Shlomit Paz
In this Perspective, Shlomit Paz discusses the link between climate change and transmission of vector-borne diseases in non-endemic areas.
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
Chloe Swords, Reshma Ghedia, Hannah Blanchford, James Arwyn-Jones, Elliot Heward, Kristijonas Milinis, John Hardman, Matthew E Smith, Manohar Bance, Jameel Muzaffar
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss may benefit from management with cochlear implants. These patients need a referral to a cochlear implant team for further assessment and possible surgery. The referral pathway may result in varied access to hearing healthcare. This study aimed to explore referral patterns and whether there were any socioeconomic or ethnic associations with the likelihood of referral. The primary outcome was to determine factors influencing referral for implant assessment...
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
Anna Eligulashvili, Moshe Gordon, Jimmy S Lee, Jeylin Lee, Shiv Mehrotra-Varma, Jai Mehrotra-Varma, Kevin Hsu, Imanyah Hilliard, Kristen Lee, Arleen Li, Muhammed Amir Essibayi, Judy Yee, David J Altschul, Emad Eskandar, Mark F Mehler, Tim Q Duong
BACKGROUND: Acute neurological manifestation is a common complication of acute Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. This retrospective cohort study investigated the 3-year outcomes of patients with and without significant neurological manifestations during initial COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Patients hospitalized for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection between 03/01/2020 and 4/16/2020 in the Montefiore Health System in the Bronx, an epicenter of the early pandemic, were included...
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
Eric S Kim, Renae Wilkinson, Sakurako S Okuzono, Ying Chen, Koichiro Shiba, Richard G Cowden, Tyler J VanderWeele
BACKGROUND: Several intergovernmental organizations, including the World Health Organization and United Nations, are urging countries to use well-being indicators for policymaking. This trend, coupled with increasing recognition that positive affect is beneficial for health/well-being, opens new avenues for intervening on positive affect to improve outcomes. However, it remains unclear if positive affect in adolescence shapes health/well-being in adulthood. We examined if increases in positive affect during adolescence were associated with better health/well-being in adulthood across 41 outcomes...
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
Anthony G B Walters, Greg D Gamble, Caroline A Crowther, Stuart R Dalziel, Carl L Eagleton, Christopher J D McKinlay, Barry J Milne, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality, but there is limited evidence regarding their effects on long-term health. This study assessed cardiovascular outcomes at 50 years after antenatal exposure to corticosteroids. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the adult offspring of women who participated in the first randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of antenatal betamethasone for the prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (1969 to 1974)...
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
Lise Christine Gaudernack, Angeline Elisabeth Styve Einarsen, Ingvil Krarup Sørbye, Mirjam Lukasse, Nina Gunnes, Trond Melbye Michelsen
BACKGROUND: Prolonged labor is a common condition associated with maternal and perinatal complications. The standard treatment with oxytocin for augmentation of labor increases the risk of adverse outcomes. Hyoscine butylbromide is a spasmolytic drug with few side effects shown to shorten labor when used in a general population of laboring women. However, research on its effect on preventing prolonged labor is lacking. We aimed to assess the effect of hyoscine butylbromide on the duration of labor in nulliparous women showing early signs of slow labor...
March 28, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Linda J Cobiac, Nina T Rogers, Jean Adams, Steven Cummins, Richard Smith, Oliver Mytton, Martin White, Peter Scarborough
BACKGROUND: The soft drinks industry levy (SDIL) in the United Kingdom has led to a significant reduction in household purchasing of sugar in drinks. In this study, we examined the potential medium- and long-term implications for health and health inequalities among children and adolescents in England. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a controlled interrupted time series analysis to measure the effects of the SDIL on the amount of sugar per household per week from soft drinks purchased, 19 months post implementation and by index of multiple deprivation (IMD) quintile in England...
March 28, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Eva Herweijer, Kejia Hu, Jiangrong Wang, Donghao Lu, Pär Sparén, Hans-Olov Adami, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir, Karin Sundström, Fang Fang
BACKGROUND: Women with mental illness experience an increased risk of cervical cancer. The excess risk is partly due to low participation in cervical screening; however, it remains unknown whether it is also attributable to an increased risk of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). We aimed to examine whether women with mental illness had an increased infection rate of HPV compared to women without mental illness. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a cohort design, we analyzed all 337,116 women aged 30 to 64 and living in Stockholm, who had a negative test result of 14 high-risk HPV subtypes in HPV-based screening, during August 2014 to December 2019...
March 25, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Sivaram Emani, Kleydson Alves, Layana Costa Alves, Daiane Alves da Silva, Patricia Bartholomay Oliveira, Marcia C Castro, Ted Cohen, Rodrigo de Macedo Couto, Mauro Sanchez, Nicolas A Menzies
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, many individuals with tuberculosis (TB) do not receive appropriate care due to delayed or missed diagnosis, ineffective treatment regimens, or loss-to-follow-up. This study aimed to estimate the health losses and TB program costs attributable to each gap in the care cascade for TB disease in Brazil. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We constructed a Markov model simulating the TB care cascade and lifetime health outcomes (e.g., death, cure, postinfectious sequelae) for individuals developing TB disease in Brazil...
March 21, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Zoe Moodie, Erica Andersen-Nissen, Nicole Grunenberg, One B Dintwe, Faatima Laher Omar, Jia J Kee, Linda-Gail Bekker, Fatima Laher, Nivashnee Naicker, Ilesh Jani, Nyaradzo M Mgodi, Portia Hunidzarira, Modulakgota Sebe, Maurine D Miner, Laura Polakowski, Shelly Ramirez, Michelle Nebergall, Simbarashe Takuva, Lerato Sikhosana, Jack Heptinstall, Kelly E Seaton, Stephen De Rosa, Carlos A Diazgranados, Marguerite Koutsoukos, Olivier Van Der Meeren, Susan W Barnett, Niranjan Kanesa-Thasan, James G Kublin, Georgia D Tomaras, M Juliana McElrath, Lawrence Corey, Kathryn Mngadi, Paul Goepfert
BACKGROUND: Adjuvants are widely used to enhance and/or direct vaccine-induced immune responses yet rarely evaluated head-to-head. Our trial directly compared immune responses elicited by MF59 versus alum adjuvants in the RV144-like HIV vaccine regimen modified for the Southern African region. The RV144 trial of a recombinant canarypox vaccine vector expressing HIV env subtype B (ALVAC-HIV) prime followed by ALVAC-HIV plus a bivalent gp120 protein vaccine boost adjuvanted with alum is the only trial to have shown modest HIV vaccine efficacy...
March 19, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Ellen Brazier, Olga Tymejczyk, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Awachana Jiamsakul, Marco Tulio Luque Torres, Jennifer S Lee, Lisa Abuogi, Vohith Khol, Fernando Mejía Cordero, Keri N Althoff, Matthew G Law, Denis Nash
BACKGROUND: While national adoption of universal HIV treatment guidelines has led to improved, timely uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART), longer-term care outcomes are understudied. There is little data from real-world service delivery settings on patient attrition, viral load (VL) monitoring, and viral suppression (VS) at 24 and 36 months after HIV treatment initiation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For this retrospective cohort analysis, we used observational data from 25 countries in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium's Asia-Pacific, Central Africa, East Africa, Central/South America, and North America regions for patients who were ART naïve and aged ≥15 years at care enrollment between 24 months before and 12 months after national adoption of universal treatment guidelines, occurring 2012 to 2018...
March 18, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Rachel M Thomson, Daniel Kopasker, Patryk Bronka, Matteo Richiardi, Vladimir Khodygo, Andrew J Baxter, Erik Igelström, Anna Pearce, Alastair H Leyland, S Vittal Katikireddi
BACKGROUND: Population mental health in the United Kingdom (UK) has deteriorated, alongside worsening socioeconomic conditions, over the last decade. Policies such as Universal Basic Income (UBI) have been suggested as an alternative economic approach to improve population mental health and reduce health inequalities. UBI may improve mental health (MH), but to our knowledge, no studies have trialled or modelled UBI in whole populations. We aimed to estimate the short-term effects of introducing UBI on mental health in the UK working-age population...
March 4, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Qian Yang, Emma Bränn, Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson, Arvid Sjölander, Fang Fang, Anna Sara Oberg, Unnur A Valdimarsdóttir, Donghao Lu
BACKGROUND: Premenstrual disorders (PMDs) and perinatal depression (PND) share symptomology and the timing of symptoms of both conditions coincide with natural hormonal fluctuations, which may indicate a shared etiology. Yet, there is a notable absence of prospective data on the potential bidirectional association between these conditions, which is crucial for guiding clinical management. Using the Swedish nationwide registers with prospectively collected data, we aimed to investigate the bidirectional association between PMDs and PND...
March 2024: PLoS Medicine
Éimhín Ansbro, Tobias Homan, David Prieto Merino, Kiran Jobanputra, Jamil Qasem, Shoaib Muhammad, Taissir Fardous, Pablo Perel
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003279.].
March 2024: PLoS Medicine
Matt D T Hitchings, Fatou Berthé, Philip Aruna, Ibrahim Shehu, Muhammed Ali Hamza, Siméon Nanama, Chizoba Steve-Edemba, Rebecca F Grais, Sheila Isanaka
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003923.].
March 2024: PLoS Medicine
Alexis C Edwards, Sara Larsson Lönn, Karen G Chartier, Séverine Lannoy, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption contributes to excess morbidity and mortality in part through the development of alcohol-related medical conditions (AMCs, including alcoholic cardiomyopathy, hepatitis, cirrhosis, etc.). The current study aimed to clarify the extent to which risk for these outcomes differs as a function of socioeconomic position (SEP), as discrepancies could lead to exacerbated health disparities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used longitudinal Swedish national registries to estimate the individual and joint associations between 2 SEP indicators, educational attainment and income level, and risk of AMC based on International Classification of Diseases codes, while controlling for other sociodemographic covariates and psychiatric illness...
March 2024: PLoS Medicine
Huijie Cui, Wenqiang Zhang, Li Zhang, Yang Qu, Zhengxing Xu, Zhixin Tan, Peijing Yan, Mingshuang Tang, Chao Yang, Yutong Wang, Lin Chen, Chenghan Xiao, Yanqiu Zou, Yunjie Liu, Ling Zhang, Yanfang Yang, Yuqin Yao, Jiayuan Li, Zhenmi Liu, Chunxia Yang, Xia Jiang, Ben Zhang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of prostate cancer is increasing in older males globally. Age, ethnicity, and family history are identified as the well-known risk factors for prostate cancer, but few modifiable factors have been firmly established. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate various factors modifying the risk of prostate cancer reported in meta-analyses of prospective observational studies and mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from the inception to January 10, 2022, updated on September 9, 2023, to identify meta-analyses and MR studies on prostate cancer...
March 2024: PLoS Medicine
Naomi R Waterlow, Ben S Cooper, Julie V Robotham, Gwenan Mary Knight
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic usage, contact with high transmission healthcare settings as well as changes in immune system function all vary by a patient's age and sex. Yet, most analyses of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) ignore demographic indicators and provide only country-level resistance prevalence values. This study aimed to address this knowledge gap by quantifying how resistance prevalence and incidence of bloodstream infection (BSI) varied by age and sex across bacteria and antibiotics in Europe...
March 2024: PLoS Medicine
Shrey Mathur, Melanie Smuk, Ceri Evans, Catherine J Wedderburn, Diana M Gibb, Martina Penazzato, Andrew J Prendergast
BACKGROUND: World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for children who are HIV-exposed until infection is excluded and vertical transmission risk has ended. While cotrimoxazole has benefits for children with HIV, there is no mortality benefit for children who are HIV-exposed but uninfected, prompting a review of global guidelines. Here, we model the potential impact of alternative cotrimoxazole strategies on mortality in children who are HIV-exposed...
February 20, 2024: PLoS Medicine
George Frederick Mkoma, Charles Agyemang, Thomas Benfield, Mikael Rostila, Agneta Cederström, Jørgen Holm Petersen, Marie Norredam
BACKGROUND: Ethnic minorities living in high-income countries have been disproportionately affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in terms of infection rates, hospitalisations, and deaths; however, less is known about long COVID in these populations. Our aim was to examine the risk of long COVID and associated symptoms among ethnic minorities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used nationwide register-based cohort data on individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 aged ≥18 years (n = 2,286,955) between January 2020 and August 2022 in Denmark...
February 20, 2024: PLoS Medicine
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