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Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery

Shweta Gupta, Rajesh Kesarla, Abdelwahab Omri
HIV infections causing AIDS is one of the most life-threatening infections and is a leading cause of death. The CNS is reported to be the most important HIV reservoir site where the anti-retroviral drugs are not able to reach Areas covered: This article mainly includes the review about HIV infections and its pathogenesis, HIV infection in CNS and its consequences, current therapies, challenges associated with the existing therapies, approaches to overcome them, CNS delivery of drugs - barriers, transport routes and approaches for transporting drugs across the blood-brain barrier, nasal route of drug delivery and nose to brain targeting of anti-retroviral agents as a potential approach for complete cure of AIDS...
February 19, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Enhui Zhang, Ronge Xing, Song Liu, Pengcheng Li
Docetaxel (DTX) is one of the most important chemotherapeutic agents and has been widely used for treatment of various types of cancers. However, the clinical chemotherapy of DTX gives many undesirable side effects due to the usage of organic solvent in the injection and its low selectivity for tumor cells. With the evolution of pharmaceutical technologies, great efforts have been paid to develop new DTX formulations to overcome these problems. Areas covered: This review provided an overview on the preparation and activities of new DTX formulations, which were classified by administration methods, including injection, oral, transdermal and rectal administration...
February 16, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Won-Jun Lee, Mee-Ree Han, Ji-Seok Kim, Jung-Hwan Park
OBJECTIVES: A tearable dissolving microneedle system (TD-MN system) was developed for shortening the time required to administer drugs into the skin through the dissolving microneedles. METHODS: TD-MN system consisted of an array of tearable dissolving microneedles (TD-MN) and micro-pillars. The microneedle tips had a female part to integrate with the micro-pillars. The micro-pillars exerted a vertical force to cause the separation of the tips from the base. The separation force exerted by 6 TD-MN arrays with different thicknesses of separation region was measured...
February 16, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Rui Pedro Moura, Cláudia Martins, Soraia Pinto, Flávia Sousa, Bruno Sarmento
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a highly limiting barrier that prevents the brain from contacting with several circulating molecules, including harmful agents. However, certain systemic nutrients and macromolecules are able to cross the BBB and reach the brain parenchyma, involving the interaction with multiple receptors and/or transporters at BBB surface. Nanotechnology allows the creation of drug vehicles, functionalized with targeting ligands for binding specific BBB receptors and/or transporters, hence triggering the transport through this biobarrier...
February 15, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Min Mu, Xiaoling Li, Aiping Tong, Gang Guo
Chitosan as a natural polysaccharide have been widely applied in biomedicine due to their outstanding biodegradability, non-toxic, and low-price. As carriers, the multi-functional chitosan hydrogels can be prepared by physical and chemical modification to form smart hydrogels to release cargoes. The smart hydrogels can generate sol-gel phase transition while gaining stimulus from environment including pH, temperature, photo and so forth. In recent years, a variety of therapeutic approaches such as gene therapy, chemotherapy, and combined therapy can be achieved by combining chitosan-based hydrogels with therapeutic agents...
February 12, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Hai Zou, Jing Zhu, Dong-Sheng Huang
Chemotherapy plays an important role in antitumour therapy, but causes serious adverse reactions. So, drug delivery system (DDS) with cell-targeting ability is an important method to reduce adverse reactions while ensuring the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Synthetic drug carriers and DDSs based on cells have proven safety and efficacy, but they also have many deficiencies or limitations. Cell membrane capsules (CMCs), which are based on extracellular vesicles (EVs), are a promising biomimetic DDS that retains some cell membrane channels and cytoplasmic functions, with escape macrophage phagocytosis...
February 11, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Janine Faraj, Manish Bodas, Garrett Pehote, Doug Swanson, Ajit Sharma, Neeraj Vij
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenged with pathophysiological barriers for effective airway drug-delivery. Hence, we standardized the therapeutic efficacy of the novel dendrimer-based autophagy-inducing anti-oxidant drug, cysteamine. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Human primary-CF epithelial-cells, CFBE41o-cells were used to standardize the efficacy of the dendrimer-cystamine in correcting impaired-autophagy, rescuing ΔF508-CFTR and Pseudomonas-aeruginosa (Pa) infection...
February 7, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Lin-Yan Wan, Wen-Fang Yuan, Wen-Bing Ai, Yao-Wei Ai, Jiao-Jiao Wang, Liang-Yin Chu, Yan-Qiong Zhang, Jiang-Feng Wu
As "chemical antibodies", aptamers have some advantages, such as lack of immunogenicity, rapid tissue penetration, cell internalization and so on. Consequently, more and more aptamers have been screened out by the systematic evolution of ligands through exponential enrichment for the desired cells or membrane receptors. On the basis of the result, researchers use aptamers to guide drug targeting to the desired cells and internalization in vivo. Areas covered: In this review, we explore the mechanisms of cargo- or aptamer-mediated internalization, and then briefly summarize five strategies for exploring the mechanism of aptamer internalization...
January 28, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Zhe Li, Yongtai Zhang, Nianping Feng
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) feature a high surface area and large pore volume, uniform and tunable pore size, and stable framework; thus, they have been used extensively as drug carriers. Areas covered: The synthesis, classification, and the latest generation of MSNs, drug loading methods, modification of MSNs, pharmacokinetic studies, biocompatibility, and toxicity of MSNs, and their application in drug delivery systems (DDS) are covered in this review. Expert opinion: It is crucial to uncover the mechanism for the formation of MSNs...
January 28, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Gregory Reychler, Jean-Bernard Michotte
With the gain in popularity of non-invasive ventilation (NIV), particularly in patients requiring drug delivery by aerosol therapy, the feasibility of the combination between NIV and aerosol therapy has regularly been questioned. Areas covered: This review covers the in vitro and in vivo studies which explored the effects of this combination on pulmonary drug delivery (imaging and pharmacological studies) and on physiological measurements. Expert opinion: Even if the feasibility of the combination is evident, the type of nebulizer influences the lung deposition with a greater delivery with vibrating mesh nebulizers...
January 18, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Chris Franzese, Colby Thomas, Amy Rinaldi, Kevin Constable, Koji Nakamura, Adam Kalbermatten, Marty Coyne
BACKGROUND: In the acute care setting, parenteral medication errors are well-studied. However, there is comparatively little research on how these issues translate to patient- or caregiver-prepared medications in the home, particularly with reconstituted medications. METHODS: This was an ethnographic study designed to identify issues associated with four reconstitution use scenarios. Burden was determined by measuring the time and manipulations required to prepare reconstituted medications across three preparation phases (assembly, reconstitution, and transfer)...
January 13, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Joana A D Sequeira, Ana C Santos, João Serra, Catarina Estevens, Raquel Seiça, Francisco Veiga, António J Ribeiro
Biotherapeutics are primarily delivered subcutaneously due to better compliance and prolonged rate of absorption compared to other parenteral administration routes. Recent research has allowed for the development of biotherapeutic formulations for subcutaneous delivery that require a lower frequency of administration by increasing drug half-life. Formulations determine shelf-life stability as well as features and transient behaviors that influence stability once implanted in the subcutaneous space. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the factors affecting subcutaneous absorption with a focus on transient effects at the injection site following administration of biotherapeutics and the subsequent impact on absorption and stability...
January 11, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Dallan McMahon, Charissa Poon, Kullervo Hynynen
Treatment of several diseases of the brain are complicated by the presence of the skull and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubble (MB)-mediated BBB treatment is a minimally invasive method to transiently increase the permeability of blood vessels in targeted brain areas. It can be used as a general delivery system to increase the concentration of therapeutic agents in the brain parenchyma. Areas covered: Over the past two decades, the safety of using FUS+MBs to deliver agents across the BBB has been interrogated through various methods of imaging, histology, biochemical assays, and behaviour analyses...
January 10, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Mandeep Sharma, Gajanand Sharma, Bhupinder Singh, O P Katare
Actinic keratosis is one of the most common disorder characterized by erythematic and generally attached scaly lesions which are present either alone or in clusters. World Health Organization defines actinic keratosis as a common intraepidermal neoplasm of sun-damaged skin, characterized by variable atypia of keratinocytes. Area covered: At the beginning of the 20th century, a new immunomodulator molecule, imiquimod, appears in the market for the treatment of actinic keratosis but suffers from the pitfalls of the conventional approach of dosage form preparation including high dose, poor stability and more side effects...
December 24, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Manju Sharma, Taru Dube, Sonika Chibh, Avneet Kour, Jibanananda Mishra, Jiban Jyoti Panda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Anas Najjar, Rafik Karaman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Sahar Gooneh-Farahani, M Reza Naimi-Jamal, Seyed Morteza Naghib
Recently, the use of chitosan (CS) in the drug delivery has reached an acceptable maturity. Graphene-based drug delivery is also increasing rapidly due to its unique physical, mechanical, chemical and electrical properties. Therefore, the combination of CS and graphene can provide a promising carrier for the loading and controlled release of therapeutic agents. Area covered: In this review, we will outline the advantages of this new drug delivery system in association with CS and graphene alone and will list the various forms of these carriers, which have been studied in recent years as drug delivery systems...
December 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Thomas Vangijzegem, Dimitri Stanicki, Sophie Laurent
For many years, the controlled delivery of therapeutic compounds has been a matter of great interest in the field of nanomedicine. Among the wide amount of drug nanocarriers, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) stand out from the crowd and constitute robust nanoplatforms since they can achieve high drug loading as well as targeting abilities stemming from their remarkable properties (magnetic and biological properties). These applications require precise design of the nanoparticles regarding several parameters which must be considered together in order to attain highest therapeutic efficacy...
November 29, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Whitney Shatz, Jeffrey Aaronson, Stefan Yohe, Robert F Kelley, Yogeshvar N Kalia
Treating posterior eye diseases has become a major area of focus for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Current standard of care for treating posterior eye diseases relies on administration via intravitreal injection. Although effective, this is not without complications and there is great incentive to develop longer-acting therapeutics and/or sustained release delivery systems. Here, we present an overview of emerging technologies for delivery of biologics to the back of the eye. Areas covered: Posterior eye diseases, intravitreal injection, age-related macular degeneration, anti-VEGF, ocular pharmacokinetics, novel technologies to extend half-life, in vivo models, translation to the clinic, hurdles to effective patient care...
November 29, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Regina Scherließ
Nanoparticles are under discussion in drug delivery for more than 20 years now, but examples for nanoparticulate formulations in the treatment of respiratory diseases are rare and mostly limited to the administration of sub-micron drug particles (ultrafine particles). However, nanoparticles may also carry specific benefits for respiratory treatment. Are nanoparticles the next-generation drug carrier system to facilitate systemic delivery, sustained release and cancer treatment in the lungs? Areas covered: This review will look into the promises and opportunities of the use of nanoparticles in the treatment of respiratory diseases...
November 28, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
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