Seth C Inzaule, Mark J Siedner, Susan J Little, Santiago Avila-Rios, Alisen Ayitewala, Ronald J Bosch, Vincent Calvez, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Charlotte Charpentier, Diane Descamps, Susan H Eshleman, Joseph Fokam, Lisa M Frenkel, Ravindra K Gupta, John P A Ioannidis, Pontiano Kaleebu, Rami Kantor, Seble G Kassaye, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Vinie Kouamou, Roger D Kouyos, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Richard Lessells, Anne-Genevieve Marcelin, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Brian Minalga, Nicaise Ndembi, Richard A Neher, Roger Paredes, Deenan Pillay, Elliot G Raizes, Soo-Yon Rhee, Douglas D Richman, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Pardis C Sabeti, Jonathan M Schapiro, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Kim Steegen, Wataru Sugiura, Gert U van Zyl, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Annemarie M J Wensing, Joel O Wertheim, Huldrych F Gunthard, Michael R Jordan, Robert W Shafer
Author summary  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance has implications for antiretroviral treatment strategies and for containing the HIV pandemic because the development of HIV drug resistance leads to the requirement for antiretroviral drugs that may be less effective, less well-tolerated, and more expensive than those used in first-line regimens.  • HIV drug resistance studies are designed to determine which HIV mutations are selected by antiretroviral drugs and, in turn, how these mutations affect antiretroviral drug susceptibility and response to future antiretroviral treatment regimens...
September 22, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Lindsey Smith Taillie, Maxime Bercholz, Carmen E Prestemon, Isabella C A Higgins, Anna H Grummon, Marissa G Hall, Lindsay M Jaacks
BACKGROUND: Policies to reduce red meat intake are important for mitigating climate change and improving public health. We tested the impact of taxes and warning labels on red meat purchases in the United States. The main study question was, will taxes and warning labels reduce red meat purchases? METHODS AND FINDINGS: We recruited 3,518 US adults to participate in a shopping task in a naturalistic online grocery store from October 18, 2021 to October 28, 2021. Participants were randomized to one of 4 conditions: control (no tax or warning labels, n = 887), warning labels (health and environmental warning labels appeared next to products containing red meat, n = 891), tax (products containing red meat were subject to a 30% price increase, n = 874), or combined warning labels + tax (n = 866)...
September 18, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Kirsten E Wiens, Hanmeng Xu, Kaiyue Zou, John Mwaba, Justin Lessler, Espoir Bwenge Malembaka, Maya N Demby, Godfrey Bwire, Firdausi Qadri, Elizabeth C Lee, Andrew S Azman
BACKGROUND: Cholera surveillance relies on clinical diagnosis of acute watery diarrhea. Suspected cholera case definitions have high sensitivity but low specificity, challenging our ability to characterize cholera burden and epidemiology. Our objective was to estimate the proportion of clinically suspected cholera that are true Vibrio cholerae infections and identify factors that explain variation in positivity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review of studies that tested ≥10 suspected cholera cases for V...
September 14, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Adam J Kucharski, Kiyojiken Chung, Maite Aubry, Iotefa Teiti, Anita Teissier, Vaea Richard, Timothy W Russell, Raphaëlle Bos, Sophie Olivier, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau
BACKGROUND: Effective Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) response relies on good knowledge of population infection dynamics, but owing to under-ascertainment and delays in symptom-based reporting, obtaining reliable infection data has typically required large dedicated local population studies. Although many countries implemented Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing among travellers, it remains unclear how accurately arrival testing data can capture international patterns of infection, because those arrival testing data were rarely reported systematically, and predeparture testing was often in place as well, leading to nonrepresentative infection status among arrivals...
September 8, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Nyashadzaishe Mafirakureva, Sushant Mukherjee, Mikhael de Souza, Cassandra Kelly-Cirino, Mario J P Songane, Jennifer Cohn, Jean-François Lemaire, Martina Casenghi, Peter J Dodd
BACKGROUND: Over 1 million children aged 0 to 14 years were estimated to develop tuberculosis in 2021, resulting in over 200,000 deaths. Practical interventions are urgently needed to improve diagnosis and antituberculosis treatment (ATT) initiation in children aged 0 to 14 years and to increase coverage of tuberculosis preventive therapy (TPT) in children at high risk of developing tuberculosis disease. The multicountry CaP-TB intervention scaled up facility-based intensified case finding and strengthened household contact management and TPT provision at HIV clinics...
September 6, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Sian Oram
The Illegal Migration Act, which recently passed through the United Kingdom (UK) parliament, poses a serious threat to the well-being of victims of modern slavery and efforts to combat exploitation. The Act gives the UK Government greater powers to deny support and allow the detention and deportation of potential victims and has been widely criticised, including by medical associations and charities. Measures included in the Act risk perpetuating the deprivation of safety, dignity, and medical care experienced by victims, instead of providing the protections to which they should be entitled...
September 5, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Maddalena Ardissino, Kiran Haresh Kumar Patel, Bilal Rayes, Rohin K Reddy, Greg J Mellor, Fu Siong Ng
BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest that electrocardiogram (ECG) indices might be influenced by obesity and other anthropometric measures, though it is difficult to infer causal relationships based on observational data due to risk of residual confounding. We utilized mendelian randomization (MR) to explore causal relevance of multiple anthropometric measures on P-wave duration (PWD), PR interval, QRS duration, and corrected QT interval (QTc). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Uncorrelated (r2 < 0...
August 8, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Alemayehu Argaw, Laeticia Celine Toe, Giles Hanley-Cook, Trenton Dailey-Chwalibóg, Brenda de Kok, Lionel Ouédraogo, Anderson Compaoré, Moctar Ouédraogo, Amadi Sawadogo, Rasmané Ganaba, Katrien Vanslambrouck, Patrick Kolsteren, Carl Lachat, Lieven Huybregts
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient-fortified balanced energy-protein (BEP) supplements are promising interventions to prevent intrauterine growth retardation in low- and middle-income countries. On the other hand, one concern with blanket prenatal supplementation programs using energy-dense supplements is that they could lead to more maternal and/or infant overweight. However, evidence is lacking on the potential effect of BEP on maternal and offspring body composition. This study evaluates the effects of micronutrient-fortified BEP supplementation during pregnancy on body composition of mothers and their newborns in rural Burkina Faso...
July 24, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Anne Marie Darling, Dongqing Wang, Nandita Perumal, Enju Liu, Molin Wang, Tahmeed Ahmed, Parul Christian, Kathryn G Dewey, Gilberto Kac, Stephen H Kennedy, Vishak Subramoney, Brittany Briggs, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Many women experience suboptimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), but our understanding of risk factors associated with GWG in these settings is limited. We investigated the relationships between demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and clinical factors and GWG in prospectively collected data from LMICs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant-level meta-analysis of risk factors for GWG outcomes among 138,286 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies in 55 studies (27 randomized controlled trials and 28 prospective cohorts from 25 LMICs)...
July 24, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Xi Xiong, David Tak Wai Lui, Matthew Shing Hin Chung, Ivan Chi Ho Au, Francisco Tsz Tsun Lai, Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Celine Sze Ling Chui, Xue Li, Franco Wing Tak Cheng, Ching-Lung Cheung, Esther Wai Yin Chan, Chi Ho Lee, Yu Cho Woo, Kathryn Choon Beng Tan, Carlos King Ho Wong, Ian Chi Kei Wong
BACKGROUND: The risk of incident diabetes following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination remains to be elucidated. Also, it is unclear whether the risk of incident diabetes after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is modified by vaccination status or differs by SARS-CoV-2 variants. We evaluated the incidence of diabetes following mRNA (BNT162b2), inactivated (CoronaVac) COVID-19 vaccines, and after SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this population-based cohort study, individuals without known diabetes were identified from an electronic health database in Hong Kong...
July 24, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Marina Antillón, Xiao Li, Lander Willem, Joke Bilcke, Mark Jit, Philippe Beutels
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are among the primary causes of death for children under 5 years of age worldwide. A notable challenge with many of the upcoming prophylactic interventions against RSV is their short duration of protection, making the age profile of key interest to the design of prevention strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We leverage the RSV data collected on cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in a systematic review in combination with flexible generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) to characterize the age burden of RSV incidence, hospitalization, and hospital-based case fatality rate (hCFR)...
July 17, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Eveline Klinkenberg, Sian Floyd, Kwame Shanaube, Linda Mureithi, Thomas Gachie, Petra de Haas, Barry Kosloff, Peter J Dodd, Maria Ruperez, Chali Wapamesa, James Michael Burnett, Nico Kalisvaart, Nkatya Kasese, Redwaan Vermaak, Albertus Schaap, Sarah Fidler, Richard Hayes, Helen Ayles
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence remains persistently high in many settings, with new or expanded interventions required to achieve substantial reductions. The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 071 (PopART) community-randomised trial randomised 14 communities to receive the "PopART" intervention during 2014 to 2017 (7 arm A and 7 arm B communities) and 7 communities to receive standard-of-care (arm C). The intervention was delivered door-to-door by community HIV care providers (CHiPs) and included universal HIV testing, facilitated linkage to HIV care at government health clinics, and systematic TB symptom screening...
September 2023: PLoS Medicine
Cathryn Rodway, Saied Ibrahim, Jodie Westhead, Lana Bojanić, Pauline Turnbull, Louis Appleby, Andy Bacon, Harriet Dale, Kate Harrison, Nav Kapur
BACKGROUND: There are comparatively few international studies investigating suicide in military veterans and no recent UK-wide studies. This is important because the wider context of being a UK Armed Forces (UKAF) veteran has changed in recent years following a period of intensive operations. We aimed to investigate the rate, timing, and risk factors for suicide in personnel who left the UKAF over a 23-year period. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out a retrospective cohort study of suicide in personnel who left the regular UKAF between 1996 and 2018 linking national databases of discharged personnel and suicide deaths, using survival analysis to examine the risk of suicide in veterans compared to the general population and conditional logistic regression to investigate factors most strongly associated with suicide after discharge...
August 2023: PLoS Medicine
Kathryn Dovel, Kelvin Balakasi, Khumbo Phiri, Frackson Shaba, Ogechukwu Agatha Offorjebe, Sundeep K Gupta, Vincent Wong, Eric Lungu, Brooke E Nichols, Tobias Masina, Anteneh Worku, Risa Hoffman, Mike Nyirenda
BACKGROUND: HIV testing among the sexual partners of HIV-positive clients is critical for case identification and reduced transmission in southern and eastern Africa. HIV self-testing (HIVST) may improve uptake of HIV services among sexual partners of antiretroviral therapy (ART) clients, but the impact of HIVST on partner testing and subsequent ART initiation remains unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individually randomized, unblinded trial to assess if an index HIVST intervention targeting the partners of ART clients improves uptake of testing and treatment services in Malawi...
August 2023: PLoS Medicine
Hongjiang Wu, Aimin Yang, Eric S H Lau, Xinge Zhang, Baoqi Fan, Mai Shi, Chuiguo Huang, Ronald C W Ma, Alice P S Kong, Elaine Chow, Wing-Yee So, Juliana C N Chan, Andrea O Y Luk
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes affects multiple systems. We aimed to compare age- and sex-specific rates of all-cause and cause-specific hospital bed-days between people with and without type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were provided by the Hong Kong Hospital Authority. We included 1,516,508 one-to-one matched people with incident type 2 diabetes (n = 758,254) and those without diabetes during the entire follow-up period (n = 758,254) between 2002 and 2018, followed until 2019...
August 2023: PLoS Medicine
Francesco D'Antonio, Nashwa Eltaweel, Smriti Prasad, Maria Elena Flacco, Lamberto Manzoli, Asma Khalil
BACKGROUND: The optimal approach to prevent preterm birth (PTB) in twins has not been fully established yet. Recent evidence suggests that placement of cervical cerclage in twin pregnancies with short cervical length at ultrasound or cervical dilatation at physical examination might be associated with a reduced risk of PTB. However, such evidence is based mainly on small studies thus questioning the robustness of these findings. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the role of cervical cerclage in preventing PTB and adverse maternal or perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies...
August 2023: PLoS Medicine
Supriya D Mehta, Garazi Zulaika, Walter Agingu, Elizabeth Nyothach, Runa Bhaumik, Stefan J Green, Anna Maria van Eijk, Daniel Kwaro, Fredrick Otieno, Penelope Phillips-Howard
BACKGROUND: Nonhygienic products for managing menstruation are reported to cause reproductive tract infections. Menstrual cups are a potential solution. We assessed whether menstrual cups would reduce bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal microbiome (VMB), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as studies have not evaluated this. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was performed in 96 Kenyan secondary schools, randomized (1:1:1:1) to control, menstrual cup, cash transfer, or menstrual cup plus cash transfer...
July 2023: PLoS Medicine
Patrick Muller, Amar M Karia, Kirstin Webster, Fran Carroll, George Dunn, Alissa Frémeaux, Tina Harris, Hannah Knight, Sam Oddie, Asma Khalil, Jan Van Der Meulen, Ipek Gurol-Urganci
BACKGROUND: Ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in obstetric outcomes are well established. However, the role of induction of labour (IOL) to reduce these inequalities is controversial, in part due to insufficient evidence. This national cohort study aimed to identify adverse perinatal outcomes associated with IOL with birth at 39 weeks of gestation ("IOL group") compared to expectant management ("expectant management group") according to maternal characteristics in women with low-risk pregnancies...
July 2023: PLoS Medicine
Weiyao Yin, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Ulrika Åden, Kari Risnes, Martina Persson, Abraham Reichenberg, Michael E Silverman, Eero Kajantie, Sven Sandin
BACKGROUND: Women with psychiatric diagnoses are at increased risk of preterm birth (PTB), with potential life-long impact on offspring health. Less is known about the risk of PTB in offspring of fathers with psychiatric diagnoses, and for couples where both parents were diagnosed. In a nationwide birth cohort, we examined the association between psychiatric history in fathers, mothers, and both parents and gestational age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included all infants live-born to Nordic parents in 1997 to 2016 in Sweden...
July 2023: PLoS Medicine
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1004240.].
July 2023: PLoS Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.