journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38768094/aetiology-of-vaginal-discharge-urethral-discharge-and-genital-ulcer-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression
#21
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Julia Michalow, Magdalene K Walters, Olanrewaju Edun, Max Wybrant, Bethan Davies, Tendesayi Kufa, Thabitha Mathega, Sungai T Chabata, Frances M Cowan, Anne Cori, Marie-Claude Boily, Jeffrey W Imai-Eaton
BACKGROUND: Syndromic management is widely used to treat symptomatic sexually transmitted infections in settings without aetiologic diagnostics. However, underlying aetiologies and consequent treatment suitability are uncertain without regular assessment. This systematic review estimated the distribution, trends, and determinants of aetiologies for vaginal discharge, urethral discharge, and genital ulcer in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched Embase, MEDLINE, Global Health, Web of Science, and grey literature from inception until December 20, 2023, for observational studies reporting aetiologic diagnoses among symptomatic populations in SSA...
May 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38743771/global-regional-and-national-burden-of-heatwave-related-mortality-from-1990-to-2019-a-three-stage-modelling-study
#22
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Qi Zhao, Shanshan Li, Tingting Ye, Yao Wu, Antonio Gasparrini, Shilu Tong, Aleš Urban, Ana Maria Vicedo-Cabrera, Aurelio Tobias, Ben Armstrong, Dominic Royé, Eric Lavigne, Francesca de'Donato, Francesco Sera, Haidong Kan, Joel Schwartz, Mathilde Pascal, Niilo Ryti, Patrick Goodman, Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Michelle L Bell, Yuming Guo
BACKGROUND: The regional disparity of heatwave-related mortality over a long period has not been sufficiently assessed across the globe, impeding the localisation of adaptation planning and risk management towards climate change. We quantified the global mortality burden associated with heatwaves at a spatial resolution of 0.5°×0.5° and the temporal change from 1990 to 2019. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected data on daily deaths and temperature from 750 locations of 43 countries or regions, and 5 meta-predictors in 0...
May 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38728364/cetuximab-plus-folfoxiri-versus-cetuximab-plus-folfox-as-conversion-regimen-in-ras-braf-wild-type-patients-with-initially-unresectable-colorectal-liver-metastases-trice-trial-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#23
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
De-Shen Wang, Chao Ren, Shan-Shan Li, William Pat Fong, Xiao-Jun Wu, Jian Xiao, Bin-Kui Li, Yun Zheng, Pei-Rong Ding, Gong Chen, Miao-Zhen Qiu, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Feng-Hua Wang, Hui-Yan Luo, Feng Wang, Xiao-Zhong Wang, Ling-Yun Wang, De-Jin Xie, Tao Chen, Li-Ren Li, Zhen-Hai Lu, Xiao-Hui Zhai, Tian-Shu Liu, Ying Yuan, Jia-Qi Chen, Qiong Tan, Zhi-Zhong Pan, De-Sen Wan, Rong Zhang, Yun-Fei Yuan, Rui-Hua Xu, Yu-Hong Li
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether intensification of the chemotherapy backbone in tandem with an anti-EGFR can confer superior clinical outcomes in a cohort of RAS/BRAF wild-type colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). To that end, we sought to comparatively evaluate the efficacy and safety of cetuximab plus FOLFOXIRI (triplet arm) versus cetuximab plus FOLFOX (doublet arm) as a conversion regimen (i.e., unresectable to resectable) in CRC patients with unresectable CRLM...
May 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38728236/predicted-impact-of-banning-nonessential-energy-dense-food-and-beverages-in-schools-in-mexico-a-microsimulation-study
#24
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ana Basto-Abreu, Martha Carnalla, Francisco Reyes-Sánchez, Alan Reyes-García, Michelle M Haby, Isabel Junquera-Badilla, Lianca Sartoris-Ayala, Juan A Rivera, Barry M Popkin, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a growing concern worldwide. School-based interventions have been proposed as effective means to improve nutritional knowledge and prevent obesity. In 2023, Mexico approved a reform to the General Education Law to strengthen the ban of sales and advertising of nonessential energy-dense food and beverages (NEDFBs) in schools and surroundings. We aimed to predict the expected one-year change in total caloric intake and obesity prevalence by introducing the ban of NEDFBs sales in schools, among school-aged children and adolescents (6 to 17 years old) in Mexico...
May 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38723040/measuring-protective-efficacy-and-quantifying-the-impact-of-drug-resistance-a-novel-malaria-chemoprevention-trial-design-and-methodology
#25
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Andria Mousa, Gina Cuomo-Dannenburg, Hayley A Thompson, R Matthew Chico, Khalid B Beshir, Colin J Sutherland, David Schellenberg, Roly Gosling, Michael Alifrangis, Emma Filtenborg Hocke, Helle Hansson, Ana Chopo-Pizarro, Wilfred F Mbacham, Innocent M Ali, Mike Chaponda, Cally Roper, Lucy C Okell
BACKGROUND: Recently revised WHO guidelines on malaria chemoprevention have opened the door to more tailored implementation. Countries face choices on whether to replace old drugs, target additional age groups, and adapt delivery schedules according to local drug resistance levels and malaria transmission patterns. Regular routine assessment of protective efficacy of chemoprevention is key. Here, we apply a novel modelling approach to aid the design and analysis of chemoprevention trials and generate measures of protection that can be applied across a range of transmission settings...
May 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38709718/prolonged-mass-azithromycin-distributions-and-macrolide-resistance-determinants-among-preschool-children-in-niger-a-sub-study-of-a-cluster-randomized-trial-mordor
#26
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ahmed M Arzika, Amza Abdou, Ramatou Maliki, Nassirou Beido, Boubacar Kadri, Abdoul N Harouna, Abdoul N Galo, Mankara K Alio, Elodie Lebas, Catherine E Oldenburg, Kieran S O'Brien, Cindi Chen, Lina Zhong, Zhaoxia Zhou, Daisy Yan, Armin Hinterwirth, Jeremy D Keenan, Travis C Porco, Thomas M Lietman, Thuy Doan
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials found that twice-yearly mass azithromycin administration (MDA) reduces childhood mortality, presumably by reducing infection burden. World Health Organization (WHO) issued conditional guidelines for mass azithromycin administration in high-mortality settings in sub-Saharan Africa given concerns for antibiotic resistance. While prolonged twice-yearly MDA has been shown to increase antibiotic resistance in small randomized controlled trials, the objective of this study was to determine if macrolide and non-macrolide resistance in the gut increases with the duration of azithromycin MDA in a larger setting...
May 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38696367/physical-activity-across-midlife-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-australian-women-a-target-trial-emulation-using-a-longitudinal-cohort
#27
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Binh Nguyen, Philip Clare, Gregore I Mielke, Wendy J Brown, Ding Ding
BACKGROUND: There is little long-term causal evidence on the effect of physical activity on health-related quality of life. This study aimed to examine the associations between longitudinal patterns of physical activity over 15 years and health-related quality of life in both the physical and mental health domains, in a cohort of middle-aged Australian women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data collected at 3-year intervals (1998 to 2019) from 11,336 participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) (1946 to 1951 birth cohort)...
May 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38607981/long-term-variations-of-urban-rural-disparities-in-infectious-disease-burden-of-over-8-44-million-children-adolescents-and-youth-in-china-from-2013-to-2021-an-observational-study
#28
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Li Chen, Yi Xing, Yi Zhang, Junqing Xie, Binbin Su, Jianuo Jiang, Mengjie Geng, Xiang Ren, Tongjun Guo, Wen Yuan, Qi Ma, Manman Chen, Mengjie Cui, Jieyu Liu, Yi Song, Liping Wang, Yanhui Dong, Jun Ma
BACKGROUND: An accelerated epidemiological transition, spurred by economic development and urbanization, has led to a rapid transformation of the disease spectrum. However, this transition has resulted in a divergent change in the burden of infectious diseases between urban and rural areas. The objective of our study was to evaluate the long-term urban-rural disparities in infectious diseases among children, adolescents, and youths in China, while also examining the specific diseases driving these disparities...
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38607977/a-novel-electronic-health-record-based-machine-learning-model-to-predict-severe-hypoglycemia-leading-to-hospitalizations-in-older-adults-with-diabetes-a-territory-wide-cohort-and-modeling-study
#29
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Mai Shi, Aimin Yang, Eric S H Lau, Andrea O Y Luk, Ronald C W Ma, Alice P S Kong, Raymond S M Wong, Jones C M Chan, Juliana C N Chan, Elaine Chow
BACKGROUND: Older adults with diabetes are at high risk of severe hypoglycemia (SH). Many machine-learning (ML) models predict short-term hypoglycemia are not specific for older adults and show poor precision-recall. We aimed to develop a multidimensional, electronic health record (EHR)-based ML model to predict one-year risk of SH requiring hospitalization in older adults with diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We adopted a case-control design for a retrospective territory-wide cohort of 1,456,618 records from 364,863 unique older adults (age ≥65 years) with diabetes and at least 1 Hong Kong Hospital Authority attendance from 2013 to 2018...
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38574178/climate-change-a-driver-of-increasing-vector-borne-disease-transmission-in-non-endemic-areas
#30
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Shlomit Paz
In this Perspective, Shlomit Paz discusses the link between climate change and transmission of vector-borne diseases in non-endemic areas.
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38573882/socioeconomic-and-ethnic-disparities-associated-with-access-to-cochlear-implantation-for-severe-to-profound-hearing-loss-a-multicentre-observational-study-of-uk-adults
#31
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Chloe Swords, Reshma Ghedia, Hannah Blanchford, James Arwyn-Jones, Elliot Heward, Kristijonas Milinis, John Hardman, Matthew E Smith, Manohar Bance, Jameel Muzaffar
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss may benefit from management with cochlear implants. These patients need a referral to a cochlear implant team for further assessment and possible surgery. The referral pathway may result in varied access to hearing healthcare. This study aimed to explore referral patterns and whether there were any socioeconomic or ethnic associations with the likelihood of referral. The primary outcome was to determine factors influencing referral for implant assessment...
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38573873/long-term-outcomes-of-hospitalized-patients-with-sars-cov-2-covid-19-with-and-without-neurological-involvement-3-year-follow-up-assessment
#32
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Anna Eligulashvili, Moshe Gordon, Jimmy S Lee, Jeylin Lee, Shiv Mehrotra-Varma, Jai Mehrotra-Varma, Kevin Hsu, Imanyah Hilliard, Kristen Lee, Arleen Li, Muhammed Amir Essibayi, Judy Yee, David J Altschul, Emad Eskandar, Mark F Mehler, Tim Q Duong
BACKGROUND: Acute neurological manifestation is a common complication of acute Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. This retrospective cohort study investigated the 3-year outcomes of patients with and without significant neurological manifestations during initial COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Patients hospitalized for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection between 03/01/2020 and 4/16/2020 in the Montefiore Health System in the Bronx, an epicenter of the early pandemic, were included...
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38564500/positive-affect-during-adolescence-and-health-and-well-being-in-adulthood-an-outcome-wide-longitudinal-approach
#33
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Eric S Kim, Renae Wilkinson, Sakurako S Okuzono, Ying Chen, Koichiro Shiba, Richard G Cowden, Tyler J VanderWeele
BACKGROUND: Several intergovernmental organizations, including the World Health Organization and United Nations, are urging countries to use well-being indicators for policymaking. This trend, coupled with increasing recognition that positive affect is beneficial for health/well-being, opens new avenues for intervening on positive affect to improve outcomes. However, it remains unclear if positive affect in adolescence shapes health/well-being in adulthood. We examined if increases in positive affect during adolescence were associated with better health/well-being in adulthood across 41 outcomes...
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38557442/cardiovascular-outcomes-50-years-after-antenatal-exposure-to-betamethasone-follow-up-of-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#34
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Anthony G B Walters, Greg D Gamble, Caroline A Crowther, Stuart R Dalziel, Carl L Eagleton, Christopher J D McKinlay, Barry J Milne, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality, but there is limited evidence regarding their effects on long-term health. This study assessed cardiovascular outcomes at 50 years after antenatal exposure to corticosteroids. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the adult offspring of women who participated in the first randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of antenatal betamethasone for the prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (1969 to 1974)...
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38547436/the-bidirectional-association-between-premenstrual-disorders-and-perinatal-depression-a-nationwide-register-based-study-from-sweden
#35
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Qian Yang, Emma Bränn, Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson, Arvid Sjölander, Fang Fang, Anna Sara Oberg, Unnur A Valdimarsdóttir, Donghao Lu
BACKGROUND: Premenstrual disorders (PMDs) and perinatal depression (PND) share symptomology and the timing of symptoms of both conditions coincide with natural hormonal fluctuations, which may indicate a shared etiology. Yet, there is a notable absence of prospective data on the potential bidirectional association between these conditions, which is crucial for guiding clinical management. Using the Swedish nationwide registers with prospectively collected data, we aimed to investigate the bidirectional association between PMDs and PND...
March 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38518186/correction-clinical-outcomes-in-a-primary-level-non-communicable-disease-programme-for-syrian-refugees-and-the-host-population-in-jordan-a-cohort-analysis-using-routine-data
#36
Éimhín Ansbro, Tobias Homan, David Prieto Merino, Kiran Jobanputra, Jamil Qasem, Shoaib Muhammad, Taissir Fardous, Pablo Perel
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003279.].
March 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38507664/correction-effectiveness-of-a-monthly-schedule-of-follow-up-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-sokoto-nigeria-a-cluster-randomized-crossover-trial
#37
Matt D T Hitchings, Fatou Berthé, Philip Aruna, Ibrahim Shehu, Muhammed Ali Hamza, Siméon Nanama, Chizoba Steve-Edemba, Rebecca F Grais, Sheila Isanaka
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003923.].
March 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38502640/socioeconomic-position-indicators-and-risk-of-alcohol-related-medical-conditions-a-national-cohort-study-from-sweden
#38
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alexis C Edwards, Sara Larsson Lönn, Karen G Chartier, Séverine Lannoy, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption contributes to excess morbidity and mortality in part through the development of alcohol-related medical conditions (AMCs, including alcoholic cardiomyopathy, hepatitis, cirrhosis, etc.). The current study aimed to clarify the extent to which risk for these outcomes differs as a function of socioeconomic position (SEP), as discrepancies could lead to exacerbated health disparities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used longitudinal Swedish national registries to estimate the individual and joint associations between 2 SEP indicators, educational attainment and income level, and risk of AMC based on International Classification of Diseases codes, while controlling for other sociodemographic covariates and psychiatric illness...
March 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38489391/risk-factors-for-prostate-cancer-an-umbrella-review-of-prospective-observational-studies-and-mendelian-randomization-analyses
#39
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Huijie Cui, Wenqiang Zhang, Li Zhang, Yang Qu, Zhengxing Xu, Zhixin Tan, Peijing Yan, Mingshuang Tang, Chao Yang, Yutong Wang, Lin Chen, Chenghan Xiao, Yanqiu Zou, Yunjie Liu, Ling Zhang, Yanfang Yang, Yuqin Yao, Jiayuan Li, Zhenmi Liu, Chunxia Yang, Xia Jiang, Ben Zhang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of prostate cancer is increasing in older males globally. Age, ethnicity, and family history are identified as the well-known risk factors for prostate cancer, but few modifiable factors have been firmly established. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate various factors modifying the risk of prostate cancer reported in meta-analyses of prospective observational studies and mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from the inception to January 10, 2022, updated on September 9, 2023, to identify meta-analyses and MR studies on prostate cancer...
March 2024: PLoS Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38484006/antimicrobial-resistance-prevalence-in-bloodstream-infection-in-29-european-countries-by-age-and-sex-an-observational-study
#40
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Naomi R Waterlow, Ben S Cooper, Julie V Robotham, Gwenan Mary Knight
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic usage, contact with high transmission healthcare settings as well as changes in immune system function all vary by a patient's age and sex. Yet, most analyses of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) ignore demographic indicators and provide only country-level resistance prevalence values. This study aimed to address this knowledge gap by quantifying how resistance prevalence and incidence of bloodstream infection (BSI) varied by age and sex across bacteria and antibiotics in Europe...
March 2024: PLoS Medicine
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