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Molecular Nutrition & Food Research

Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, R J Scott Lacombe, Adam H Metherel, Mojgan Masoodi, Richard P Bazinet
SCOPE: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is crucial for optimal neuronal development and function but the brain has a poor capacity to synthesise this fatty acid. When consumed acutely esterified to phosphatidylcholine, DHA is more efficient at targeting the brain than when consumed esterified to triacylglycerol. However, the brain DHA bioavailability of other forms of DHA-containing phospholipids, after oral ingestion, is unknown. The objective of this study was to compare brain uptake of DHA after acute gavage with different DHA carriers...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Steven K Malin, Emily L Kullman, Amanda R Scelsi, Jean-Philippe Godin, Alastair B Ross, John P Kirwan
INTRODUCTION: Few data exist examining the effects of whole grain (WG) versus refined grain (RG) diets on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and β-cell function. METHODS: In a double-blind crossover randomized controlled trial, 13 sedentary prediabetic adults (37.2±1.8 y, BMI: 33.6±1.4 kg/m2 , 2h glucose: 146.9±11.6 mg/dl) were provided isocaloric-matched WG and RG diets for 8-weeks each, with an 8-10 week washout between diets. Glucose, insulin and C-peptide metabolism was studied over 240 min following a 75g OGTT...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Junnan Gu, Jennifer M Thomas-Ahner, Kenneth M Riedl, Michael T Bailey, Yael Vodovotz, Steven J Schwartz, Steven K Clinton
SCOPE: Black raspberries (BRB) are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals, including anthocyanins and ellagitannins. These phytochemicals are poorly absorbed and we hypothesize that upon reaching the colon they may be transformed by gut microbiota into various metabolites that may impact the colonic mucosa or upon absorption have systemic bioactivity. The objective of this study was to define the impact of a BRB-containing diet on the colon microbiome in mice and quantify the phytochemical metabolites in the colon contents and the circulation...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Jialin Xu, Tingting Liu, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Liu, Zhanjun Ding, Hang Ma, Navindra P Seeram, Yu Mu, Xueshi Huang, Liya Li
SCOPE: Published data support that gut microbiota play an important role in the pathological process of obesity and related metabolic disorders. In the current study, we investigated whether a standardized extract from Jamun (Eugenia jambolana), a widely consumed tropical fruit, could alleviate obesity and alter gut microbial community in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet (SD) or HFD with or without Jamun fruit extract (JFE; 100 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for 8 weeks...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Wenhua Zhao, Lixue Wang, Viktoria Haller, Andreas Ritsch
SCOPE: HDL cholesterol is inversely related to the incidence of atherosclerosis. Polyphenols including ellagitannins have been shown to exert antiatherogenic properties. Urolithin B is formed from ellagitannins by components of the gut microbiota and urolithins might be involved in beneficial effects against cardiovascular diseases in vitro. In this study we investigated the influence of urolithin B on several parameters involved in the lipid plaque deposition and the reverse cholesterol transport...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Zahira Fernández-Bedmar, Jaouad Anter, Angeles Alonso-Moraga, Pilar Delgado de la Torre, María Dolores Luque de Castro, Yolanda Millán-Ruiz, Marina Sánchez-Frías, Silvia Guil-Luna
SCOPE: Wine has shown anticarcinogenic benefits in hepatocarcinoma and polyphenols seem to be responsible for these effects. Wine lees are the sediments produced during fermentation and they endow wine with organoleptic and physicochemical properties. However, the anticarcinogenic role of these compounds is still unknown. Thus, the purpose of this work was to determine the phytochemical profiles of wine lees and then, to analyze their anticarcinogenic effect and DNA methylation on a model of hepatocarcinogenesis...
February 7, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Charlotte C J R Michielsen, Roland W J Hangelbroek, Edith J M Feskens, Lydia A Afman
SCOPE: The Mediterranean (MED) diet is considered to be beneficial, however the contribution of the MUFA component in these beneficial effects is unclear. Therefore, we wanted to disentangle the effects of MUFA from the other components in a MED diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a randomized fully controlled parallel trial to examine the effects of the consumption of a saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich diet, a MUFA-rich diet, or a MED diet for eight weeks on serum metabolome, in 47 subjects at risk of the metabolic syndrome...
February 6, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Colleen Fogarty Draper, Giulia Tini, Irene Vassallo, Jean Philippe Godin, MingMing Su, Wei Jia, Maurice Beaumont, Sofia Moco, Francois-Pierre Martin
SCOPE: Flexitarian dieting is increasingly associated with health benefits. The study of postprandial metabolic response to vegan and animal diets is essential to decipher how specific diet components may mediate metabolic changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomized, cross-over, controlled vegan versus animal diet challenge was conducted on 21 healthy participants. Postprandial metabolic measurements were conducted at six timepoints. Area under the curve analysis of the vegan diet response demonstrated higher glucose (EE 0...
February 6, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Jacob J Christensen, Siril S Bakke, Stine M Ulven, Kjetil Retterstøl, Tore Henriksen, Jens Bollerslev, Terje Espevik, Pål Aukrust, Bente Halvorsen, Kirsten B Holven
SCOPE: Some studies suggest that a high dietary intake of omega 6 fatty acids is pro-inflammatory. However, whether omega 6 fatty acids actually cause pathogenic inflammation in humans is debated. Therefore, we investigated the associations between expression of immunology-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum total omega 6 PUFA status. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured serum fatty acid profile and expression of 460 immunology-related genes in PBMCs from 58 healthy children (6-13 years), and examined the expression differences between children with high or low total omega 6 PUFA status (upper versus lower tertile)...
January 31, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Earl H Harrison
Vision depends on the delivery of vitamin A (retinol) to the retina. Retinol in blood is bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP). Retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) cells express the RBP receptor, STRA6 that facilitates uptake of retinol. The retinol is then converted to retinyl esters by the enzyme lecithin:retinol acyltransferase. The esters are the substrate for RPE65 an enzyme that produces 11-cis retinol, which is converted to 11-cis retinaldehyde for transport to the photoreceptors to form rhodopsin. The dietary xanthophylls, lutein and zeaxanthin, accumulate in the macula of the eye providing protection against age-related macular degeneration...
January 30, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Catalina A Pomar, Heriberto Castro, Catalina Picó, Francisca Serra, Andreu Palou, Juana Sánchez
SCOPE: The aim of the present study was to investigate in nursing rats the impact of cafeteria diet feeding during lactation (cafeteria dams) on specific miRNA levels in breast-milk and to discern them from the effects of maternal adiposity per se (postcafeteria dams). METHODS AND RESULTS: Milk samples were collected from control, cafeteria and postcafeteria dams at three-time points of lactation (days 5, 10, and 15) and levels of selected miRNAs (miR-222, miR-203, miR-200a, miR-103, miR-27a, and miR-26a) were determined...
January 30, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
María Ángeles Ávila-Gálvez, Rocío García-Villalba, Francisco Martínez-Díaz, Beatriz Ocaña-Castillo, Tamara Monedero-Saiz, Adela Torrecillas-Sánchez, Beatriz Abellán, Antonio González-Sarrías, Juan Carlos Espín
SCOPE: Dietary polyphenols may protect against breast cancer. However, it is unknown whether polyphenols reach human malignant breast tumours in molecular forms and(or) at concentrations likely to act against cancer. METHODS & RESULTS: Breast cancer patients (n = 19) consumed three capsules daily from biopsy-confirmed diagnosis to surgery (6 ± 2 days). The capsules contained pomegranate, orange, lemon, olive, cocoa, and grape seed extracts plus resveratrol, providing 37 different phenolics (473...
January 28, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Sandra Meyer, Denise K Gessner, Gaiping Wen, Erika Most, Gerhard Liebisch, Holger Zorn, Robert Ringseis, Klaus Eder
SCOPE: The hypothesis was tested that insect meal, which has a low methionine content, reduces the hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC):phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio, which is a critical determinant of hepatic lipid synthesis, by decreasing availability of the methionine metabolite S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). METHODS AND RESULTS: Obese rats (n = 24) were randomly divided into two groups (OC, OI) of 12 rats each. In addition, lean rats (n = 12) were used as control group (LC)...
January 27, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Xian Wu, Gar Yee Koh, Yueyi Huang, Jimmy W Crott, Roderick T Bronson, Joel B Mason
SCOPE: High fat diets (HFDs) and adiposity increase colorectal cancer risk, in part by elevating pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate pro-cancerous signaling pathways. Curcumin (CUR), a dietary polyphenol and salsalate (SAL), an NSAID lacking the gastrotoxicity of aspirin, each suppress inflammatory signaling, but via different cellular pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS: A/J mice (n = 110) were fed a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% kcal), a HFD (60% kcal), a HFD containing 0...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
David Porras, Esther Nistal, Susana Martínez-Flórez, José Luis Olcoz, Ramiro Jover, Francisco Jorquera, Javier González-Gallego, María Victoria García-Mediavilla, Sonia Sánchez-Campos
SCOPE: Modulation of intestinal microbiota has emerged as a new therapeutic approach for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here we addressed whether gut microbiota modulation by quercetin and intestinal microbiota transplantation can influence NAFLD development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gut microbiota donor mice were selected according to their response to high fat diet (HFD) and quercetin in terms of obesity and NAFLD-related biomarkers. Germ-free recipients displayed metabolic phenotypic differences derived from interactions between microbiota transplanted, diets and quercetin...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Chen Hou, Weimin Zhang, Jianke Li, Lin Du, Ou Lv, Shengjuan Zhao, Jia Li
Pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn) has been used in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome in recent decades. Imbalances in lipid metabolism are profound features of metabolic disorders. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that extracts of different pomegranate fractions (peels, flowers, juice, and seeds) regulate lipid metabolism in metabolic disorder-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes, helping to alleviate the development of diseases...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Hsin-Hung Chen, Tung-Chen Yeh, Pei-Wen Cheng, Wen-Yu Ho, Chiu-Yi Ho, Chi-Cheng Lai, Gwo-Ching Sun, Ching-Jiunn Tseng
SCOPE: In the Natural Medicines database, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is classified as possibly effective for the treatment of hypertension. Patients with hypertension frequently have a significant deficiency of the antioxidant CoQ10. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species are overproduced in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) during the cardiovascular regulation of hypertension in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CoQ10 modulates cardiovascular functions in the NTS are unclear...
January 22, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Tingting Chen, Anna B Liu, Shili Sun, Nadim J Ajami, Matthew C Ross, Hong Wang, Le Zhang, Kenneth Reuhl, Koichi Kobayashi, Janet C Onishi, Liping Zhao, Chung S Yang
SCOPE: We investigated and compared the effects of green tea polyphenols - Polyphenon E (PPE) and black tea polyphenols - theaflavins (TFs) on gut microbiota and development of diabetes in db/db mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Supplementation of PPE (0.1%) in the diet to female db/db mice for 7 weeks decreased fasting blood glucose levels and mesenteric fat, while increasing the serum level of insulin, possibly through protection against β-cell damage. However, TFs were less or not effective...
January 22, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Xiaojun Li, Peng Chen, Peng Zhang, Yi Fan Chang, Mingxu Cui, Jinyou Duan
SCOPE: The prevalence of obesity and related disorders has vastly increased throughout the world and prevention of such circumstances thus represents a major challenge. Here, we show that one protein-bound β-glucan (PBG) from the edible mushroom Coriolus versicolor could be a potent anti-obesity component. METHODS AND RESULTS: PBG could reduce obesity and metabolic inflammation in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Gut microbiota analysis revealed that PBG markedly increased the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila although it didn't rescue HFD-induced change in the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio...
January 22, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Amandeep Kaur, Tingting Chen, Stefan J Green, Ece Mutlu, Berdine R Martin, Pinthip Rumpagaporn, John A Patterson, Ali Keshavarzian, Bruce R Hamaker
SCOPE: Resistant starch (RS) is utilized by Gram-negative Bacteroidetes through a starch utilization system (Sus), which requires physical attachment of the bacteria to the substrate. Gram-positive Firmicutes, which include butyrate producers, utilize RS by other mechanisms, such as amylosomes and secreted amylases/glucoamylases. It has been previously shown that fabricated RS [alginate-based starch-entrapped microspheres (SM)] increases butyrate in in vitro human fecal fermentation and was slow fermenting...
January 19, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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