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Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30889967/-pretty-lady-first-effects-of-mate-related-motives-on-the-item-selection-orders-of-faces-with-varying-attractiveness
#1
Yuchi Zhang, Xinyu Li, Ping Li, Xiaoyu Jia, Weijian Li
Evolutionary theories suggest that fundamental mating-related motives might exert specific effects on human cognition and behaviors. Based on the evolutionary perspective, our prior research illustrated that the activation of mating-related motives leads to a study-time allocation bias toward highly attractive female faces. While study-time allocation is one of the aspects of the self-regulated learning process, it is unclear whether mating motives affect study decision behaviors (as measured by item-selection orders) during the learning process...
January 2019: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30871379/what-makes-her-a-material-girl-the-influence-of-childhood-economic-background-and-sex-ratio-on-female-preference-for-male-resource-availability
#2
Yan Wang, Yang Qu, Bowen Hou, Qian Tian
Drawing on life history theory, this research explores the moderating role of childhood economic background in the relationship between sex ratio and the female's mate preference for male resource availability. Using different priming materials, three experiments consistently found that women with a rich childhood economic background showed a stable level of mate preference for good resource-this applied regardless of male- or female-biased sex ratio. But females with a poor childhood economic background showed a higher level of preference for male resource availability under the condition of female-biased sex ratio (vs...
January 2019: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30816069/self-perceived-mate-value-is-poorly-predicted-by-demographic-variables
#3
Zsófia Csajbók, Jan Havlíček, Zsolt Demetrovics, Mihály Berkics
Mate value is a construct that can be measured in various ways, ranging from complex but difficult-to-obtain ratings all the way to single-item self-report measures. Due to low sample sizes in previous studies, little is known about the relationship between mate value and demographic variables. In this article, we tested the Mate Value Scale, a relatively new, short, 4-item self-report measure in two large samples. In the first sample of over 1,000, mostly college-age participants, the scale was found to be reliable and correlated with criterion variables in expected ways...
January 2019: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30808183/expecting-and-competing-jealous-responses-among-pregnant-and-nonpregnant-women
#4
Karlijn Massar, Abraham P Buunk
In the current study, we reasoned that when pregnant, women should be especially motivated to protect their reproductive investments as well as their pair bond and be vigilant about intrasexual competitors. To investigate this, pregnant women ( n = 66) and nonpregnant women ( n = 59; age M = 27.41, SD = 3.36) in committed relationships read a jealousy-evoking scenario that was accompanied by a picture of either an attractive or an unattractive woman, after which they indicated their jealousy about such a situation...
January 2019: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30791701/romance-2-0-on-instagram-what-type-of-girlfriend-would-you-date
#5
S Venus Jin, Ehri Ryu, Aziz Muqaddam
Instagram selfies and groupies symbolize social media users' public display of narcissism. From an evolutionary psychological perspective on the renovated hierarchy of fundamental human motives and needs, this study examined the interaction effects of Instagram photo types (selfies, group selfies, long-shot photos taken by others, and neutral photos) and Instagram peer viewers' individual difference factors (intrasexual competition [ISC] for mates, need for popularity [NfP], loneliness, and need to belong [NtB]) on intersexual attraction...
January 2019: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739486/generalized-or-origin-specific-out-group-prejudice-the-role-of-temporary-and-chronic-pathogen-avoidance-motivation-in-intergroup-relations
#6
Tingting Ji, Joshua M Tybur, Mark van Vugt
Researchers have proposed that intergroup prejudice is partially caused by behavioral immune system mechanisms. Across four studies (total N = 1,849), we used both experimental (pathogen priming) and individual differences (pathogen disgust sensitivity [PDS]) approaches to test whether the behavioral immune system influences prejudice toward immigrants indiscriminately (the generalized out-group prejudice hypothesis) or specifically toward immigrants from a pathogen-rich ecology (the origin-specific out-group prejudice hypothesis)...
January 2019: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30558444/the-boundaries-of-trust-cross-religious-and-cross-ethnic-field-experiments-in-mauritius
#7
John H Shaver, Martin Lang, Jan Krátký, Eva Kundtová Klocová, Radek Kundt, Dimitris Xygalatas
Several prominent evolutionary theories contend that religion was critical to the emergence of large-scale societies and encourages cooperation in contemporary complex groups. These theories argue that religious systems provide a reliable mechanism for finding trustworthy anonymous individuals under conditions of risk. In support, studies find that people displaying cues of religious identity are more likely to be trusted by anonymous coreligionists. However, recent research has found that displays of religious commitment can increase trust across religious divides...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30497296/face-value-and-cheap-talk-how-smiles-can-increase-or-decrease-the-credibility-of-our-words
#8
Lawrence Ian Reed, Rachel Stratton, Jessica D Rambeas
How do our facial expressions affect the credibility of our words? We test whether smiles, either uninhibited or inhibited, affect the credibility of a written statement. Participants viewed a confederate partner displaying a neutral expression, non-Duchenne smile, Duchenne smile, or controlled smile, paired with a written statement. Participants then made a behavioral decision based on how credible they perceived the confederate's statement to be. Compared to a neutral expression, Experiment 1 found that participants were more likely to believe the confederate's statement when it was paired with a deliberate Duchenne smile and less likely to believe the confederate's statement when it was paired with a deliberate controlled smile...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30486673/sensitivity-to-deviance-and-to-dissimilarity-basic-cognitive-processes-under-activation-of-the-behavioral-immune-system
#9
Ravit Nussinson, Sari Mentser, Nurit Rosenberg
Throughout evolutionary history, pathogens have imposed strong selection pressures on humans. To minimize humans' exposure to pathogens, a behavioral immune system that promotes the detection and avoidance of disease-connoting cues has evolved. Although most pathogens cannot be discerned by our sensory organs, they produce discernable changes in their environment. As a result, a common denominator of many disease-connoting cues is morphological deviance-figurative disparity from what is normal, visual dissimilarity to the prototype stored in memory...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30463438/mating-effort-predicts-human-menstrual-cycle-frequency
#10
Jeffrey Gassen, Hannah K Bradshaw, Sarah E Hill
The human menstrual cycle is characterized by substantial variability both within and between women. Here, we sought to account for such variability by examining whether human menstrual cycle frequency varies as a function of the projected fitness payoffs associated with investment in mating effort. We used structural equation modeling to test the prediction that women whose environmental conditions or life histories favor heavier investment in mating effort would have shorter, more regular cycles. Results supported our hypothesis, revealing that women who project more mating success and have faster life history strategies exhibit greater mating effort and shorter, more regular menstrual cycles...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30463433/sex-and-physiological-cycles-affect-the-automatic-perception-of-attractive-opposite-sex-faces-a-visual-mismatch-negativity-study
#11
Shu Zhang, Hailing Wang, Qingke Guo
Facial attractiveness plays important roles in social interaction. Electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies found several brain areas to be differentially responsive to attractive relative to unattractive faces. However, little is known about the time course of the information processing, especially under the unattended condition. Based on a "cross-modal delayed response" paradigm, the present study aimed to explore the automatic mechanism of facial attractiveness processing of females with different physiological cycles and males, respectively, through recording the event-related potentials in response to (un)attractive opposite-sex faces by two experiments...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30458649/sexually-dimorphic-faciometrics-in-black-racial-groups-from-early-adulthood-to-late-middle-age
#12
Julia M Robertson, Barbara E Kingsley
An increasing body of research focusing on gender-related traits has utilized faciometrics in order to consider sexual dimorphism: Aspects as diverse as social heuristics, facial attractiveness, sexual orientation, aggression, and trustworthiness have all been investigated. However, the majority of these studies have tended to focus on White or Caucasian student populations and have paid little regard to either older populations or racial background. The current study therefore investigated sexual dimorphism in 450 participants (225 women) from a Black population across four age groups (20s, 30s, 40s, and 50s)...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30428700/netflix-and-chill-what-sex-differences-can-tell-us-about-mate-preferences-in-hypothetical-booty-call-relationships
#13
Evita March, George Van Doorn, Rachel Grieve
The booty-call relationship is defined by both sexual characteristics and emotional involvement. In the current study, men's and women's preferences for a booty-call mate were explored. Men and women were predicted to exhibit different mate preferences depending on whether they considered a booty-call relationship a short- or long-term relationship. Participants ( N = 559, 74% women) completed an anonymous online questionnaire, designing their ideal booty-call mate using the mate dollars paradigm. Both sexes considered the physical attractiveness and kindness of a booty-call mate a necessity, expressing both short- and long-term mate preferences...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30380919/testing-the-kundera-hypothesis-does-every-woman-but-not-every-man-prefer-her-child-to-her-mate
#14
Carlos Hernández Blasi, Laura Mondéjar
The context of a famous novel by Milan Kundera ( Immortality) suggests that when faced with a life-or-death situation, every woman would prefer to save her child than her husband, left hanging whether every man would do the same. We labeled this as the Kundera hypothesis, and the purpose of this study was to test it empirically as we believe it raises a thought-provoking question in evolutionary terms. Specifically, 197 college students (92 women) were presented a questionnaire where they had to make different decisions about four dilemmas about who to save (their mate or their offspring) in two hypothetical life-or-death situations: a home fire and a car crash...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30296849/do-the-low-whrs-and-bmis-judged-most-attractive-indicate-better-health
#15
William D Lassek, Steven J C Gaulin
It is widely claimed that in well-nourished populations, very low female waist-hip ratios (WHRs) together with low body mass indices (BMIs) are judged attractive by men because these features reliably indicate superior health and fertility. However, studies show that mortality rates are higher in women with low BMIs than in women with average BMIs and are inversely related to BMI in subsistence populations. Measures of current health in women of reproductive age have not been similarly studied. We analyze large U...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30296846/do-the-low-whrs-and-bmis-judged-most-attractive-indicate-higher-fertility
#16
William D Lassek, Steven J C Gaulin
We examine the widely accepted view that very low waist-hip ratios and low body mass indices (BMIs) in women in well-nourished populations are judged attractive by men because these features reliably indicate superior fertility. In both subsistence and well-nourished populations, relevant studies of fertility do not support this view. Rather studies indicate lower fertility in women with anthropometric values associated with high attractiveness. Moreover, low maternal BMI predisposes to conditions that compromise infant survival...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30282470/meta-analysis-of-the-effect-of-red-on-perceived-attractiveness
#17
Gabrielle K Lehmann, Andrew J Elliot, Robert J Calin-Jageman
We conducted meta-analyses of studies that test the red-romance hypothesis, which is that the color red enhances heterosexual attraction in romantic contexts. For men rating women, we found a small, statistically significant effect ( d = 0.26 [0.12, 0.40], p = .0004, N = 2,961), with substantial heterogeneity, Q(44) = 172.5, pQ < .0001, I2 = 89% [82, 94], and equivocal results regarding the possibility of upward bias in the estimate. For women rating men, we found a very small effect ( d = 0.13 [0.01, 0...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30235947/facial-attractiveness-as-a-function-of-athletic-prowess
#18
Richard P Bagozzi, Willem J M I Verbeke, Frank Belschak, Marloes van Poele
We investigate the relationship between facial attractiveness and athletic prowess. We study the connection between subjective facial attractiveness (measured on a 5-point scale of judged facial attractiveness) and athletes by gender and age of respondents. Five age classes were investigated in Studies 1-5: preadolescents (average age: 8.85 years: n = 92), adolescents (average age: 15.8 years; n = 82), young adults (average age: 21.6 years; n = 181), middle-aged adults (average age: 47.5 years; n = 189), and older adults (65 years old; n = 183)...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30231640/celebrity-opinion-influences-public-acceptance-of-human-evolution
#19
Steven Arnocky, Emma Bozek, Caroline Dufort, Samantha Rybka, Robyn Hebert
The present research examined the influence of celebrity opinion upon individuals' acceptance of the theory of evolution. Priming stimuli were developed purveying pro-evolution, anti-evolution, or neutral opinion (Study 1). When paired with a male celebrity or expert source (Study 2), the male celebrity, but not the male expert, influenced undergraduates' acceptance of evolution. The influence of the male celebrity on acceptance of evolution was replicated in a community sample (Study 3). When paired with a female celebrity source, undergraduates' acceptance of evolution was similarly influenced (Study 4)...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30231639/life-history-fertility-and-short-term-mating-motivation
#20
Aekyoung Kim, Hannah Bradshaw, Kristina M Durante, Sarah E Hill
The current research examines the impact of women's early-life socioeconomic status (SES; used as a proxy measure of life history strategy), relationship status, and ovulatory cycle phase on their desire for short-term mating. Results revealed that during the periovulatory phase (i.e., the high-fertility phase of the monthly ovulatory cycle), single women from low SES environments expressed an increased desire for short-term mating, whereas the opposite was found for single women from high SES environments...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
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