Sung-Mok Jung, Sara L Loo, Emily Howerton, Lucie Contamin, Claire P Smith, Erica C Carcelén, Katie Yan, Samantha J Bents, John Levander, Jessi Espino, Joseph C Lemaitre, Koji Sato, Clifton D McKee, Alison L Hill, Matteo Chinazzi, Jessica T Davis, Kunpeng Mu, Alessandro Vespignani, Erik T Rosenstrom, Sebastian A Rodriguez-Cartes, Julie S Ivy, Maria E Mayorga, Julie L Swann, Guido España, Sean Cavany, Sean M Moore, T Alex Perkins, Shi Chen, Rajib Paul, Daniel Janies, Jean-Claude Thill, Ajitesh Srivastava, Majd Al Aawar, Kaiming Bi, Shraddha Ramdas Bandekar, Anass Bouchnita, Spencer J Fox, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Przemyslaw Porebski, Srini Venkatramanan, Aniruddha Adiga, Benjamin Hurt, Brian Klahn, Joseph Outten, Jiangzhuo Chen, Henning Mortveit, Amanda Wilson, Stefan Hoops, Parantapa Bhattacharya, Dustin Machi, Anil Vullikanti, Bryan Lewis, Madhav Marathe, Harry Hochheiser, Michael C Runge, Katriona Shea, Shaun Truelove, Cécile Viboud, Justin Lessler
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause significant hospitalizations and deaths in the United States. Its continued burden and the impact of annually reformulated vaccines remain unclear. Here, we present projections of COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths in the United States for the next 2 years under 2 plausible assumptions about immune escape (20% per year and 50% per year) and 3 possible CDC recommendations for the use of annually reformulated vaccines (no recommendation, vaccination for those aged 65 years and over, vaccination for all eligible age groups based on FDA approval)...
April 17, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Coral Gartner, Wayne D Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Coral Gartner, Wayne D Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Shlomit Paz
In this Perspective, Shlomit Paz discusses the link between climate change and transmission of vector-borne diseases in non-endemic areas.
April 4, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Lise Christine Gaudernack, Angeline Elisabeth Styve Einarsen, Ingvil Krarup Sørbye, Mirjam Lukasse, Nina Gunnes, Trond Melbye Michelsen
BACKGROUND: Prolonged labor is a common condition associated with maternal and perinatal complications. The standard treatment with oxytocin for augmentation of labor increases the risk of adverse outcomes. Hyoscine butylbromide is a spasmolytic drug with few side effects shown to shorten labor when used in a general population of laboring women. However, research on its effect on preventing prolonged labor is lacking. We aimed to assess the effect of hyoscine butylbromide on the duration of labor in nulliparous women showing early signs of slow labor...
March 28, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Linda J Cobiac, Nina T Rogers, Jean Adams, Steven Cummins, Richard Smith, Oliver Mytton, Martin White, Peter Scarborough
BACKGROUND: The soft drinks industry levy (SDIL) in the United Kingdom has led to a significant reduction in household purchasing of sugar in drinks. In this study, we examined the potential medium- and long-term implications for health and health inequalities among children and adolescents in England. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a controlled interrupted time series analysis to measure the effects of the SDIL on the amount of sugar per household per week from soft drinks purchased, 19 months post implementation and by index of multiple deprivation (IMD) quintile in England...
March 28, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Eva Herweijer, Kejia Hu, Jiangrong Wang, Donghao Lu, Pär Sparén, Hans-Olov Adami, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir, Karin Sundström, Fang Fang
BACKGROUND: Women with mental illness experience an increased risk of cervical cancer. The excess risk is partly due to low participation in cervical screening; however, it remains unknown whether it is also attributable to an increased risk of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). We aimed to examine whether women with mental illness had an increased infection rate of HPV compared to women without mental illness. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a cohort design, we analyzed all 337,116 women aged 30 to 64 and living in Stockholm, who had a negative test result of 14 high-risk HPV subtypes in HPV-based screening, during August 2014 to December 2019...
March 25, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Sivaram Emani, Kleydson Alves, Layana Costa Alves, Daiane Alves da Silva, Patricia Bartholomay Oliveira, Marcia C Castro, Ted Cohen, Rodrigo de Macedo Couto, Mauro Sanchez, Nicolas A Menzies
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, many individuals with tuberculosis (TB) do not receive appropriate care due to delayed or missed diagnosis, ineffective treatment regimens, or loss-to-follow-up. This study aimed to estimate the health losses and TB program costs attributable to each gap in the care cascade for TB disease in Brazil. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We constructed a Markov model simulating the TB care cascade and lifetime health outcomes (e.g., death, cure, postinfectious sequelae) for individuals developing TB disease in Brazil...
March 21, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Zoe Moodie, Erica Andersen-Nissen, Nicole Grunenberg, One B Dintwe, Faatima Laher Omar, Jia J Kee, Linda-Gail Bekker, Fatima Laher, Nivashnee Naicker, Ilesh Jani, Nyaradzo M Mgodi, Portia Hunidzarira, Modulakgota Sebe, Maurine D Miner, Laura Polakowski, Shelly Ramirez, Michelle Nebergall, Simbarashe Takuva, Lerato Sikhosana, Jack Heptinstall, Kelly E Seaton, Stephen De Rosa, Carlos A Diazgranados, Marguerite Koutsoukos, Olivier Van Der Meeren, Susan W Barnett, Niranjan Kanesa-Thasan, James G Kublin, Georgia D Tomaras, M Juliana McElrath, Lawrence Corey, Kathryn Mngadi, Paul Goepfert
BACKGROUND: Adjuvants are widely used to enhance and/or direct vaccine-induced immune responses yet rarely evaluated head-to-head. Our trial directly compared immune responses elicited by MF59 versus alum adjuvants in the RV144-like HIV vaccine regimen modified for the Southern African region. The RV144 trial of a recombinant canarypox vaccine vector expressing HIV env subtype B (ALVAC-HIV) prime followed by ALVAC-HIV plus a bivalent gp120 protein vaccine boost adjuvanted with alum is the only trial to have shown modest HIV vaccine efficacy...
March 19, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Ellen Brazier, Olga Tymejczyk, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Awachana Jiamsakul, Marco Tulio Luque Torres, Jennifer S Lee, Lisa Abuogi, Vohith Khol, Fernando Mejía Cordero, Keri N Althoff, Matthew G Law, Denis Nash
BACKGROUND: While national adoption of universal HIV treatment guidelines has led to improved, timely uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART), longer-term care outcomes are understudied. There is little data from real-world service delivery settings on patient attrition, viral load (VL) monitoring, and viral suppression (VS) at 24 and 36 months after HIV treatment initiation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For this retrospective cohort analysis, we used observational data from 25 countries in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium's Asia-Pacific, Central Africa, East Africa, Central/South America, and North America regions for patients who were ART naïve and aged ≥15 years at care enrollment between 24 months before and 12 months after national adoption of universal treatment guidelines, occurring 2012 to 2018...
March 18, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Huijie Cui, Wenqiang Zhang, Li Zhang, Yang Qu, Zhengxing Xu, Zhixin Tan, Peijing Yan, Mingshuang Tang, Chao Yang, Yutong Wang, Lin Chen, Chenghan Xiao, Yanqiu Zou, Yunjie Liu, Ling Zhang, Yanfang Yang, Yuqin Yao, Jiayuan Li, Zhenmi Liu, Chunxia Yang, Xia Jiang, Ben Zhang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of prostate cancer is increasing in older males globally. Age, ethnicity, and family history are identified as the well-known risk factors for prostate cancer, but few modifiable factors have been firmly established. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate various factors modifying the risk of prostate cancer reported in meta-analyses of prospective observational studies and mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from the inception to January 10, 2022, updated on September 9, 2023, to identify meta-analyses and MR studies on prostate cancer...
March 15, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Rachel M Thomson, Daniel Kopasker, Patryk Bronka, Matteo Richiardi, Vladimir Khodygo, Andrew J Baxter, Erik Igelström, Anna Pearce, Alastair H Leyland, S Vittal Katikireddi
BACKGROUND: Population mental health in the United Kingdom (UK) has deteriorated, alongside worsening socioeconomic conditions, over the last decade. Policies such as Universal Basic Income (UBI) have been suggested as an alternative economic approach to improve population mental health and reduce health inequalities. UBI may improve mental health (MH), but to our knowledge, no studies have trialled or modelled UBI in whole populations. We aimed to estimate the short-term effects of introducing UBI on mental health in the UK working-age population...
March 4, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Shrey Mathur, Melanie Smuk, Ceri Evans, Catherine J Wedderburn, Diana M Gibb, Martina Penazzato, Andrew J Prendergast
BACKGROUND: World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for children who are HIV-exposed until infection is excluded and vertical transmission risk has ended. While cotrimoxazole has benefits for children with HIV, there is no mortality benefit for children who are HIV-exposed but uninfected, prompting a review of global guidelines. Here, we model the potential impact of alternative cotrimoxazole strategies on mortality in children who are HIV-exposed...
February 20, 2024: PLoS Medicine
George Frederick Mkoma, Charles Agyemang, Thomas Benfield, Mikael Rostila, Agneta Cederström, Jørgen Holm Petersen, Marie Norredam
BACKGROUND: Ethnic minorities living in high-income countries have been disproportionately affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in terms of infection rates, hospitalisations, and deaths; however, less is known about long COVID in these populations. Our aim was to examine the risk of long COVID and associated symptoms among ethnic minorities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used nationwide register-based cohort data on individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 aged ≥18 years (n = 2,286,955) between January 2020 and August 2022 in Denmark...
February 20, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Ali Sié, Mamadou Ouattara, Mamadou Bountogo, Clarisse Dah, Thierry Ouedraogo, Valentin Boudo, Elodie Lebas, Huiyu Hu, Benjamin F Arnold, Kieran S O'Brien, Thomas M Lietman, Catherine E Oldenburg
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic use during early infancy has been linked to childhood obesity in high-income countries. We evaluated whether a single oral dose of azithromycin administered during infant-well visits led to changes in infant growth outcomes at 6 months of age in a setting with a high prevalence of undernutrition in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Infants were enrolled from September 25, 2019, until October 22, 2022, in a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of a single oral dose of azithromycin (20 mg/kg) compared to placebo when administered during well-child visits for prevention of infant mortality...
January 23, 2024: PLoS Medicine
John Whitaker, Idara Edem, Ella Togun, Abena S Amoah, Albert Dube, Lindani Chirwa, Boston Munthali, Giulia Brunelli, Thomas Van Boeckel, Rory Rickard, Andrew Jm Leather, Justine Davies
BACKGROUND: Injuries represent a vast and relatively neglected burden of disease affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While many health systems underperform in treating injured patients, most assessments have not considered the whole system. We integrated findings from 9 methods using a 3 delays approach (delays in seeking, reaching, or receiving care) to prioritise important trauma care health system barriers in Karonga, Northern Malawi, and exemplify a holistic health system assessment approach applicable in comparable settings...
January 22, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Wenzhong Huang, Zhengyu Yang, Yiwen Zhang, Thomas Vogt, Ben Armstrong, Wenhua Yu, Rongbin Xu, Pei Yu, Yanming Liu, Antonio Gasparrini, Samuel Hundessa, Eric Lavigne, Tomas Molina, Tobias Geiger, Yue Leon Guo, Christian Otto, Simon Hales, Farnaz Pourzand, Shih-Chun Pan, Ke Ju, Elizabeth A Ritchie, Shanshan Li, Yuming Guo
BACKGROUND: More intense tropical cyclones (TCs) are expected in the future under a warming climate scenario, but little is known about their mortality effect pattern across countries and over decades. We aim to evaluate the TC-specific mortality risks, periods of concern (POC) and characterize the spatiotemporal pattern and exposure-response (ER) relationships on a multicountry scale. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality among the general population were collected from 494 locations in 18 countries or territories during 1980 to 2019...
January 22, 2024: PLoS Medicine
Li Chen, Yi Xing, Yi Zhang, Junqing Xie, Binbin Su, Jianuo Jiang, Mengjie Geng, Xiang Ren, Tongjun Guo, Wen Yuan, Qi Ma, Manman Chen, Mengjie Cui, Jieyu Liu, Yi Song, Liping Wang, Yanhui Dong, Jun Ma
BACKGROUND: An accelerated epidemiological transition, spurred by economic development and urbanization, has led to a rapid transformation of the disease spectrum. However, this transition has resulted in a divergent change in the burden of infectious diseases between urban and rural areas. The objective of our study was to evaluate the long-term urban-rural disparities in infectious diseases among children, adolescents, and youths in China, while also examining the specific diseases driving these disparities...
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
Mai Shi, Aimin Yang, Eric S H Lau, Andrea O Y Luk, Ronald C W Ma, Alice P S Kong, Raymond S M Wong, Jones C M Chan, Juliana C N Chan, Elaine Chow
BACKGROUND: Older adults with diabetes are at high risk of severe hypoglycemia (SH). Many machine-learning (ML) models predict short-term hypoglycemia are not specific for older adults and show poor precision-recall. We aimed to develop a multidimensional, electronic health record (EHR)-based ML model to predict one-year risk of SH requiring hospitalization in older adults with diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We adopted a case-control design for a retrospective territory-wide cohort of 1,456,618 records from 364,863 unique older adults (age ≥65 years) with diabetes and at least 1 Hong Kong Hospital Authority attendance from 2013 to 2018...
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
Chloe Swords, Reshma Ghedia, Hannah Blanchford, James Arwyn-Jones, Elliot Heward, Kristijonas Milinis, John Hardman, Matthew E Smith, Manohar Bance, Jameel Muzaffar
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss may benefit from management with cochlear implants. These patients need a referral to a cochlear implant team for further assessment and possible surgery. The referral pathway may result in varied access to hearing healthcare. This study aimed to explore referral patterns and whether there were any socioeconomic or ethnic associations with the likelihood of referral. The primary outcome was to determine factors influencing referral for implant assessment...
April 2024: PLoS Medicine
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