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Marine Drugs

Ji Hye Han, Yong Sun Lee, Jun Hyung Im, Young Wan Ham, Hee Pom Lee, Sang Bae Han, Jin Tae Hong
Astaxanthin (AXT), a xanthophyll carotenoid compound, has potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are significant in the pathogenesis and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we studied whether AXT could alleviate neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and memory loss in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered mice model. Additionally, we investigated the anti-oxidant activity and the anti-neuroinflammatory response of AXT in LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells...
February 18, 2019: Marine Drugs
Shuoqi Jiang, Yinglu Jia, Yunping Tang, Die Zheng, Xingbiao Han, Fangmiao Yu, Yan Chen, Fangfang Huang, Zuisu Yang, Guofang Ding
Perinereis aibuhitensis peptide (PAP) is a decapeptide (Ile-Glu-Pro-Gly-Thr-Val-Gly-Met-Met-Phe, IEPGTVGMMF) with anticancer activity that was purified from an enzymatic hydrolysate of Perinereis aibuhitensis . In the present study, the anticancer effect of PAP on H1299 cell proliferation was investigated. Our results showed that PAP promoted apoptosis and inhibited the proliferation of H1299 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. When the PAP concentration reached 0.92 mM, more than 95% of treated cells died after 72 h of treatment...
February 18, 2019: Marine Drugs
Qingmei Sun, Fufeng Liu, Jingcheng Sang, Miaoman Lin, Jiale Ma, Xiao Xiao, Sicheng Yan, C Benjamin Naman, Ning Wang, Shan He, Xiaojun Yan, Wei Cui, Hongze Liang
β-Amyloid (Aβ) is regarded as an important pathogenic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Aβ can assemble into oligomers and fibrils, and produce neurotoxicity. Therefore, Aβ aggregation inhibitors may have anti-AD therapeutic efficacies. It was found, here, that the marine-derived alkaloid, fascaplysin, inhibits Aβ fibrillization in vitro . Moreover, the new analogue, 9-methylfascaplysin, was designed and synthesized from 5-methyltryptamine. Interestingly, 9-methylfascaplysin is a more potent inhibitor of Aβ fibril formation than fascaplysin...
February 18, 2019: Marine Drugs
Yang Cheng, Atallah F Ahmed, Raha S Orfali, Chang-Feng Dai, Jyh-Horng Sheu
Three new eunicellin-derived diterpenoids of briarellin type, briarenones A‒C ( 1 ‒ 3 ), were isolated from a Formosan gorgonian Briareum violaceum . The chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional (2D) NMR. The absolute configuration of 1 was further confirmed by a single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The in vitro cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory potentialities of the isolated metabolites were tested against the growth of a limited panel of cancer cell lines and against the production of superoxide anions and elastase release in N -formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenyl-alanine and cytochalasin B (fMLF/CB)-stimulated human neutrophils, respectively...
February 17, 2019: Marine Drugs
Alok Patel, Leonidas Matsakas, Kateřina Hrůzová, Ulrika Rova, Paul Christakopoulos
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential for human function, however they have to be provided through the diet. As their production from fish oil is environmentally unsustainable, there is demand for new sources of PUFAs. The aim of the present work was to establish the microalgal platform to produce nutraceutical-value PUFAs from forest biomass. To this end, the growth of Phaeodactylum tricornutum on birch and spruce hydrolysates was compared to autotrophic cultivation and glucose synthetic media...
February 15, 2019: Marine Drugs
M Azizur Rahman
The extraction and purification of collagen are of great interest due to its biological function and medicinal applications. Although marine invertebrates are abundant in the animal kingdom, our knowledge of their extracellular matrix (ECM), which mainly contains collagen, is lacking. The functions of collagen isolated from marine invertebrates remain an untouched source of the proteinaceous component in the development of groundbreaking pharmaceuticals. This review will give an overview of currently used collagens and their future applications, as well as the methodological issues of collagens from marine invertebrates for potential drug discovery...
February 14, 2019: Marine Drugs
Jeong Min Lee, So Young Oh, Tony V Johnston, Seockmo Ku, Geun Eog Ji
Fucosylated oligosaccharide (FO) is known to selectively promote the growth of probiotic bacteria and is currently marketed as a functional health food and prebiotic in infant formula. Despite widespread interest in FO among functional food customers, high production costs due to high raw material costs, especially those related to fucose, are a significant production issue. Therefore, several actions are required before efficient large-scale operations can occur, including (i) identification of inexpensive raw materials from which fucosylated oligosaccharides may be produced and (ii) development of production methods to which functional food consumers will not object (e...
February 14, 2019: Marine Drugs
Shudong He, Yi Zhang, Hanju Sun, Ming Du, Jianlei Qiu, Mingming Tang, Xianbao Sun, Beiwei Zhu
Antioxidative peptides were produced from false abalone ( Volutharpa ampullacea perryi ) using enzymatic hydrolysis. Trypsin produced the most bioactive hydrolysates with the highest scavenging ABTS+• free radicals compared to pepsin, alcalase, neutrase, and flavourzyme. The response surface methodology studies on trypsin hydrolysis indicated that the hydrolysis temperature, time, and pH were interacted with each other ( p < 0.05), and the optimal conditions were hydrolysis at 51.8 °C for 4.1 h, pH 7...
February 13, 2019: Marine Drugs
Amr El-Demerdash, Atanas G Atanasov, Olaf K Horbanczuk, Mohamed A Tammam, Mamdouh Abdel-Mogib, John N A Hooper, Nazim Sekeroglu, Ali Al-Mourabit, Anake Kijjoa
Marine natural products (MNPs) continue to be in the spotlight in the global drug discovery endeavor. Currently, more than 30,000 structurally diverse secondary metabolites from marine sources have been isolated, making MNPs a profound, renewable source to investigate novel drug compounds. Marine sponges of the genus Suberea (family: Aplysinellidae) are recognized as producers of bromotyrosine derivatives, which are considered distinct chemotaxonomic markers for the marine sponges belonging to the order Verongida...
February 12, 2019: Marine Drugs
Alfredo F Braña, Aida Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Jesús Martín, Luis Otero, Juan José Palacios-Gutiérrez, Jonathan Fernández, Yamina Mohamedi, Tania Fontanil, Marina Salmón, Santiago Cal, Fernando Reyes, Luis A García, Gloria Bianco
The isolation and structural elucidation of a structurally new desertomycin, designated as desertomycin G ( 1 ), with strong antibiotic activity against several clinically relevant antibiotic resistant pathogens are described herein. This new natural product was obtained from cultures of the marine actinomycete Streptomyces althioticus MSM3, isolated from samples of the intertidal seaweed Ulva sp. collected in the Cantabrian Sea (Northeast Atlantic Ocean). Particularly interesting is its strong antibiotic activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, resistant to antibiotics in clinical use...
February 12, 2019: Marine Drugs
Giuseppe Floresta, Emanuele Amata, Davide Gentile, Giuseppe Romeo, Agostino Marrazzo, Valeria Pittalà, Loredana Salerno, Antonio Rescifina
Over-regulation of Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) has been recently identified in many types of human cancer, and in these cases, poor clinical outcomes are normally reported. Indeed, the inhibition of HO-1 is being considered as an anticancer approach. Imidazole scaffold is normally present in most of the classical HO-1 inhibitors and seems indispensable to the inhibitory activity due to its strong interaction with the Fe(II) of the heme group. In this paper, we searched for new potentially HO-1 inhibitors among three different databases: Marine Natural Products (MNP), ZINC Natural Products (ZNP) and Super Natural II (SN2)...
February 12, 2019: Marine Drugs
Barbara Vigani, Angela Faccendini, Silvia Rossi, Giuseppina Sandri, Maria Cristina Bonferoni, Matteo Gentile, Franca Ferrari
Oral mucositis and esophagitis represent the most frequent and clinically significant complications of cytoreductive chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which severely compromise the patient quality of life. The local application of polymeric gels could protect the injured tissues, alleviating the most painful symptoms. The present work aims at developing in situ gelling formulations for the treatment of oral mucositis and esophagitis. To reach these targets, κ-carrageenan (κ-CG) was selected as a polymer having wound healing properties and able to gelify in the presence of saliva ions, while hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) was used to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the formulations...
February 12, 2019: Marine Drugs
Enrico D'Aniello, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Lauren G Falkenberg, Andrea Martella, Alessandra Gentile, Fabrizia De Maio, Maria Letizia Ciavatta, Margherita Gavagnin, Joshua S Waxman, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Pietro Amodeo, Rosa Maria Vitale
The nuclear receptors (NRs) RARα, RXRα, PPARα, and PPARγ represent promising pharmacological targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In the search for molecules able to simultaneously target all the above-mentioned NRs, we screened an in-house developed molecular database using a ligand-based approach, identifying (-)-Muqubilin (Muq), a cyclic peroxide norterpene from a marine sponge, as a potential hit. The ability of this compound to stably and effectively bind these NRs was assessed by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations...
February 12, 2019: Marine Drugs
Jorge Antunes, Sandra Pereira, Tiago Ribeiro, Jeffrey E Plowman, Ancy Thomas, Stefan Clerens, Alexandre Campos, Vitor Vasconcelos, Joana R Almeida
The cyclic peptides portoamides produced by the cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. LEGE 05292 were previously isolated and their ability to condition microcommunities by allelopathic effect was described. These interesting bioactive properties are, however, still underexplored as their biotechnological applications may be vast. This study aims to investigate the antifouling potential of portoamides, given that a challenge in the search for new environmentally friendly antifouling products is to find non-toxic natural alternatives with the ability to prevent colonization of different biofouling species, from bacteria to macroinvertebrates...
February 12, 2019: Marine Drugs
Wipa Chantarawong, Supakarn Chamni, Khanit Suwanborirux, Naoki Saito, Pithi Chanvorachote
Lung cancer is one of the most significant cancers as it accounts for almost 1 in 5 cancer deaths worldwide, with an increasing incident rate. Management of the cancer has been shown to frequently fail due to the ability of the cancer cells to resist therapy as well as metastasis. Recent evidence has suggested that the poor response to the current treatment drugs and the ability to undergo metastasis are driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. The discovery of novel compounds able to suppress CSCs and sensitize the chemotherapeutic response could be beneficial to the improvement of clinical outcomes...
February 11, 2019: Marine Drugs
Pradeep Paudel, Su Hui Seong, Sangwook Wu, Suhyun Park, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family of proteins comprises signaling proteins that mediate cellular responses to various hormones and neurotransmitters, and serves as a prime target for drug discovery. Towards our goal of discovering secondary metabolites from natural sources that can function as neuronal drugs, we evaluated the modulatory effect of eckol on various GPCRs via cell-based functional assays. In addition, we conducted in silico predictions to obtain molecular insights into the functional effects of eckol...
February 10, 2019: Marine Drugs
Xueqian Zhang, Marianne Thomsen
This review provides a systematic overview of the spatial and temporal variations in the content of biomolecular constituents of Saccharina latissima on the basis of 34 currently-available scientific studies containing primary measurements. We demonstrate the potential revenue of seaweed production and biorefinery systems by compiling a product portfolio of high-value extract products. An investigation into the endogenous rhythms and extrinsic factors that impact the biomolecular composition of S. latissima is presented, and key performance factors for optimizing seaweed production are identified...
February 10, 2019: Marine Drugs
Pritesh Prasad, Angela A Salim, Shamsunnahar Khushi, Zeinab G Khalil, Michelle Quezada, Robert J Capon
Keywords: ethanolysis; solvolysis; artifact; leucettazoles; leucettazines; macrocyclic alkaloids; Leucetta ; Australian sponge; GNPS.
February 9, 2019: Marine Drugs
Jefferson Da Silva Barbosa, Mariana Santana Santos Pereira Costa, Luciana Fentanes Moura De Melo, Mayara Jane Campos De Medeiros, Daniel De Lima Pontes, Katia Castanho Scortecci, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha
Green seaweeds are rich sources of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) with potential biomedical and nutraceutical applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunostimulatory activity of SPs from the seaweed, Caulerpa cupressoides var . flabellata on murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. SPs were evaluated for their ability to modify cell viability and to stimulate the production of inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cytokines. Additionally, their effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene expression was investigated...
February 9, 2019: Marine Drugs
Shoji Kawauchi, Sayo Horibe, Naoto Sasaki, Toshihito Tanahashi, Shigeto Mizuno, Tsuneo Hamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Rikitake
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progresses from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, efficacious drugs for NASH treatment are lacking. Sodium alginate (SA), a soluble dietary fiber extracted from brown algae, could protect the small intestine from enterobacterial invasion. NASH pathogenesis has been suggested to be associated with enterobacterial invasion, so we examined the effect of SA on methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced steatohepatitis in mice (the most widely-used model of NASH)...
February 9, 2019: Marine Drugs
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