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PLoS Medicine

Claudia Hanson, Stephen Munjanja, Agnes Binagwaho, Bellington Vwalika, Andrea B Pembe, Elsa Jacinto, George K Chilinda, Kateri B Donahoe, Sikolia Z Wanyonyi, Peter Waiswa, Muchabayiwa F Gidiri, Lenka Benova
BACKGROUND: High-risk pregnancies, such as twin pregnancies, deserve particular attention as mortality is very high in this group. With a view to inform policy and national guidelines development for the Sustainable Development Goals, we reviewed national training materials, guidelines, and policies underpinning the provision of care in relation to twin pregnancies and assessed care provided to twins in 8 Eastern and Southern African countries: Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe...
February 2019: PLoS Medicine
Lorenz von Seidlein, Thomas J Peto, Jordi Landier, Thuy-Nhien Nguyen, Rupam Tripura, Koukeo Phommasone, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Khin Maung Lwin, Lilly Keereecharoen, Ladda Kajeechiwa, May Myo Thwin, Daniel M Parker, Jacher Wiladphaingern, Suphak Nosten, Stephane Proux, Vincent Corbel, Nguyen Tuong-Vy, Truong Le Phuc-Nhi, Do Hung Son, Pham Nguyen Huong-Thu, Nguyen Thi Kim Tuyen, Nguyen Thanh Tien, Le Thanh Dong, Dao Van Hue, Huynh Hong Quang, Chea Nguon, Chan Davoeung, Huy Rekol, Bipin Adhikari, Gisela Henriques, Panom Phongmany, Preyanan Suangkanarat, Atthanee Jeeyapant, Benchawan Vihokhern, Rob W van der Pluijm, Yoel Lubell, Lisa J White, Ricardo Aguas, Cholrawee Promnarate, Pasathorn Sirithiranont, Benoit Malleret, Laurent Rénia, Carl Onsjö, Xin Hui Chan, Jeremy Chalk, Olivo Miotto, Krittaya Patumrat, Kesinee Chotivanich, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Podjanee Jittmala, Nils Kaehler, Phaik Yeong Cheah, Christopher Pell, Mehul Dhorda, Mallika Imwong, Georges Snounou, Mavuto Mukaka, Pimnara Peerawaranun, Sue J Lee, Julie A Simpson, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Pratap Singhasivanon, Martin P Grobusch, Frank Cobelens, Frank Smithuis, Paul N Newton, Guy E Thwaites, Nicholas P J Day, Mayfong Mayxay, Tran Tinh Hien, Francois H Nosten, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas J White
BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) threatens global malaria elimination efforts. Mass drug administration (MDA), the presumptive antimalarial treatment of an entire population to clear the subclinical parasite reservoir, is a strategy to accelerate malaria elimination. We report a cluster randomised trial to assess the effectiveness of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) MDA in reducing falciparum malaria incidence and prevalence in 16 remote village populations in Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, and the Lao People's Democratic Republic, where artemisinin resistance is prevalent...
February 2019: PLoS Medicine
Mark J D Jordans, Nagendra P Luitel, Brandon A Kohrt, Sujit D Rathod, Emily C Garman, Mary De Silva, Ivan H Komproe, Vikram Patel, Crick Lund
BACKGROUND: In low-income countries, care for people with mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders is largely absent, especially in rural settings. To increase treatment coverage, integration of mental health services into community and primary healthcare settings is recommended. While this strategy is being rolled out globally, rigorous evaluation of outcomes at each stage of the service delivery pathway from detection to treatment initiation to individual outcomes of care has been missing...
February 2019: PLoS Medicine
Ellis Voerman, Susana Santos, Bernadeta Patro Golab, Pilar Amiano, Ferran Ballester, Henrique Barros, Anna Bergström, Marie-Aline Charles, Leda Chatzi, Cécile Chevrier, George P Chrousos, Eva Corpeleijn, Nathalie Costet, Sarah Crozier, Graham Devereux, Merete Eggesbø, Sandra Ekström, Maria Pia Fantini, Sara Farchi, Francesco Forastiere, Vagelis Georgiu, Keith M Godfrey, Davide Gori, Veit Grote, Wojciech Hanke, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Barbara Heude, Daniel Hryhorczuk, Rae-Chi Huang, Hazel Inskip, Nina Iszatt, Anne M Karvonen, Louise C Kenny, Berthold Koletzko, Leanne K Küpers, Hanna Lagström, Irina Lehmann, Per Magnus, Renata Majewska, Johanna Mäkelä, Yannis Manios, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Sheila W McDonald, John Mehegan, Monique Mommers, Camilla S Morgen, Trevor A Mori, George Moschonis, Deirdre Murray, Carol Ní Chaoimh, Ellen A Nohr, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Emily Oken, Adriëtte J J M Oostvogels, Agnieszka Pac, Eleni Papadopoulou, Juha Pekkanen, Costanza Pizzi, Kinga Polanska, Daniela Porta, Lorenzo Richiardi, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Luca Ronfani, Ana C Santos, Marie Standl, Camilla Stoltenberg, Elisabeth Thiering, Carel Thijs, Maties Torrent, Suzanne C Tough, Tomas Trnovec, Steve Turner, Lenie van Rossem, Andrea von Berg, Martine Vrijheid, Tanja G M Vrijkotte, Jane West, Alet Wijga, John Wright, Oleksandr Zvinchuk, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Debbie A Lawlor, Romy Gaillard, Vincent W V Jaddoe
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact...
February 2019: PLoS Medicine
Xiaolin Wei, Zhitong Zhang, Joseph P Hicks, John D Walley, Rebecca King, James N Newell, Jia Yin, Jun Zeng, Yan Guo, Mei Lin, Ross E G Upshur, Qiang Sun
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing causes widespread serious health problems. To reduce prescribing of antibiotics in Chinese primary care to children with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), we developed an intervention comprising clinical guidelines, monthly prescribing review meetings, doctor-patient communication skills training, and education materials for caregivers. We previously evaluated our intervention using an unblinded cluster-randomised controlled trial (cRCT) in 25 primary care facilities across two rural counties...
February 2019: PLoS Medicine
Sally Wyke, Christopher Bunn, Eivind Andersen, Marlene N Silva, Femke van Nassau, Paula McSkimming, Spyros Kolovos, Jason M R Gill, Cindy M Gray, Kate Hunt, Annie S Anderson, Judith Bosmans, Judith G M Jelsma, Sharon Kean, Nicolas Lemyre, David W Loudon, Lisa Macaulay, Douglas J Maxwell, Alex McConnachie, Nanette Mutrie, Maria Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Hugo V Pereira, Matthew Philpott, Glyn C Roberts, John Rooksby, Øystein B Røynesdal, Naveed Sattar, Marit Sørensen, Pedro J Teixeira, Shaun Treweek, Theo van Achterberg, Irene van de Glind, Willem van Mechelen, Hidde P van der Ploeg
BACKGROUND: Reducing sitting time as well as increasing physical activity in inactive people is beneficial for their health. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the European Fans in Training (EuroFIT) programme to improve physical activity and sedentary time in male football fans, delivered through the professional football setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 1,113 men aged 30-65 with self-reported body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2 took part in a randomised controlled trial in 15 professional football clubs in England, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal...
February 2019: PLoS Medicine
Ruth Brauer, Wallis C Y Lau, Joseph F Hayes, Kenneth K C Man, David P J Osborn, Robert Howard, Joseph Kim, Ian C K Wong
BACKGROUND: In vitro and animal studies have suggested that trazodone, a licensed antidepressant, may protect against dementia. However, no studies have been conducted to assess the effect of trazodone on dementia in humans. This electronic health records study assessed the association between trazodone use and the risk of developing dementia in clinical practice. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Health Improvement Network (THIN), an archive of anonymised medical and prescribing records from primary care practices in the United Kingdom, contains records of over 15 million patients...
February 2019: PLoS Medicine
Silvan Licher, Alis Heshmatollah, Kimberly D van der Willik, Bruno H Ch Stricker, Rikje Ruiter, Emmely W de Roos, Lies Lahousse, Peter J Koudstaal, Albert Hofman, Lana Fani, Guy G O Brusselle, Daniel Bos, Banafsheh Arshi, Maryam Kavousi, Maarten J G Leening, M Kamran Ikram, M Arfan Ikram
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are leading causes of premature disability and death worldwide. However, the lifetime risk of developing any NCD is unknown, as are the effects of shared common risk factors on this risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between July 6, 1989, and January 1, 2012, we followed participants from the prospective Rotterdam Study aged 45 years and older who were free from NCDs at baseline for incident stroke, heart disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2019: PLoS Medicine
Tazeem Bhatia, Jamie Enoch, Mishal Khan, Sophie Mathewson, David Heymann, Richard Hayes, Osman Dar
In a Collection Review, Richard Hayes and colleagues discuss metrics for assessing progress in control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the context of prior disease control programmes.
February 2019: PLoS Medicine
Ashley Budu-Aggrey, Ben Brumpton, Jess Tyrrell, Sarah Watkins, Ellen H Modalsli, Carlos Celis-Morales, Lyn D Ferguson, Gunnhild Åberge Vie, Tom Palmer, Lars G Fritsche, Mari Løset, Jonas Bille Nielsen, Wei Zhou, Lam C Tsoi, Andrew R Wood, Samuel E Jones, Robin Beaumont, Marit Saunes, Pål Richard Romundstad, Stefan Siebert, Iain B McInnes, James T Elder, George Davey Smith, Timothy M Frayling, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Sara J Brown, Naveed Sattar, Lavinia Paternoster
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease that has been reported to be associated with obesity. We aimed to investigate a possible causal relationship between body mass index (BMI) and psoriasis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Following a review of published epidemiological evidence of the association between obesity and psoriasis, mendelian randomization (MR) was used to test for a causal relationship with BMI. We used a genetic instrument comprising 97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI as a proxy for BMI (expected to be much less confounded than measured BMI)...
January 2019: PLoS Medicine
Ligia Kiss, Cathy Zimmerman
In an Editorial, Ligia Kiss and Cathy Zimmerman discuss the need for research on the prevention of human trafficking and mitigation of its effects.
January 2019: PLoS Medicine
James D O'Leary, Hannah Wunsch, Anne-Marie Leo, David Levin, Asad Siddiqui, Mark W Crawford
BACKGROUND: Healthcare interventions on weekends have been associated with increased mortality and adverse clinical outcomes, but these findings are inconsistent. We hypothesized that patients admitted to hospital on weekends who have surgery have an increased risk of death compared with patients who are admitted and have surgery on weekdays. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This matched cohort study included 318,202 adult patients from Ontario health administrative and demographic databases, admitted to acute care hospitals from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015...
January 2019: PLoS Medicine
Lauren Lapointe-Shaw, Chaim M Bell
Chaim M. Bell and Lauren Lapointe-Shaw discuss the meaning of the "weekend effect" in outcomes for hospital admissions and surgeries, and comment on surprising new results published in PLOS Medicine this week.
January 2019: PLoS Medicine
Yaohua Tian, Hui Liu, Yaqin Si, Yaying Cao, Jing Song, Man Li, Yao Wu, Xiaowen Wang, Xiao Xiang, Juan Juan, Libo Chen, Chen Wei, Pei Gao, Yonghua Hu
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have provided compelling evidence of associations between ambient temperature and cardiovascular disease. However, evidence of effects of daily temperature variability on cardiovascular disease is scarce and mixed. We aimed to examine short-term associations between temperature variability and hospital admissions for cause-specific cardiovascular disease in urban China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a national time-series analysis in 184 cities in China between 2014 and 2017...
January 2019: PLoS Medicine
Ana Basto-Abreu, Ariela Braverman-Bronstein, Dalia Camacho-García-Formentí, Rodrigo Zepeda-Tello, Barry M Popkin, Juan Rivera-Dommarco, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002664.].
January 2019: PLoS Medicine
Zachary Wagner, John Bosco Asiimwe, William H Dow, David I Levine
BACKGROUND: Over half a million children die each year of diarrheal illness, although nearly all deaths could be prevented with oral rehydration salts (ORS). The literature on ORS documents both impressive health benefits and persistent underuse. At the same time, little is known about why ORS is underused and what can be done to increase use. We hypothesized that price and inconvenience are important barriers to ORS use and tested whether eliminating financial and access constraints increases ORS coverage...
January 2019: PLoS Medicine
Jakob Nikolas Kather, Johannes Krisam, Pornpimol Charoentong, Tom Luedde, Esther Herpel, Cleo-Aron Weis, Timo Gaiser, Alexander Marx, Nektarios A Valous, Dyke Ferber, Lina Jansen, Constantino Carlos Reyes-Aldasoro, Inka Zörnig, Dirk Jäger, Hermann Brenner, Jenny Chang-Claude, Michael Hoffmeister, Niels Halama
BACKGROUND: For virtually every patient with colorectal cancer (CRC), hematoxylin-eosin (HE)-stained tissue slides are available. These images contain quantitative information, which is not routinely used to objectively extract prognostic biomarkers. In the present study, we investigated whether deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can extract prognosticators directly from these widely available images. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We hand-delineated single-tissue regions in 86 CRC tissue slides, yielding more than 100,000 HE image patches, and used these to train a CNN by transfer learning, reaching a nine-class accuracy of >94% in an independent data set of 7,180 images from 25 CRC patients...
January 2019: PLoS Medicine
Tarub S Mabud, Maria de Lourdes Delgado Alves, Albert I Ko, Sanjay Basu, Katharine S Walter, Ted Cohen, Barun Mathema, Caroline Colijn, Everton Lemos, Julio Croda, Jason R Andrews
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that prisons serve as amplifiers of general tuberculosis (TB) epidemics, but there is a paucity of data on this phenomenon and the potential population-level effects of prison-focused interventions. This study (1) quantifies the TB risk for prisoners as they traverse incarceration and release, (2) mathematically models the impact of prison-based interventions on TB burden in the general population, and (3) generalizes this model to a wide range of epidemiological contexts...
January 2019: PLoS Medicine
Aubree Gordon, Lionel Gresh, Sergio Ojeda, Leah C Katzelnick, Nery Sanchez, Juan Carlos Mercado, Gerardo Chowell, Brenda Lopez, Douglas Elizondo, Josefina Coloma, Raquel Burger-Calderon, Guillermina Kuan, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in northeast Brazil in 2015 and spread rapidly across the Americas, in populations that have been largely exposed to dengue virus (DENV). The impact of prior DENV infection on ZIKV infection outcome remains unclear. To study this potential impact, we analyzed the large 2016 Zika epidemic in Managua, Nicaragua, in a pediatric cohort with well-characterized DENV infection histories. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Symptomatic ZIKV infections (Zika cases) were identified by real-time reverse transcription PCR and serology in a community-based cohort study that follows approximately 3,700 children aged 2-14 years old...
January 2019: PLoS Medicine
Jeb Jones, Patrick S Sullivan, James W Curran
Substantial progress has been made towards the goal of ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic due to advancements in both prevention and treatment of HIV. However, major challenges still remain. We describe basic principles of epidemic control in the context of HIV and identify a number of attainable goals in terms of control and elimination of HIV in specific populations and risk groups, given currently available HIV prevention and treatment methods. Currently available HIV prevention methods make it a feasible goal to eliminate HIV transmission attributable to mother-to-child transmission and blood transfusions...
January 2019: PLoS Medicine
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