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Neuron Glia Biology

Farah Lotfi Kashani, Dor Mohammad Kordi-Tamandani, Roya Sahranavard, Mohammad Hashemi, Farzaneh Kordi-Tamandani, Adam Torkamanzehi
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are major intracellular antioxidants, which, impaired in their function, are involved in the progress of schizophrenia (SCZ). The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the association between the polymorphism of glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1), T1 (GSTT1), the glutathione S-transferase P1 gene (GSTP1) and SCZ. We isolated genomic DNA from peripheral blood of 93 individuals with SCZ and 99 healthy control subjects' genotypes analyzing them for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 using polymerase chain reaction...
May 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Yan-Yin Zhao, Jie-Zhong Yu, Qin-Ying Li, Cun-Gen Ma, Chuan-Zhen Lu, Bao-Guo Xiao
Vinpocetine has long been used for cerebrovascular disorders and cognitive impairment. Based on the evidence that the translocator protein (TSPO, 18 kDa) was expressed in activated microglia, while Vinpocetine was able to bind TSPO, we explored the role of Vinpocetine on microglia treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro. Our results show that both LPS and OGD induced the up-regulation of TSPO expression on BV-2 microglia by RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry...
May 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Marie E Gibbs, Maria Shleper, Tomris Mustafa, Geoffrey Burnstock, David N Bowser
Memory consolidation in a discriminative bead pecking task is modulated by endogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acting at purinergic receptors in the hippocampus. Consolidation, from short- to intermediate- to long-term memory during two distinct periods following training, was blocked by the non-selective P2 purinergic receptor antagonist PPADS (pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo(benzene-2,4-disulphonic acid) tetrasodium salt hydrate and the specific P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2179. Direct injections of the ATP agonists (ATPγS and ADPβS) potentiated memory consolidation and the effect of ADPβS was blocked by MRS2179, suggesting an important role of ATP on memory consolidation via the P2Y1 receptor in the chick hippocampus...
May 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Ximena A Lanosa, Ignacio Santacroce, Jorge A Colombo
Modulation of astroglial components involved in reactive postlesional responses in the rat cerebral cortex was analyzed following exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) condition prior to injury. For this purpose, changes in % immunoreactive (IR) area of GFAP, vimentin, EAAT1 and ezrin were evaluated in the perilesional zone after placing a cortical stab wound in the visual cerebral cortex of adult rats. GFAP-IR postlesional reactive astrocytosis in the perilesional cortex was significantly lower in the animal group exposed to EE during postnatal development...
May 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Heather S Mallory, Nicholas J Gibson, Jon H Hayashi, Alan J Nighorn, Lynne A Oland
Previously studied for its role in processing olfactory information in the antennal lobe, GABA also may shape development of the olfactory pathway, acting either through or on glial cells. Early in development, the dendrites of GABAergic neurons extend to the glial border that surrounds the nascent olfactory lobe neuropil. These neuropil glia express both GABAA and GABAB receptors, about half of the glia in acute cultures responded to GABA with small outward currents, and about a third responded with small transient increases in intracellular calcium...
May 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Juan I Rodriguez, Janet K Kern
Evidence indicates that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suffer from an ongoing neuroinflammatory process in different regions of the brain involving microglial activation. When microglia remain activated for an extended period, the production of mediators is sustained longer than usual and this increase in mediators contributes to loss of synaptic connections and neuronal cell death. Microglial activation can then result in a loss of connections or underconnectivity. Underconnectivity is reported in many studies in autism...
May 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Matthew J G Bradman, Richard Morris, Anne McArdle, Malcolm J Jackson, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in pathophysiology of the nervous system. Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) reacts with superoxide, which is also a substrate for NO, to provide antioxidative protection. NO production is greatly altered following nerve injury, therefore we hypothesised that SOD1 and NO may be involved in modulating axotomy responses in dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-spinal network. To investigate this interaction, adult Thy1.2 enhanced membrane-bound green fluorescent protein (eGFP) mice underwent sciatic nerve axotomy and received NG-nitro- <l-arginine methylester (L-NAME) or vehicle 7-9 days later...
May 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Jennifer T Malon, Swathi Maddula, Harmony Bell, Ling Cao
The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is known to play a pro-nociceptive role after peripheral nerve injury upon its release from primary afferent neurons in preclinical models of neuropathic pain. We previously demonstrated a critical role for spinal cord microglial CD40 in the development of spinal nerve L5 transection (L5Tx)-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Herein, we investigated whether CGRP is involved in the CD40-mediated behavioral hypersensitivity. First, L5Tx was found to significantly induce CGRP expression in wild-type (WT) mice up to 14 days post-L5Tx...
May 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Alice de Corato, Alessandro Capuano, Diego Currò, Giuseppe Tringali, Pierluigi Navarra, Cinzia Dello Russo
In the present paper, we have further developed an in vitro model to study neuronal-glial interaction at trigeminal level by characterizing the effects of conditioned medium (CM) collected from activated primary cultures of satellite glial cells (SGCs) on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from rat trigeminal neurons. Moreover, we investigated whether such release is inhibited by a clinically relevant anti-migraine drug, sumatriptan. CM effects were tested on trigeminal neuronal cultures in different conditions of activation and at different time points...
May 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Rosa C Paolicelli, Cornelius T Gross
Microglia are enigmatic non-neuronal cells that infiltrate and take up residence in the brain during development and are thought to perform a surveillance function. An established literature has documented how microglia are activated by pathogenic stimuli and how they contribute to and resolve injuries to the brain. However, much less work has been aimed at understanding their function in the uninjured brain. A series of recent in vivo imaging studies shows that microglia in their resting state are highly motile and actively survey their neuronal surroundings...
February 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Aaron Y Lai, Kamaldeep S Dhami, Comfort D Dibal, Kathryn G Todd
The regional heterogeneity of neuronal phenotypes is a well-known phenomenon. Whether or not glia derived from different brain regions are phenotypically and functionally distinct is less clear. Here, we show that microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, display region-specific responses for activating agents including glutamate (GLU), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Primary microglial cultures were prepared from brainstem (Brs), cortex (Ctx), hippocampus (Hip), striatum (Str) and thalamus (Thl) of 1-day-old rats and were shown to upregulate the release of nitric oxide (NO) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a region- and activator-specific manner...
February 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Hiroaki Wake, R Douglas Fields
Broad interest in the rapidly advancing field of microglial involvement in forming neural circuits is evident from the fresh findings published in leading journals. This special issue of Neuron Glia Biology contains a special collection of research articles and reviews concerning the new appreciation of microglial function in the normal physiology of the brain that extends beyond their traditionally understood role in pathology.
February 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Izumi Maezawa, Marco Calafiore, Heike Wulff, Lee-Way Jin
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) including classic autism is a group of complex developmental disabilities with core deficits of impaired social interactions, communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors. Although the neurobiology of ASDs has attracted much attention in the last two decades, the role of microglia has been ignored. Existing data are focused on their recognized role in neuroinflammation, which only covers a small part of the pathological repertoire of microglia. This review highlights recent findings on the broader roles of microglia, including their active surveillance of brain microenvironments and regulation of synaptic connectivity, maturation of brain circuitry and neurogenesis...
February 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Tuan Trang, Simon Beggs, Michael W Salter
One of the most significant advances in pain research is the realization that neurons are not the only cell type involved in the etiology of chronic pain. This realization has caused a radical shift from the previous dogma that neuronal dysfunction alone accounts for pain pathologies to the current framework of thinking that takes into account all cell types within the central nervous system (CNS). This shift in thinking stems from growing evidence that glia can modulate the function and directly shape the cellular architecture of nociceptive networks in the CNS...
February 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Hiroaki Wake, Andrew J Moorhouse, Junichi Nabekura
Microglia cells are the immune cells of the central nervous system and consequently play important roles in brain infections and inflammation. Recent in vivo imaging studies have revealed that in the resting healthy brain, microglia are highly dynamic, moving constantly to actively survey the brain parenchyma. These active microglia can rapidly respond to pathological insults, becoming activated to induce a range of effects that may contribute to both pathogenesis, or to confer neuronal protection. However, interactions between microglia and neurons are being recognized as important in shaping neural circuit activity under more normal, physiological conditions...
February 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Marie-Ève Tremblay
In the healthy brain, quiescent microglia continuously remodel their shape by extending and retracting highly motile processes. Despite a seemingly random sampling of their environment, microglial processes specifically interact with subsets of synaptic structures, as shown by recent imaging studies leading to proposed reciprocal interactions between microglia and synapses under non-pathological conditions. These studies revealed that various modalities of microglial dynamic behavior including their interactions with synaptic elements are regulated by manipulations of neurotransmission, neuronal activity and sensory experience...
February 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
José L Marín-Teva, Miguel A Cuadros, David Martín-Oliva, Julio Navascués
Microglia, the brain's innate immune cell type, are cells of mesodermal origin that populate the central nervous system (CNS) during development. Undifferentiated microglia, also called ameboid microglia, have the ability to proliferate, phagocytose apoptotic cells and migrate long distances toward their final destinations throughout all CNS regions, where they acquire a mature ramified morphological phenotype. Recent studies indicate that ameboid microglial cells not only have a scavenger role during development but can also promote the death of some neuronal populations...
February 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Shozo Jinno, Jun Yamada
The synaptic terminals' withdrawal from the somata and proximal dendrites of injured motoneuron by the processes of glial cells following facial nerve axotomy has been the subject of research for many years. This phenomenon is referred to as synaptic stripping, which is assumed to help survival and regeneration of neurons via reduction of synaptic inputs. Because there is no disruption of the blood-brain barrier or infiltration of macrophages, the axotomy paradigm has the advantage of being able to selectively investigate the roles of resident glial cells in the brain...
February 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Wai T Wong, Minhua Wang, Wei Li
Recent studies have indicated that constitutive functions of microglia in the healthy adult central nervous system (CNS) involve immune surveillance, synapse maintenance and trophic support. These functions have been related to the ramified structure of 'resting' microglia and the prominent motility in their processes that provide extensive coverage of the entire extracellular milleu. In this review, we examine how external signals, and in particular, ionotropic neurotransmission, regulate features of microglial morphology and process motility...
February 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
Hiroshi Nakanishi, Yoshinori Hayashi, Zhou Wu
Microglia are the main cellular source of oxidation products and inflammatory molecules in the brain during aging. The accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) oxidative damage in microglia during aging results in the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The increased intracellular ROS, in turn, activates a redox-sensitive nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) to provoke excessive neuroinflammation, resulting in memory deficits and the prolonged behavioral consequence of infection. Besides its role in regulating the gene copy number, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is closely associated with the stabilization of mtDNA structures...
February 2011: Neuron Glia Biology
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