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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology

Fahad Al-Majid, Zahid Shakoor, Mazin Barry
Background and Objectives: Variations in immune reconstitution following antiretroviral treatment (ART) among HIV patients have previously been observed. This study aims at assessing immune reconstitution after successful ART among HIV-infected Saudi patients. Methods: This retrospective study of 240 HIV-infected patients was performed between May 2010 and June 2015 in the HIV center at King Saud Hospital, Riyadh. Data were extracted for CD4, CD8 cell, and CD3/HLA-DR counts along with the viral load from patient records before and after four years of successful ART...
2019: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Fen Pan, Wantong Zhao, Hong Zhang
Objective: This study was to investigate the microbiological characteristics and the relationship between the time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures and different bacterial species and to assess the clinical value of TTP in children with bloodstream infections (BSIs). Methods: The TTP of all the blood cultures from children with suspected BSIs was retrospectively collected in 2016. The microbiological characteristics and the relationship between the TTP of blood cultures and different bacterial species were also analyzed...
2019: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Saeed Banawas, Ahmed Abdel-Hadi, Mohammed Alaidarous, Bader Alshehri, Abdul Aziz Bin Dukhyil, Mohammed Alsaweed, Mohamed Aboamer
Cell phones may be an ideal habitat for colonization by bacterial pathogens, especially in hot climates, and may be a reservoir or vehicle in transmitting nosocomial infections. We investigated bacterial contamination on cell phones of healthcare workers in three hospitals in Saudi Arabia and determined antibacterial resistance of selected bacteria. A questionnaire was submitted to 285 healthcare workers in three hospitals, and information was collected on cell phone usage at the work area and in the toilet, cell phone cleaning and sharing, and awareness of cell phones being a source of infection...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Mengistu Abayneh, Getnet Tesfaw, Alemseged Abdissa
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli are the major extended-spectrum β -lactamase- (ESBL-) producing organisms increasingly isolated as causes of complicated urinary tract infections and remain an important cause of failure of therapy with cephalosporins and have serious infection control consequence. Objective: To assess the prevalence and antibiotics resistance patterns of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from community-onset urinary tract infections in Jimma University Specialized hospital, Southwest Ethiopia, 2016...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Qingbin Liu, Wei Jing, Wei Wang
We aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of Bifidobacterium lactis on food allergy by investigating the percentage of Treg and Th17 cells in Chinese children and related molecular mechanisms. A total of 256 children with food allergy were evenly assigned into two groups: BG, the children received 10 ml B. lactis (1 × 106 /ml) daily, and CG, the children received the solution without B. lactis daily for three months. Allergic symptoms, serum IgE, and food antigen-specific IgE were measured. A mouse allergy model was established by using shrimp tropomyosin and treated with B...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Kalash Neupane, Binod Rayamajhee, Jyoti Acharya, Nisha Rijal, Dipendra Shrestha, Binod G C, Mahesh Raj Pant, Pradeep Kumar Shah
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a cardinal source of community- and hospital-acquired infection. HIV infection is a well-recognized risk factor for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage and infection. Intrinsically developed antibiotic resistance has sharply increased the burden of MRSA which is often associated with morbidity and mortality of the patients. Moreover, nasal carriage of S. aureus plays a significant role in spread of community-associated (CA) S. aureus infections...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Lucie Bardet, Jean-Marc Rolain
The recent discovery of the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene conferring resistance to colistin is of clinical concern. The worldwide screening of this resistance mechanism among samples of different origins has highlighted the urgent need to improve the detection of colistin-resistant isolates in clinical microbiology laboratories. Currently, phenotypic methods used to detect colistin resistance are not necessarily suitable as the main characteristic of the mcr genes is the low level of resistance that they confer, close to the clinical breakpoint recommended jointly by the CLSI and EUCAST expert systems ( S  ≤   2   mg/L and R  >   2   mg/L)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Omar Ariel Espinosa, Silvana Margarida Benevides Ferreira, Fabiana Gulin Longhi Palacio, Denise da Costa Boamorte Cortela, Eliane Ignotti
IgM against Mycobacterium leprae may be detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) or natural disaccharide octyl bovine serum albumin (ND-O-BSA) as antigens, and the IgG response can be detected by an ELISA based on lipid droplet protein 1 (LID-1). The titers of antibodies against these antigens vary with operational classification. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of ELISAs involving PGL-I and ND-O-BSA with that involving LID-1. We included studies that analyze multibacillary and paucibacillary leprosy cases and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ELISAs based on LID-1 and/or PGL-I or ND-O-BSA as antigens to measure antibody titers against M...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Qingli Chang, Chongyang Wu, Chaoqing Lin, Peizhen Li, Kaibo Zhang, Lei Xu, Yabo Liu, Junwan Lu, Cong Cheng, Qiyu Bao, Yunliang Hu, Shunfei Lu, Jinsong Li
In order to study the relationship between the structure and function of AmpG, structure, site-specific mutation, and gene complementary experiments have been performed against the clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa . We found that there are 51 nucleotide variations at 34 loci over the ampG genes from 24 of 35 P. aeruginosa strains detected, of which 7 nucleotide variations resulted in amino acid change. The ampG variants with the changed nucleotides (amino acids) could complement the function of ampG deleted PA01 (PA01ΔG)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Thawatchai Kitti, Rathanin Seng, Natnaree Saiprom, Rapee Thummeepak, Narisara Chantratita, Chalermchai Boonlao, Sutthirat Sitthisak
Methicillin-resistant staphylococci are now recognized as a major cause of infectious diseases, particularly in hospitals. Molecular epidemiology is important for prevention and control of infection, but little information is available regarding staphylococcal infections in Northern Thailand. In the present study, we examined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, detection of antimicrobial resistance genes, and SCC mec types of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) isolated from patients in a hospital in Northern Thailand...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Samuel Asamoah Sakyi, Kwabena Owusu Danquah, Richard Dadzie Ephraim, Anthony Enimil, Venus Frimpong, Linda Ahenkorah Fondjo, Esther Love Darkoh
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of human mortality particularly in association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nocardia spp. has emerged as an opportunistic infection especially in HIV patients. The high prevalence of TB and HIV coupled with the lack of a definitive laboratory diagnosis for Nocardia spp. could lead to misdiagnosed pulmonary TB. This study determined the prevalence of pulmonary infections due to Nocardia spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum of HIV and non-HIV patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis at KATH...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Vivian Peirano, María Noel Bianco, Armando Navarro, Felipe Schelotto, Gustavo Varela
Introduction: Acute diarrheal disease still deserves worldwide attention due to its high morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. While etiologic determination is not mandatory for management of all individual cases, it is needed for generating useful epidemiologic knowledge. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are relevant enteropathogens, and their investigation requires specific procedures to which resources and training should be dedicated in reference laboratories...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Mirela C M Prates, Edwin Tamashiro, José L Proenca-Modena, Miriã F Criado, Tamara H Saturno, Anibal S Oliveira, Guilherme P Buzatto, Bruna L S Jesus, Marcos G Jacob, Lucas R Carenzi, Ricardo C Demarco, Eduardo T Massuda, Davi Aragon, Fabiana C P Valera, Eurico Arruda, Wilma T Anselmo-Lima
We sought to investigate the prevalence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in secretions and tonsillar tissues of children with chronic adenotonsillitis hypertrophy compared to controls. Prospective case-control study comparing patients between 2 and 12 years old who underwent adenotonsillectomy due to chronic adenotonsillar hypertrophy to children without disease. We compared detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Moraxella catarrhalis by real-time PCR in palatine tonsils, adenoids, and nasopharyngeal washes obtained from 37 children with and 14 without adenotonsillar hypertrophy...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Abeba Mengist, Yibeltal Aschale, Alemayehu Reta
Background: Food handlers with untrimmed finger nails could contribute or serve as a vehicle for the transmission of food poisoning pathogens. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers and antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolated bacteria in Debre Markos University, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: This laboratory-based cross-sectional study involved 220 food handlers working in food service establishments in Debre Markos University between 1st January 2015 to 31th June 2016...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Igor Dumic, Edson Severnini
Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne disease in North America. It is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to humans by blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis. The life cycle of the LD vector, I. scapularis , usually takes two to three years to complete and goes through three stages, all of which are dependent on environmental factors. Increases in daily average temperatures, a manifestation of climate change, might have contributed to an increase in tick abundance via higher rates of tick survival...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Markos Negash, Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Demeke Geremew
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is implicated for the causation of gastrointestinal tract infections including gastric cancer. Although the infection is prevalent globally, the impact is immense in countries with poor environmental and socioeconomic status including Ethiopia. Epidemiological study on the magnitude of H. pylori and possible risk factors has priceless implication. Therefore, in this study, we determined the prevalence and risk factors of H. pylori infection in the resource-limited area of northwest Ethiopia...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Marie-Claude Letellier, Rachid Amini, Vladimir Gilca, Gisele Trudeau, Chantal Sauvageau
Background: The main aim of this review was to assess incidence rates and trends of medically attended and death cases of herpes zoster in Canada. Methods: The search was conducted in five databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, PsycNET, and Web of Science). Data on herpes zoster-related consultations and hospitalisations and deaths were also extracted from three Quebec provincial administrative databases (RAMQ, MED-ECHO, and ISQ). Results: The electronic search yielded 587 publications...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Yun Cui, Yijun Shan, Rongxin Chen, Chunxia Wang, Yucai Zhang
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the serum total bilirubin (TBIL) level in pediatric patients with sepsis-associated liver injury (SALI). Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients with SALI admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in Shanghai Children's Hospital between December 2012 and December 2015. Serum TBIL concentration was determined within 72 h after PICU admission. Results: Seventy-two patients with SALI were included in this study...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Mahdiye Bayat, Alireza Khabiri, Behzad Hemati
Background: The conventional methods for diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae are time consuming, complicated, and expensive. Development of rapid detection tests is critical for prevention and management of cholera. This study aimed to introduce two sensitive sandwich ELISAs based on avian antibodies (IgY) targeting outer membrane protein W (OmpW) and cytotoxin B (CtxB) antigens of V. cholerae . Methods: The sequences of ompW and ctxB genes were cloned into pET28a vector...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Cláudia M Melo, Ana Carla F G Cruz, Antônio Fernando V A Lima, Luan R Silva, Rubens R Madi, Veronica de Lourdes S Jeraldo, Ruben Mercado
Updated information of the dispersion dynamics of Chagas disease (CD) and a systemic analysis of these data will aid the early identification of areas that are vulnerable to transmission and enable efficient intervention. This work synthesized spatiotemporal information regarding triatomine fauna and analyzed this information in combination with the results from serological tests to elucidate the epidemiological panorama of CD in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. This is a retrospective analytical study that utilized information from the database of the National Chagas Disease Control Program...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
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