nanotube surfaces...
February 11, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Marcos Quintela, Douglas H Sieglaff, Andrea Salvatore Gazze, Aijun Zhang, Deyarina Gonzalez, Lewis Francis, Paul Webb, R Steven Conlan
New approaches to treat ovarian cancer, the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women, are being sought, with the targeting of epigenetic modulators now receiving much attention. The histone acetyltransferase HBO1 functions in regulating diverse molecular processes, including DNA repair, transcription and replication, and is highly expressed in primary ovarian cancer. Here we define both the molecular function and a role in cell biomechanics for HBO1 in ovarian cancer. HBO1 preferentially acetylates histone H4 through the concomitant overexpression of co-regulator JADE2, and is required for the expression of YAP1, an ovarian cancer oncogene and mechano-transductor signaling factor...
February 10, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Petra Henrich-Noack, Dragana Nikitovic, Monica Neagu, Anca Oana Docea, Ayse Basak Engin, Svetlana Gelperina, Michael Shtilman, Panayiotis Mitsias, George Tzanakakis, Illana Gozes, Aristidis Tsatsakis
Restrained drug delivery due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) considerably limits options for the treatment of brain pathologies. The utilization of nanoparticulate (NP) carriers has been proposed as a solution. The development strategies need to address the important hurdle of NP passage across the BBB as well as the altered cellular up-take due to the pathophysiological changes of the damaged or diseased tissue as well as immunological and toxicological aspects of nanomedicine penetration. This review therefore scopes to: 1] outline the state-of-the art knowledge on BBB passage, 2] address the significant influence of pathological conditions on nanoparticulate drug delivery, and, 3] highlight the largely neglected role of the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
February 10, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Jeremy Pang Kern Tan, Zhi Xiang Voo, Shaun Lim, Shrinivas Venkataraman, Kai Ming Ng, Shujun Gao, James L Hedrick, Yi Yan Yang
Apomorphine (AMP, used for treatment of Parkinson's disease) is susceptible to oxidation. Its oxidized products are toxic. To overcome these issues, AMP was conjugated to phenylboronic acid-functionalized polycarbonate through pH-sensitive covalent boronate ester bond between phenylboronic acid and catechol in AMP. Various conditions (use of base as catalyst, reaction time and initial drug loading) were optimized to achieve high AMP conjugation degree and mitigate polymer degradation caused by amine in AMP...
February 6, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Brittany Haynes, Yanhua Zhang, Fangchao Liu, Jing Li, Sarah Petit, Hend Kothayer, Xun Bao, Andrew D Westwell, Guangzhao Mao, Malathy Pv Shekhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Qiong Luo, Yonghao Feng, Yangmei Xie, Yiye Shao, Men Wu, Xiaolin Deng, Weien Yuan, Yinghui Chen, Xiaohong Shi
Nontoxic and nonimmunogenic nanoparticles play an increasingly important role in the application of pharmaceutical nanocarriers. The pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) has been extensively studied. However, the role of microRNAs in DPN remains to be clarified. We verified in vitro that miR-146a-5p mimics inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. Then, we explored the protective effect of nanoparticle-miRNA-146a-5p polyplexes (nano-miR-146a-5p) on DPN rats. We demonstrated that nano-miR-146a-5p improved nerve conduction velocity and alleviated the morphological damage and demyelination of the sciatic nerve of DPN rats...
February 2, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
M Erfath Thanjeem Begum, Himadri Shekhaar Baul, Katari Venkatesh, Dwaipayan Sen
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which bind to the 3'-untranslated region of a mature mRNA to induce degradation; thereby regulating gene expression. It is reported that dysregulated miRNAs involved in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, could play a significant role as prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. Neuroprotective effect of delta opioid receptors (DOR) and its known miRNA regulation against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been reported previously by our lab...
February 1, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Ilaria Fratoddi, Luisa Benassi, Elisabetta Botti, Cristina Vaschieri, Iole Venditti, Hagar Bessar, Maie A Samir, Paola Azzoni, Cristina Magnoni, Antonio Costanzo, Viviana Casagrande, Massimo Federici, Luca Bianchi, Giovanni Pellacani
Gold nanoparticles functionalized with 3-mercapto-1-propansulfonate (AuNPs-3MPS) have been prepared and loaded with Methotrexate (MTX), an immunesuppressive agent used in the systemic treatment of moderate-severe inflammatory deseases. The effects of the AuNPs-3MPS@MTX topically administered in vitro on skin model and in vivo on imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like mice model, have been studied. Clinical response, epidermal thickness, cell proliferation rate and inflammation were tested. AuNPs-3MPS@MTX treated mice showed a decreasing of scaling and erythema score, reduction of epidermal thickness, parakeratosis and hyperkeratosis, compared to AuNPs-3MPS treated mice...
January 29, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Surbhi Dogra, Aditya K Kar, Khyati Girdhar, P Vineeth Daniel, Swarup Chatterjee, Abhinav Choubey, Subrata Ghosh, Satyakam Patnaik, Debabrata Ghosh, Prosenjit Mondal
Insulin resistance is thought to be a common link between obesity and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). NAFLD has now reached epidemic status worldwide and identification of molecules or pathways as newer therapeutic strategies either to prevent or overcome insulin resistance seems critical. Dysregulated hepatic lipogenesis (DNL) is a hallmark of NAFLD in humans and rodents. Therefore, reducing DNL accretion may be critical in the development of therapeutics of NAFLD. In our in vivo model (high-fat-diet fed [HFD] obese mice) we found Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) significantly decreased HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and peripheral insulin resistance...
January 29, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Ester Aso, Isak Martinsson, Dietmar Appelhans, Christiane Effenberg, Nuria Benseny-Cases, Josep Cladera, Gunnar Gouras, Isidre Ferrer, Oxana Klementieva
Poly(propylene imine) dendrimers have been shown to be promising 3-dimensional polymers for the use in the pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Our aims of this study were first, to synthesize a novel type of dendrimer with poly(propylene imine) core and maltose-histidine shell (G4HisMal) assessing if maltose-histidine shell can improve the biocompatibility and the ability to cross the blood brain barrier, and second, to investigate the potential of G4HisMal to protect Alzheimer disease transgenic mice from memory impairment...
January 29, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Maciej Roman, Agnieszka Kamińska, Anna Drożdż, Mark Platt, Marek Kuźniewski, Maciej T Małecki, Wojciech Kwiatek, Czesława Paluszkiewicz, Ewa Ł Stępień
Raman spectroscopy was applied to the measurement of urinary and in vitro endothelium-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated by hydrostatic filtration dialysis (HFD) method. Raman spectra obtained for urinary EVs (UEVs) showed distinct differences in the fingerprint region. In contrast, average Raman spectra of endothelium-derived EVs samples were almost identical. Cluster Analysis of UEVs significantly discriminated diabetic samples from control, moreover endothelium-derived EVs revealed stronger similarity between long hyperglycemia and normoglycemia samples compared to short hyperglycemia...
January 28, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Emerson B Lee, Hyeong-Min Jeon, Chang-Ung Kim, Sang M Park, Geunyoung Cho, Hyun-Jin Kim, Youngjin Kim, Doo-Jin Kim, Young S Kim, Hayyoung Lee, Jie-Oh Lee
Hemagglutinin (HA) displayed on a ferritin nano-cage has been shown to be effective in generating a potent immune response against a broad range of influenza infections. Here, we showed that conjugation of flagellin together with HA to the exterior surface of the ferritin cage greatly enhanced not only the humoral immune response in mice but also antigen-specific T cell responses that include Th1 cytokine secretion. The effect of flagellin remained essentially unchanged when the molar ratio of flagellin to HA was reduced from 1:1 to 1:3...
January 26, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Bing Wang, Yating Tang, Yumin Oh, Nicholas W Lamb, Shiyu Xia, Zheng Ding, Baiwei Chen, María J Suárez, Tuo Meng, Vineet Kulkarni, Charles G Eberhart, Laura M Ensign, Walter J Stark, Justin Hanes, Qingguo Xu
Corneal neovascularization (CNV) leads to the loss of corneal transparency and vision impairment, and can ultimately cause blindness. Topical corticosteroids are the first line treatment for suppressing CNV, but poor ocular bioavailability and rapid clearance of eye drops makes frequent administration necessary. Patient compliance with frequent eye drop regimens is poor. We developed biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) using zinc ion bridging, DSP-Zn-NP, with dense coatings of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)...
January 21, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Beata Nagórniewicz, Deby F Mardhian, Richell Booijink, Gert Storm, Jai Prakash, Ruchi Bansal
Hepatic cirrhosis is a growing health problem with increasing mortality worldwide. So far, there is a lack of early diagnosis and no clinical therapy is approved for the treatment. In this study, we developed a novel theranostic nanomedicine by targeting relaxin (RLX) that is known to possess potent anti-fibrotic properties but simultaneously has poor pharmacokinetics and detrimental off-target effects. We conjugated RLX to PEGylated superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (RLX-SPIONs) and examined hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) specific binding/uptake...
January 21, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Min Gong, Chenlin Huang, Yuelong Huang, Guangping Li, Cheng Chi, Jingjing Ye, Wenqi Xie, Rui Shi, Liqun Zhang
The traditional Chinese medicine icariin (ICA) and broad-spectrum antibacterial drug moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MOX) were introduced into a polycaprolactone core and gelatin shell, respectively, to develop osteogenic and antibacterial biomimetic periosteum by coaxial electrospinning. The physical properties, drug release, degradation, antibacterial property, in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis performances were investigated. Results demonstrated that stepwise and controlled drug release profiles were achieved based on the core-shell configuration and disparate degradation rate of PCL and gelatin...
January 19, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Katari Venkatesh, Ankita Kumari, Dwaipayan Sen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non coding small RNA molecules that act as decisive roles in cell proliferation and differentiation processes by targeted inhibition of mature mRNA. In this study, miRNAs that are involved in the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSC) from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were completely profiled and identified to elucidate the significant miRNAs responsible for NSC differentiation. Human MSCs were induced with NSC-differentiation cocktail containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor under serum-free conditions...
January 18, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Ahmed Alalaiwe
Nanometals are widely being used for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of medical conditions. Majorly, nanometals are used to facilitate the delivery of drug to targeted site, minimize drug's penetration to healthy tissues, increase drug's bioavailability, and inhibit its uptake and elimination from the blood by reticuloendothelial process. Despite of several benefits, use of nanoparticles as drug carriers is also associated with many problems including instability in blood during circulation, undesirable biodistribution, and toxicity...
January 18, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Arto Urtti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Sandro Sieber, Philip Grossen, Philipp Uhl, Pascal Detampel, Walter Mier, Dominik Witzigmann, Jörg Huwyler
Macrophage recognition of nanoparticles is highly influenced by particle size and surface modification. Due to the lack of appropriate in vivo screening models, it is still challenging and time-consuming to characterize and optimize nanomedicines regarding this undesired clearance mechanism. Therefore, we validate zebrafish embryos as an emerging vertebrate screening tool to assess the macrophage sequestration of surface modified particulate formulations with varying particle size under realistic biological conditions...
January 16, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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