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Abouddihaj Barguigua, Hamid Rguibi Idrissi, Kaoutar Nayme, Mohammed Timinouni
Of 28 non-duplicate isolates of Escherichia coli recovered from yellow-legged Larus michahellis in Morocco, 92.86% were resistant to more than three antibiotics and 71.4% were multidrug resistant. Phylogenetic group A was most predominant (57.14%), followed by B1 (18%), B2 (14.28%) and F (10.71%). One isolate was resistant to ertapenem and contained the blaOXA-48 gene. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants were detected in nine isolates (aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrS1, qnrB1). Thirteen isolates carried one of the Shiga toxin E...
March 20, 2019: EcoHealth
Mark Olival-Bartley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2019: EcoHealth
Tiffany M Wolf, Randall S Singer, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Richard Maclehose, Thomas R Gillespie, Iddi Lipende, Jane Raphael, Karen Terio, Carson Murray, Anne Pusey, Beatrice H Hahn, Shadrack Kamenya, Deus Mjungu, Dominic A Travis
Disease surveillance in wildlife is rapidly expanding in scope and methodology, emphasizing the need for formal evaluations of system performance. We examined a syndromic surveillance system for respiratory disease detection in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, from 2004 to 2012, with respect to data quality, disease trends, and respiratory disease detection. Data quality was assessed by examining community coverage, completeness, and consistency. The data were examined for baseline trends; signs of respiratory disease occurred at a mean frequency of less than 1 case per week, with most weeks containing zero observations of abnormalities...
March 5, 2019: EcoHealth
Daniel L Robertson, Leah M Babin, Jenna R Krall, Michael E von Fricken, Heibatollah Baghi, Kathryn H Jacobsen
Years when the deer population is robust during the autumn hunting season may point toward an elevated risk of Lyme disease (LD) in the human population two summers later. We applied overdispersed Poisson regression models to county-specific data from New Jersey for each year from 2000 to 2014. The average relative risk of LD for each additional hunter-killed deer per square mile was 1.12 (1.10, 1.14) for 2000-2007 and 1.11 (1.09, 1.13) for 2008-2014. The hunting data already collected for conservation and wildlife management purposes may be a relevant component of LD surveillance activities...
March 1, 2019: EcoHealth
Rebecca Katz, Ellie Graeden, Justin Kerr, Stephanie Eaneff
Countries, philanthropies, and private sector organizations have been actively investing in global health security around the world. However, despite the coordinated approach to funding within the Global Health Security Agenda, there is currently no well-established method to track the commitment and disbursal of funds for global health security from funders to recipients or to identify the activities supported by existing funding initiatives. To address this need, we developed the Global Health Security Tracking Dashboard...
February 28, 2019: EcoHealth
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2019: EcoHealth
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2019: EcoHealth
Jonathan M Sleeman, David S Blehert, Katherine L D Richgels, C LeAnn White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: EcoHealth
Silvana R Favoretto, Danielle B Araujo, Naylê F H Duarte, Danielle B L Oliveira, Nathalia G da Crus, Flavio Mesquita, Fabyano Leal, Rafael R G Machado, Fernanda Gaio, Walber F Oliveira, Paolo M A Zanotto, Edison L Durigon
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne viral disease associated with fetal microcephaly and other central nervous system (CNS) symptomatology. It was first identified in a Rhesus macaque in Uganda in 1947 and later in humans (Zika fever). In 2015, ZIKV was notified in Northeast Brazil where it was associated with CNS alterations and with rapid epidemic spread. Considering that ZIKV infects Old World monkeys, the aim of this study was to follow its potential in neotropical primates. Here, we show the detection of ZIKV in marmosets and capuchin monkeys captured in Ceara state, Northeast Brazil...
January 28, 2019: EcoHealth
Gael Davidson, Tock H Chua, Angus Cook, Peter Speldewinde, Philip Weinstein
Defining the linkages between landscape change, disease ecology and human health is essential to explain and predict the emergence of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria, a zoonotic parasite residing in Southeast Asian macaques, and transmitted by species of Anopheles mosquitos. Changing patterns of land use throughout Southeast Asia, particularly deforestation, are suggested to be the primary drivers behind the recent spread of this zoonotic parasite in humans. Local ecological changes at the landscape scale appear to be increasing the risk of disease in humans by altering the dynamics of transmission between the parasite and its primary hosts...
January 23, 2019: EcoHealth
Benoit Talbot, Merlin Caron-Lévesque, Mark Ardis, Roman Kryuchkov, Manisha A Kulkarni
West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae) causes a disease in humans that may develop into a deadly neuroinvasive disease. In North America, several peridomestic bird species can develop sufficient viremia to infect blood-feeding mosquito vectors without succumbing to the virus. Mosquito species from the genus Culex, Aedes and Ochlerotatus display variable host preferences, ranging between birds and mammals, including humans, and may bridge transmission among avian hosts and contribute to spill-over transmission to humans...
January 23, 2019: EcoHealth
Katarzyna Justyna Filip, Anna Maria Pyziel, Witold Jeżewski, Anna Weronika Myczka, Aleksander Wiaczesław Demiaszkiewicz, Zdzisław Laskowski
The article examines the presence of metacestodes on the liver capsule in two wild boars and on the liver capsule and mediastinum in moose. Cysticerci were identified as Taenia hydatigena metacestodes by morphological features-size and shape of rostellar hooks and molecular analysis of the partial sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Molecular analysis revealed similarities between the metacestodes isolated from the wild mammals in the present study to T. hydatigena in European wolves. It is possible that infection of moose and wild boar with T...
January 23, 2019: EcoHealth
Vikas Menghwani, Hisham Zerriffi, Puneet Dwivedi, Julian D Marshall, Andrew Grieshop, Rob Bailis
Roughly 2.8 billion people depend on solid fuels for cooking needs, resulting in a tremendous burden of disease from exposure to household air pollution. Despite decades of effort to promote cleaner cooking technologies, displacement of polluting technologies has progressed slowly. This paper describes results of a randomized controlled trial in which eight communities in two regions of rural India were presented with a range of cooking choices including improved solid fuel stoves and clean cooking options like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and induction stoves...
January 22, 2019: EcoHealth
Gregory A Ballash, Mark C Jenkins, O C H Kwok, J P Dubey, Abigail B Shoben, Terry L Robison, Tom Kraft, Erik E Shaffer, Patricia M Dennis
The protozoan Neospora caninum is transmitted between domestic and wildlife species. Urbanized environments and deer density may facilitate this transmission and play a critical role in the spillover of N. caninum from domestic animals to wildlife. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) are an important intermediate host for maintaining the sylvatic cycle of N. caninum in the USA. Here, we assayed serum samples from 444 WTD from a nature reservation across a suburban to urban gradient in Ohio, USA...
January 9, 2019: EcoHealth
Pamela Jagger, Ipsita Das, Sudhanshu Handa, Leena A Nylander-French, Karin B Yeatts
Cooking with solid fuels and inefficient cookstoves has adverse consequences for health, environment, and human well-being. Despite the promise of improved cookstoves to reduce these impacts, adoption rates are relatively low. Using a 2-wave sample of 144 households from the baseline and first midline of an ongoing 4-year randomized controlled trial in Rwanda, we analyze the drivers and associations of early adoption of a household energy intervention marketed by a private sector firm. Households sign an annual contract to purchase sustainably produced biomass pellets and lease a fan micro-gasification cookstove with verified emissions reductions in laboratory settings...
January 7, 2019: EcoHealth
Thomas Hiller, Andrea Rasche, Stefan Dominik Brändel, Alexander König, Lara Jeworowski, M Teague O'Mara, Veronika Cottontail, Rachel A Page, Dieter Glebe, Jan Felix Drexler, Marco Tschapka
The tent-making bat hepatitis B virus (TBHBV) is a hepadnavirus closely related to human hepatitis B virus. The ecology of TBHBV is unclear. We show that it is widespread and highly diversified in Peters' tent-making bats (Uroderma bilobatum) within Panama, while local prevalence varied significantly between sample sites, ranging from 0 to 14.3%. Females showed significantly higher prevalence than males, and pregnant females were more often acutely infected than non-reproductive ones. The distribution of TBHBV in bats was significantly affected by forest cover, with higher infection rates in areas with lower forest cover...
December 18, 2018: EcoHealth
Marco A B de Almeida, Edmilson Dos Santos, Jáder da C Cardoso, Lucas G da Silva, Rafael M Rabelo, Júlio César Bicca-Marques
Mapping yellow fever (YF) risk is often based on place of infection of human cases, whereas the circulation between nonhuman primates (NHP) and vectors is neglected. In 2008/2009, YF devastated NHP at the southern limit of the disease in the Americas. In view of the recent expansion of YF in Brazil, we modeled the environmental suitability for YF with data from 2008/2009 epizootic, the distribution of NHP (Alouatta spp.), and the mosquito (Haemagogus leucocelaenus) using the maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent) to define risk areas for YF and their main environmental predictors...
December 17, 2018: EcoHealth
Cécile Aenishaenslin, Patricia Brunet, Francis Lévesque, Géraldine G Gouin, Audrey Simon, Johanne Saint-Charles, Patrick Leighton, Suzanne Bastian, André Ravel
Dogs have been an integral part of the Inuit social and cultural environment for generations, but their presence also generates public health risks such as bites and exposure to zoonotic diseases such as rabies. In Nunavik, Canada, some prevention and control interventions targeting dogs have been implemented but have not demonstrated their effectiveness in a long-term sustainable perspective. This study was conducted in one Inuit community of Nunavik and used mixed methods to get a better understanding of factors that affect human and dog health, dog-related risks for humans and perceptions of dogs in Inuit communities using an interdisciplinary perspective in line with the Ecohealth approach...
December 14, 2018: EcoHealth
Marc Völker, Pojjana Hunchangsith
Physicians are in a unique position to be first-hand observers of the effects of environmental factors on population health. As a source of information which is highly trusted, they are also well-suited to raise awareness about the linkages between ecosystem and population health. Yet, current clinical practice in many parts of the world rarely includes environmental health assessments and patient education. The empirical evidence on the reasons for this lack of engagement is limited by the small number of studies published, its narrow geographical scope and the dearth of multivariate statistical analysis...
December 2018: EcoHealth
Lisa M Thompson, Mayari Hengstermann, John R Weinstein, Anaite Diaz-Artiga
Household air pollution is the sixth leading risk factor for premature mortality in Guatemala. Households in Guatemala are gradually adopting liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves, but a strong tradition of woodstove use persists. We conducted a mixed-methods study of LPG stove use in peri-urban Guatemala. We used knowledge, attitudes and practices surveys with 187 LPG stove owners who also used woodstoves to identify perceptions of stove and cooking practices. Barriers to sustained use of LPG stoves were evaluated through focus groups, participant observations with stove users, and key informant interviews with community leaders...
December 2018: EcoHealth
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