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Body Image

Jennifer Todd, Jane E Aspell, David Barron, Viren Swami
Previous research has identified a relationship between interoception and body image, where lower interoceptive awareness (IA) is associated with negative body image. However, relationships between facets of interoception and positive body image remain unexplored, and men and older adults remain underrepresented. To overcome these limitations, we assessed relationships between multiple dimensions of interoceptive awareness (IA) and multiple facets of body image in community adults. An online sample of 646 British adults (447 women) aged 18-76 years completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), the Body Appreciation Scale-2, the Functionality Appreciation Scale, the Authentic Pride subscale from the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale, and the Appearance Orientation and Overweight Preoccupation subscales from the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire...
February 13, 2019: Body Image
Pedro Henrique Berbert de Carvalho, Fernanda da Costa Oliveira, Clara Mockdece Neves, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras Meireles, Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
There is a lack of psychometric studies on scales aiming to evaluate the drive for muscularity in women. This study aimed to test whether the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) yielded reliable and valid scores for assessing the drive for muscularity construct in young adult women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 242 Brazilian adult women. Exploratory factor analysis, convergent validity, estimated internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the DMS's scores were examined. The results of the exploratory factor analysis upheld the original unidimensional structure of the DMS for Brazilian women...
February 11, 2019: Body Image
Svenja Hoffmann, Petra Warschburger
Common models propose that the internalization of societal beauty ideals influences disordered eating behaviors and muscularity-oriented behaviors via body image concerns. However, previous studies addressing these pathways have been mainly cross-sectional and primarily included female samples. We investigated these pathways prospectively in male and female adolescents and young adults, examining two pathways: a 'weight/shape pathway,' linking thin-ideal internalization, weight/shape concern, and restrained eating, and a 'muscularity pathway,' linking athletic-ideal internalization, muscularity concern, and muscularity-oriented behavior...
February 4, 2019: Body Image
Dana K Voelker, Trent A Petrie, Qiushi Huang, Avinash Chandran
Female athletes are at risk for eating disorders due to the experience and internalization of pressures regarding various aspects of their bodies, including weight and appearance. Evaluating programs that address psychosocial antecedents and may reduce female athletes' risk is critical. We examined Bodies in Motion, a program based on cognitive dissonance and mindful self-compassion principles that integrates components of social media. Female athletes across nine NCAA athletic departments were assigned to Bodies in Motion (n = 57) or a wait-list control group (n = 40)...
February 1, 2019: Body Image
Rachel F Rodgers, Jenna Campagna, Raihaan Attawala
Dr. Thomas Cash conducted seminal work on the beliefs and stereotypes related to attractiveness as well as their impact, and their transmission through cultural and interpersonal processes. This initial work has inspired and given rise to an important body of research significantly increasing our understanding of these processes. Here we review the initial contributions and research directions set up by Dr. Cash, as well as the main findings of the research that has built on his foundations. Specifically, we review findings related to the existence of attractiveness stereotypes and appearance ideals, research examining the social and interpersonal impacts of such stereotypes, and finally the sociocultural transmission of these beliefs...
January 31, 2019: Body Image
David B Sarwer
Over the past 60 years, a growing body of research has investigated the psychological aspects of cosmetic surgery and related minimally-invasive treatments. While the earliest studies were influenced by psychoanalytic thinking, much of the work over the past several decades has been influenced by Thomas Cash's cognitive-behavioral theory of body image and has focused on the appearance concerns of patients who seek these procedures. The majority of individuals interested in the procedures report heightened dissatisfaction typically focused on the feature being considered for treatment...
January 28, 2019: Body Image
Yash Bhambhani, Maureen K Flynn, Karen Kate Kellum, Kelly G Wilson
Body image research with men who have sex with men (MSM) has largely focused on White MSM. The current study aimed to investigate whether men of color who have sex with men (MCSM) report similar levels of body dissatisfaction as White MSM. We also studied whether (a) the experience of sexual racism, a unique stressor for MCSM, is related to body dissatisfaction and (b) body image inflexibility moderates the relationship between sexual racism and muscularity-oriented behaviors. White MSM and MCSM (total N = 887) recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk completed questionnaires assessing body dissatisfaction, body image flexibility, and experienced sexual racism on Qualtrics...
January 22, 2019: Body Image
Sarah K Murnen, Linda Smolak
Cash and Deagle (1997) examined the associations between body image disturbance (BID) and the eating disorders (EDs) of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in a meta-analytic review. They found almost twice as many studies employing perceptual measures of body size evaluation compared to cognitive-evaluative measures of body dissatisfaction, even though effect sizes were larger for studies with cognitive-evaluative measurement. We examined 109 "influential" (i.e., well-cited) studies that cited the Cash and Deagle meta-analysis...
January 18, 2019: Body Image
Marika Tiggemann, Kristy Hage
Positive body image is a multidimensional construct referring to love, respect, and acceptance of one's body, including aspects inconsistent with sociocultural ideals. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential pathways leading from religion and spirituality to positive body image. Participants were 345 women who completed questionnaire measures of engagement with formal religion, spirituality, gratitude, self-objectification, and positive body image. Both engagement with formal religion and spirituality were found to be positively associated with positive body image...
January 18, 2019: Body Image
Jasmine Fardouly, Ronald M Rapee
Viewing idealized images of attractive women on social media can negatively impact women's body image and mood. Although women tend to post idealized images on social media, some also post natural no-makeup images. This study examined the impact of viewing both made up and no-makeup selfies on young women's body image and mood. Female undergraduate students (N = 175) viewed either images of a woman wearing no makeup interspersed among idealized made up images of that woman (no-makeup condition), only idealized made up images of a woman (makeup only condition), or appearance-neutral travel images (control condition)...
January 18, 2019: Body Image
Emma Halliwell, Kayleigh Dawson, Samantha Burkey
Recent literature argues that body image interventions need to become more embodied. This paper evaluates a brief yoga-based body image intervention which incorporates themes specifically tailored to focus on positive body image. Young women (Mage  = 20.21, SDage  = 2.15) were randomly allocated to a four-session yoga intervention (n = 22) or a control condition (n = 22). Compared to controls, participants in the yoga condition reported significant increases in body appreciation, body connectedness, body satisfaction, and positive mood at posttest and at 4-week follow-up...
January 16, 2019: Body Image
Jaclyn A Siegel, Rachel M Calogero
This study investigated the association between the endorsement of feminine gender role norms and self-objectifying beliefs and behaviors in self-identified feminist and non-feminist women. One hundred and ninety-seven predominantly White heterosexual cisgender women attending a large university in southwestern Canada completed the study questionnaires for course credit. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated no differences in self-objectification between self-identified feminist and non-feminist women. Compared to non-feminist women, however, feminist women were less likely to endorse feminine norms for sexual fidelity, romantic relationships, and domesticity...
January 16, 2019: Body Image
Kimberly R More, L Alison Phillips, Miriam H Eisenberg Colman
Body dissatisfaction is linked to poor physical health, even after actual markers of health have been controlled for. This link is likely due to body dissatisfaction influencing health behaviors-more specifically, cardiovascular exercise. Modifiable reasons for this link have yet to be determined. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate whether active avoidance of exercise may explain the association of body dissatisfaction with exercise, and, if so, whether perceived barriers to exercise account for the association of body dissatisfaction and exercise avoidance...
January 14, 2019: Body Image
Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Julie Chhouk, Lorie-Ann McCann, Geovanny Urbina, Hao Vuo, Isabel Krug, Lina Ricciardelli, Jake Linardon, Jaclyn Broadbent, Kristin Heron, Ben Richardson
Although appearance comparisons, self-monitoring, and appearance-related comments have been linked to body dissatisfaction in prior studies, the combined and unique influences of these variables on state body dissatisfaction in daily life has yet to be explored. The present study addressed this gap, and also evaluated whether these state-based effects were stronger for individuals with trait-level body image disturbances (internalization and body dissatisfaction). Eighty-four women completed baseline measures of trait internalization and body dissatisfaction, and then reported momentary experiences of body dissatisfaction, appearance self-monitoring, appearance-related comments, and appearance-based comparisons at up to 10 random times daily for seven days...
January 9, 2019: Body Image
Zachary A Soulliard, Alicia A Kauffman, Hannah F Fitterman-Harris, Joanne E Perry, Michael J Ross
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine differences in positive body image, specifically body appreciation and functionality appreciation, between student athletes and non-athletes. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between positive body image and other sport-related variables. Seventy-nine National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I student athletes (Mage  = 19.79, SD = 1.13) and 175 non-athletes (Mage  = 19.38, SD = 1.81) completed measures of body appreciation and functionality appreciation...
January 7, 2019: Body Image
Viren Swami, Jennifer Todd, Nor Azzatunnisak Mohd Khatib, Evelyn Kheng Lin Toh, Hanoor Syahirah Zahari, David Barron
The 34-item Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales (MBSRQ-AS) is a widely-used measure of multidimensional body image. Here, we examined the psychometric properties of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the MBSRQ-AS. A sample of 629 Malaysian Malays (women n = 315) completed the MBSRQ-AS, as well as measures of body appreciation, psychological well-being, perceptions of appearance ideals, and internalisation of appearance ideals. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the MBSRQ-AS items reduced to four dimensions, although one factor had less-than-adequate internal consistency...
December 29, 2018: Body Image
Mark S Allen, Kirsty McRae, Emma E Walter
The attractive-leniency effect predicts that more attractive people are perceived as less guilty and less deserving of punishment compared to less attractive people. This closely aligned conceptual replication study sought to explore athlete physical attractiveness, sex, and anti-doping rule violation severity (ADRV) as factors contributing to attributions of guilt and punishment. After initial pilot testing, 411 participants (135 men, 276 women; Mage  = 20.30, SD = 4.69 years) were shown one of eight vignette-photograph pairings that differed in sex (male/female), ADRV severity (serious/minor), and physical attractiveness (high/low)...
December 26, 2018: Body Image
Viren Swami, Nor Azzatunnisak Mohd Khatib, Evelyn Toh, Hanoor Syahirah Zahari, Jennifer Todd, David Barron
The 10-item Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) is a widely-used measure of a facet of positive body image. Here, we examined the psychometric properties of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the BAS-2 in a community sample of Malaysian Malay and Chinese adults (N = 781). Participants completed the Malay BAS-2 alongside demographic items and measures of subjective happiness, life satisfaction, actual-ideal weight discrepancy (women only), drive for muscularity (men only), and internalisation of appearance ideals...
December 23, 2018: Body Image
Meghan M Gillen, Charlotte H Markey
The link between body image and sexual well-being is intuitive and increasingly supported by psychological research: individuals, particularly women, with greater body satisfaction and body appreciation tend to report more positive sexual experiences. Although both perceptions of one's body and one's sexual life are central to most adults' experiences, this area of research has remained somewhat understudied. In this review, we discuss the findings that are available and suggest directions for future research and applied implications of this work...
December 21, 2018: Body Image
Kristina Holmqvist Gattario, Ann Frisén
This study examined the developmental journeys of individuals who have overcome negative body image in early adolescence and developed positive body image on their way to emerging adulthood. Interviews were conducted with 15 women and 16 men (aged 26-27) recruited from a large longitudinal sample. Results demonstrated different patterns of positive body image development, but most participants had overcome their negative body image by age 18. Factors contributing to their negative body image in early adolescence included negative peer influence and discontent with life in general...
December 21, 2018: Body Image
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