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Emerging Themes in Epidemiology | Page 3

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/26839575/hypertension-and-diabetes-in-africa-design-and-implementation-of-a-large-population-based-study-of-burden-and-risk-factors-in-rural-and-urban-malawi
#41
Amelia Catharine Crampin, Ndoliwe Kayuni, Alemayehu Amberbir, Crispin Musicha, Olivier Koole, Terence Tafatatha, Keith Branson, Jacqueline Saul, Elenaus Mwaiyeghele, Lawrence Nkhwazi, Amos Phiri, Alison Jane Price, Beatrice Mwagomba, Charles Mwansambo, Shabbar Jaffar, Moffat Joha Nyirenda
BACKGROUND: The emerging burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa threatens the gains made in health by the major international effort to combat infectious diseases. There are few data on distribution of risk factors and outcomes in the region to inform an effective public health response. A comprehensive research programme is being developed aimed at accurately documenting the burden and drivers of NCDs in urban and rural Malawi; to design and test intervention strategies...
2016: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26759600/the-obese-gut-microbiome-across-the-epidemiologic-transition
#42
REVIEW
Lara R Dugas, Miles Fuller, Jack Gilbert, Brian T Layden
The obesity epidemic has emerged over the past few decades and is thought to be a result of both genetic and environmental factors. A newly identified factor, the gut microbiota, which is a bacterial ecosystem residing within the gastrointestinal tract of humans, has now been implicated in the obesity epidemic. Importantly, this bacterial community is impacted by external environmental factors through a variety of undefined mechanisms. We focus this review on how the external environment may impact the gut microbiota by considering, the host's geographic location 'human geography', and behavioral factors (diet and physical activity)...
2016: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26752996/modelling-subject-specific-childhood-growth-using-linear-mixed-effect-models-with-cubic-regression-splines
#43
Laura M Grajeda, Andrada Ivanescu, Mayuko Saito, Ciprian Crainiceanu, Devan Jaganath, Robert H Gilman, Jean E Crabtree, Dermott Kelleher, Lilia Cabrera, Vitaliano Cama, William Checkley
BACKGROUND: Childhood growth is a cornerstone of pediatric research. Statistical models need to consider individual trajectories to adequately describe growth outcomes. Specifically, well-defined longitudinal models are essential to characterize both population and subject-specific growth. Linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines can account for the nonlinearity of growth curves and provide reasonable estimators of population and subject-specific growth, velocity and acceleration...
2016: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26705402/satellite-aided-survey-sampling-and-implementation-in-low-and-middle-income-contexts-a-low-cost-low-tech-alternative
#44
Marco J Haenssgen
BACKGROUND: The increasing availability of online maps, satellite imagery, and digital technology can ease common constraints of survey sampling in low- and middle-income countries. However, existing approaches require specialised software and user skills, professional GPS equipment, and/or commercial data sources; they tend to neglect spatial sampling considerations when using satellite maps; and they continue to face implementation challenges analogous to conventional survey implementation methods...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26702293/county-level-hurricane-exposure-and-birth-rates-application-of-difference-in-differences-analysis-for-confounding-control
#45
Shannon C Grabich, Whitney R Robinson, Stephanie M Engel, Charles E Konrad, David B Richardson, Jennifer A Horney
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological analyses of aggregated data are often used to evaluate theoretical health effects of natural disasters. Such analyses are susceptible to confounding by unmeasured differences between the exposed and unexposed populations. To demonstrate the difference-in-difference method our population included all recorded Florida live births that reached 20 weeks gestation and conceived after the first hurricane of 2004 or in 2003 (when no hurricanes made landfall). Hurricane exposure was categorized using ≥74 mile per hour hurricane wind speed as well as a 60 km spatial buffer based on weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26691876/a-reference-relative-time-scale-as-an-alternative-to-chronological-age-for-cohorts-with-long-follow-up
#46
Margaret Anne Hurley
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologists have debated the appropriate time-scale for cohort survival studies; chronological age or time-on-study being two such time-scales. Importantly, assessment of risk factors may depend on the choice of time-scale. Recently, chronological or attained age has gained support but a case can be made for a 'reference relative time-scale' as an alternative which circumvents difficulties that arise with this and other scales. The reference relative time of an individual participant is the integral of a reference population hazard function between time of entry and time of exit of the individual...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26691347/high-frequency-use-of-corrections-health-and-social-services-and-association-with-mental-illness-and-substance-use
#47
Julian M Somers, Stefanie N Rezansoff, Akm Moniruzzaman, Carmen Zabarauckas
BACKGROUND: A subgroup of individuals becomes entrenched in a "revolving door" involving corrections, health, and social welfare services. Little research has investigated the numbers of people that are in frequent contact with multiple public agencies, the costs associated with these encounters, or the characteristics of the people concerned. The present study used linked administrative data to examine offenders who were also very frequent users of health and social services. We investigated the magnitude and distribution of costs attributable to different categories of service for those in the top 10 % of sentences to either community or custodial settings...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26566391/design-and-implementation-of-a-sexual-health-intervention-for-migrant-construction-workers-situated-in-shanghai-china
#48
Joshua B Mendelsohn, Liviana Calzavara, Lucia Light, Ann N Burchell, Jinma Ren, Laiyi Kang
BACKGROUND: China's growing population of internal migrants has exceeded 236 million. Driven by rapid development and urbanization, this extreme population mobility creates opportunities for transmission of HIV and sexually-transmitted infections (STI). Large numbers of rural migrants flock to megacities such as Shanghai in search of employment. Although migrants constitute a key population at heightened risk of acquiring HIV or an STI, there is a lack of easily accessible sexual health services available for them...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26430463/vulnerability-of-brazilian-municipalities-to-hantavirus-infections-based-on-multi-criteria-decision-analysis
#49
Stefan Vilges de Oliveira, Lidsy Ximenes Fonseca, Keline Medeiros de Araújo Vilges, Fernanda Voietta Pinna Maniglia, Simone Valéria Costa Pereira, Eduardo Pacheco de Caldas, Pedro Luiz Tauil, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Hantavirus infection is an emerging zoonosis transmitted by wild rodents. In Brazil, high case-fatality rates among humans infected with hantavirus are of serious concern to public health authorities. Appropriate preventive measures partly depend on reliable knowledge about the geographical distribution of this disease. METHODS: Incidence of hantavirus infections in Brazil (1993-2013) was analyzed. Epidemiological, socioeconomic, and demographic indicators were also used to classify cities' vulnerability to disease by means of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26425136/applying-the-bradford-hill-criteria-in-the-21st-century-how-data-integration-has-changed-causal-inference-in-molecular-epidemiology
#50
Kristen M Fedak, Autumn Bernal, Zachary A Capshaw, Sherilyn Gross
In 1965, Sir Austin Bradford Hill published nine "viewpoints" to help determine if observed epidemiologic associations are causal. Since then, the "Bradford Hill Criteria" have become the most frequently cited framework for causal inference in epidemiologic studies. However, when Hill published his causal guidelines-just 12 years after the double-helix model for DNA was first suggested and 25 years before the Human Genome Project began-disease causation was understood on a more elementary level than it is today...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26396585/development-of-an-international-scale-of-socio-economic-position-based-on-household-assets
#51
John Townend, Cosetta Minelli, Imed Harrabi, Daniel O Obaseki, Karima El-Rhazi, Jaymini Patel, Peter Burney
BACKGROUND: The importance of studying associations between socio-economic position and health has often been highlighted. Previous studies have linked the prevalence and severity of lung disease with national wealth and with socio-economic position within some countries but there has been no systematic evaluation of the association between lung function and poverty at the individual level on a global scale. The BOLD study has collected data on lung function for individuals in a wide range of countries, however a barrier to relating this to personal socio-economic position is the need for a suitable measure to compare individuals within and between countries...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26322117/sexually-transmitted-infections-among-female-sex-workers-tested-at-sti-clinics-in-the-netherlands-2006-2013
#52
Maud M A Verscheijden, Petra J Woestenberg, Hannelore M Götz, Maaike G van Veen, Femke D H Koedijk, Birgit H B van Benthem
BACKGROUND: Specialised sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in the Netherlands provide STI care for high-risk groups, including female sex workers (FSW), at the clinic and by outreach visiting commercial sex workplaces with a permit. The objective was to investigate the STI positivity rate and determinants of an STI diagnosis among FSW tested by STI clinics in the Netherlands. METHODS: Sexually transmitted infection clinics report demographic, behavioural and diagnostic information of every consultation to the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26308381/what-s-more-general-than-a-whole-population
#53
Neal Alexander
Statistical inference is commonly said to be inapplicable to complete population studies, such as censuses, due to the absence of sampling variability. Nevertheless, in recent years, studies of whole populations, e.g., all cases of a certain cancer in a given country, have become more common, and often report p values and confidence intervals regardless of such concerns. With reference to the social science literature, the current paper explores the circumstances under which statistical inference can be meaningful for such studies...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26161129/adjustment-for-physical-activity-in-studies-of-sedentary-behaviour
#54
Andrew Page, Geeske Peeters, Dafna Merom
Sedentary behaviour (too much sitting, as distinct from too little exercise) has emerged as a potentially significant public health issue. Analytically, researchers have reported 'independent' associations between sedentary behaviour (SB) and a number of health outcomes by adjusting for physical activity (PA) (and other confounders), and conclude that SB is associated with the outcome even in those who are physically active. However, the logical rationale for why adjustments for PA are required is often not delineated, and as a consequence, PA has been conceptualised as a confounder, an intermediary, and an effect measure modifier-sometimes simultaneously-in studies of SB and health outcomes...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26113870/children-and-youth-with-unspecified-injury-to-the-head-implications-for-traumatic-brain-injury-research-and-surveillance
#55
Vincy Chan, Robert E Mann, Jason D Pole, Angela Colantonio
BACKGROUND: The case definition for traumatic brain injury (TBI) often includes 'unspecified injury to the head' diagnostic codes. However, research has shown that the inclusion of these codes leads to false positives. As such, it is important to determine the degree to which inclusion of these codes affect the overall numbers and profiles of the TBI population. The objective of this paper was to profile and compare the demographic and clinical characteristics, intention and mechanism of injury, and discharge disposition of hospitalized children and youth aged 19 years and under using (1) an inclusive TBI case definition that included 'unspecified injury to the head' diagnostic codes, (2) a restricted TBI case definition that excluded 'unspecified injury to the head 'diagnostic codes, and (3) the 'unspecified injury to the head' only case definition...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26097494/bayesian-models-as-a-unified-approach-to-estimate-relative-risk-or-prevalence-ratio-in-binary-and-polytomous-outcomes
#56
Vanessa Bielefeldt Leotti Torman, Suzi Alves Camey
BACKGROUND: Disadvantages have already been pointed out on the use of odds ratio (OR) as a measure of association for designs such as cohort and cross sectional studies, for which relative risk (RR) or prevalence ratio (PR) are preferable. The model that directly estimates RR or PR and correctly specifies the distribution of the outcome as binomial is the log-binomial model, however, convergence problems occur very often. Robust Poisson regression also estimates these measures but it can produce probabilities greater than 1...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25972910/is-uncertainty-in-complex-disease-epidemiology-resolvable
#57
Wasim Maziak
The imposed limitations on what we can know about nature have been long recognized. Yet in the field of epidemiology a futile search for lifestyle-related risk factors for common chronic diseases continues unabated. This has led to the production of a growing body of evidence about potential lifestyle risk factors that tend to be marginal, contradictory, irreproducible, or hard to interpret. While epidemiologists are calling for a more refined methodology, I argue that our limitation in studying complex diseases is insurmountable...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25904968/assessing-bias-in-administrative-database-studies-of-rotateq-vaccine-completion-due-to-exclusion-of-subjects-with-incomplete-follow-up
#58
Stephan Lanes, Scott C Quinlan, T Christopher Mast, Sander Greenland, Crystal N Holick
BACKGROUND: RotaTeq® pentavalent human rotavirus vaccine (RV5) is effective against rotavirus illness and rotavirus-related hospitalizations and death. Effectiveness depends on adherence to the dosing schedule, which includes 3 doses at ages 2, 4 and 6 months. Two studies have used automated claims databases to estimate the proportion of vaccinated infants who complete the dosing schedule, but excluded from analysis vaccinated infants who were not enrolled in the database for a sufficient period to observe all 3 doses...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25755672/socioeconomic-disadvantage-in-childhood-as-a-predictor-of-excessive-gestational-weight-gain-and-obesity-in-midlife-adulthood
#59
Benjamin W Chaffee, Barbara Abrams, Alison K Cohen, David H Rehkopf
BACKGROUND: Lower childhood socioeconomic position is associated with greater risk of adult obesity among women, but not men. Pregnancy-related weight changes may contribute to this gender difference. The objectives of this study were to determine the associations between: 1. childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and midlife obesity; 2. excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and midlife obesity; and 3. childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and excessive GWG, among a representative sample of childbearing women...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25717340/pilgrims-and-mers-cov-what-s-the-risk
#60
Tarek Soliman, Alex R Cook, Richard J Coker
The risk of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus spreading globally is worrying, given the annual mass gathering of the Hajj and the year-long influx of pilgrims undertaking the Umrah. Based on the incidence in Saudi Arabia since June 2012, the most likely scenario given recent pilgrim numbers is estimated to be one case per Hajj, and three Umrah pilgrims per year, but which could plausibly reach seven and ten pilgrims respectively. In addition to the 2015 Hajj, national surveillance systems should be on the alert for the low but long-lasting risk of infected pilgrims returning from the Umrah throughout the year...
2015: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
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