Rory Sheehan, Hassan Mansour, Matthew Broadbent, Angela Hassiotis, Christoph Mueller, Robert Stewart, Andre Strydom, Andrew Sommerlad
BACKGROUND: Accurate recognition and recording of intellectual disability in those who are admitted to general hospitals is necessary for making reasonable adjustments, ensuring equitable access, and monitoring quality of care. In this study, we determined the rate of recording of intellectual disability in those with the condition who were admitted to hospital and factors associated with the condition being unrecorded. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Retrospective cohort study using 2 linked datasets of routinely collected clinical data in England...
March 20, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Saifu Yin, Fan Zhang, Jiapei Wu, Tao Lin, Xianding Wang
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines do not recommend routine antiviral prophylaxis to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in non-liver solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with resolved HBV infection, even in anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs)-negative recipients and those receiving intense immunosuppression. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of HBV reactivation in non-liver SOT recipients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were systematically searched up to December 31, 2022...
March 15, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Ines Lakbar, Marc Leone, Vanessa Pauly, Veronica Orleans, Kossi Josue Srougbo, Sambou Diao, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Marco Solmi, Christoph U Correll, Sara Fernandes, Jean-Louis Vincent, Laurent Boyer, Guillaume Fond
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) (i.e., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder) have been reported to have excess mortality rates from infection compared to patients without SMI, but whether SMI is associated with higher or lower case fatality rates (CFRs) among infected patients remains unclear. The primary objective was to compare the 90-day CFR in septic shock patients with and without SMI admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), after adjusting for social disadvantage and physical health comorbidity...
March 13, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Meng Han, Yinzhe Wang, Yanwen Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Jianjun Ou, Daixi Ren, Chengxi Cai, Kunxu Liu, Runan Li, Jin Han, Runsen Chen
BACKGROUND: LGBTQ+ community's higher susceptibility to worse mental health outcomes and more help-seeking barriers compared to the cis-heterosexual population. Despite the LGBTQ+ population facing higher mental health risks, there has been a dearth of research focusing on developing tailored interventions targeting them. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a digital multicomponent intervention in promoting help-seeking for mental health issues in LGBTQ+ young adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We recruited LGBTQ+ young adults aged between 18 and 29 who scored moderate or above on at least 1 dimension of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 and did not have help-seeking experiences in the past 12 months...
March 6, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Nathan Ford, Aaloke Mody, Laura Beres, Sheree Schwartz, Stefan Baral, Elvin H Geng
Ingrid Eshun-Wilson and colleagues summarize gaps in primary HIV implementation research methods and reporting, and propose areas for future methodological development.
March 6, 2023: PLoS Medicine
David Gyllenberg, Kalpana Bastola, Wan Mohd Azam Wan Mohd Yunus, Kaisa Mishina, Emmi Liukko, Antti Kääriälä, Andre Sourander
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) restrictions decreased the use of specialist psychiatric services for children and adolescents in spring 2020. However, little is known about the pattern once restrictions eased. We compared new psychiatric diagnoses by specialist services during pandemic and pre-pandemic periods. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This national register study focused on all Finnish residents aged 0 to 17 years from January 2017 to September 2021 (approximately 1 million a year)...
February 27, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Aita Signorell, Phyllis Awor, Jean Okitawutshu, Antoinette Tshefu, Elizabeth Omoluabi, Manuel W Hetzel, Proscovia Athieno, Joseph Kimera, Gloria Tumukunde, Irene Angiro, Jean-Claude Kalenga, Babatunde K Akano, Kazeem Ayodeji, Charles Okon, Ocheche Yusuf, Giulia Delvento, Tristan T Lee, Nina C Brunner, Mark J Lambiris, James Okuma, Nadja Cereghetti, Valentina Buj, Theodoor Visser, Harriet G Napier, Christian Lengeler, Christian Burri
BACKGROUND: For a full treatment course of severe malaria, community-administered pre-referral rectal artesunate (RAS) should be completed by post-referral treatment consisting of an injectable antimalarial and oral artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This study aimed to assess compliance with this treatment recommendation in children under 5 years. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This observational study accompanied the implementation of RAS in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Nigeria, and Uganda between 2018 and 2020...
February 21, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Lynn T Matthews, Esther C Atukunda, Moran Owembabazi, Kato Paul Kalyebera, Christina Psaros, Pooja Chitneni, Craig W Hendrix, Mark A Marzinke, Peter L Anderson, Oluwaseyi O Isehunwa, Kathleen E Hurwitz, Kara Bennett, Winnie Muyindike, David R Bangsberg, Jessica E Haberer, Jeanne M Marrazzo, Mwebesa Bosco Bwana
BACKGROUND: In Uganda, fertility rates and adult HIV prevalence are high, and many women conceive with partners living with HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduces HIV acquisition for women and, therefore, infants. We developed the Healthy Families-PrEP intervention to support PrEP use as part of HIV prevention during periconception and pregnancy periods. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study to evaluate oral PrEP use among women participating in the intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled HIV-negative women with plans for pregnancy with a partner living, or thought to be living, with HIV (2017 to 2020) to evaluate PrEP use among women participating in the Healthy Families-PrEP intervention...
February 16, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Camille Davisse-Paturet, Massimiliano Orri, Stéphane Legleye, Aline-Marie Florence, Jean-Baptiste Hazo, Josiane Warszawski, Bruno Falissard, Marie-Claude Geoffroy, Maria Melchior, Alexandra Rouquette
BACKGROUND: A higher risk of suicidal ideation associated with self-report of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-like symptoms or COVID-19 infection has been observed in cross-sectional studies, but evidence from longitudinal studies remains limited. The aims of this study were 2-fold: (1) to explore if self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms in 2020 were associated with suicidal ideation in 2021; (2) to explore if the association also existed when using a biological marker of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in 2020...
February 14, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Alemayehu Argaw, Brenda de Kok, Laeticia Celine Toe, Giles Hanley-Cook, Trenton Dailey-Chwalibóg, Moctar Ouédraogo, Anderson Compaoré, Katrien Vanslambrouck, Rasmané Ganaba, Patrick Kolsteren, Carl Lachat, Lieven Huybregts
BACKGROUND: Optimal nutrition is crucial during the critical period of the first 1,000 days from conception to 2 years after birth. Prenatal and postnatal supplementation of mothers with multimicronutrient-fortified balanced energy-protein (BEP) supplements is a potential nutritional intervention. However, evidence on the long-term effects of BEP supplementation on child growth is inconsistent. We evaluated the efficacy of daily fortified BEP supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on infant growth in rural Burkina Faso...
February 6, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Michaël Schwarzinger, Stéphane Luchini, Miriam Teschl, François Alla, Vincent Mallet, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses have shown that preexisting mental disorders may increase serious Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, especially mortality. However, most studies were conducted during the first months of the pandemic, were inconclusive for several categories of mental disorders, and not fully controlled for potential confounders. Our study objectives were to assess independent associations between various categories of mental disorders and COVID-19-related mortality in a nationwide sample of COVID-19 inpatients discharged over 18 months and the potential role of salvage therapy triage to explain these associations...
February 6, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Lance Turtle, Mathew Thorpe, Thomas M Drake, Maaike Swets, Carlo Palmieri, Clark D Russell, Antonia Ho, Stephen Aston, Daniel G Wootton, Alex Richter, Thushan I de Silva, Hayley E Hardwick, Gary Leeming, Andy Law, Peter J M Openshaw, Ewen M Harrison, J Kenneth Baillie, Malcolm G Semple, Annemarie B Docherty
BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised patients may be at higher risk of mortality if hospitalised with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared with immunocompetent patients. However, previous studies have been contradictory. We aimed to determine whether immunocompromised patients were at greater risk of in-hospital death and how this risk changed over the pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included patients > = 19 years with symptomatic community-acquired COVID-19 recruited to the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK prospective cohort study...
January 31, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Hongjiang Wu, Eric S H Lau, Aimin Yang, Xinge Zhang, Baoqi Fan, Ronald C W Ma, Alice P S Kong, Elaine Chow, Wing-Yee So, Juliana C N Chan, Andrea O Y Luk
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased in both young and old people. We examined age-specific associations and population attributable fractions (PAFs) of risk factors for all-cause and cause-specific mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed data from 360,202 Chinese with type 2 diabetes who participated in a territory-wide diabetes complication screening programme in Hong Kong between January 2000 and December 2019...
January 30, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Anna Dimitrova, Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Robin Richardson, Tarik Benmarhnia
BACKGROUND: Globally, access to life-saving vaccines has improved considerably in the past 5 decades. However, progress has started to slow down and even reverse in recent years. Understanding subnational heterogeneities in essential child immunization will be critical for closing the global vaccination gap. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use vaccination information for over 220,000 children across 1,366 administrative regions in 43 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys...
January 17, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Lily Yang, Marie-Claude Boily, Minttu M Rönn, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Imran Morhason-Bello, Nicolas Meda, Olga Lompo, Philippe Mayaud, Michael Pickles, Marc Brisson, Caroline Hodgins, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Mathieu Maheu-Giroux
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest cervical cancer (CC) burden globally-worsened by its HIV epidemics. In 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a CC elimination strategy with goals for vaccination, screening, and treatment. To benchmark progress, we examined temporal trends in screening coverage, percent screened at least twice by the age of 45, screening coverage among women living with HIV (WLHIV), and pre-cancer treatment coverage in SSA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic analysis of cross-sectional population-based surveys...
January 12, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Thiago Cerqueira-Silva, Syed Ahmar Shah, Chris Robertson, Mauro Sanchez, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Vinicius de Araujo Oliveira, Enny S Paixão, Igor Rudan, Juracy Bertoldo Junior, Gerson O Penna, Neil Pearce, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck, Mauricio L Barreto, Viviane Boaventura, Aziz Sheikh, Manoel Barral-Netto
BACKGROUND: Brazil and Scotland have used mRNA boosters in their respective populations since September 2021, with Omicron's emergence accelerating their booster program. Despite this, both countries have reported substantial recent increases in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. The duration of the protection conferred by the booster dose against symptomatic Omicron cases and severe outcomes is unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a test-negative design, we analyzed national databases to estimate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of a primary series (with ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2) plus an mRNA vaccine booster (with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) against symptomatic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes (hospitalization or death) during the period of Omicron dominance in Brazil and Scotland compared to unvaccinated individuals...
January 11, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Jiayue Wan, Casey L Cazer, Marin E Clarkberg, Shane G Henderson, Scarlett E Lee, Genevive R Meredith, Marwan Osman, David B Shmoys, Peter I Frazier
BACKGROUND: While booster vaccinations clearly reduce the risk of severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and death, the impact of boosters on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections has not been fully characterized: Doing so requires understanding their impact on asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic infections that often go unreported but nevertheless play an important role in spreading SARS-CoV-2. We sought to estimate the impact of COVID-19 booster doses on SARS-CoV-2 infections in a vaccinated population of young adults during an Omicron BA...
January 10, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Gifty Marley, Xia Zou, Juan Nie, Weibin Cheng, Yewei Xie, Huipeng Liao, Yehua Wang, Yusha Tao, Joseph D Tucker, Sean Sylvia, Roger Chou, Dan Wu, Jason Ong, Weiming Tang
BACKGROUND: To inform policy and implementation that can enhance prevention and improve tuberculosis (TB) care cascade outcomes, this review aimed to summarize the impact of various interventions on care cascade outcomes for active TB. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we retrieved English articles with comparator arms (like randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and before and after intervention studies) that evaluated TB interventions published from January 1970 to September 30, 2022, from Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane library...
January 3, 2023: PLoS Medicine
Sara Pedron, Michael Hanselmann, Jacob Burns, Alexander Rich, Annette Peters, Margit Heier, Lars Schwettmann, Jacob H Bor, Till Bärnighausen, Michael Laxy
BACKGROUND: Hypertension represents one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality globally. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital to prevent complications. However, hypertension often goes undetected, and even if detected, not every patient receives adequate treatment. Identifying simple and effective interventions is therefore crucial to fight this problem and allow more patients to receive the treatment they need. Therefore, we aim at investigating the impact of a population-based blood pressure (BP) screening and the subsequent "low-threshold" information treatment on long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality...
December 27, 2022: PLoS Medicine
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