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Kaleen M Lavin, Brandon M Roberts, Christopher S Fry, Tatiana Moro, Blake B Rasmussen, Marcas M Bamman
Older adults undergoing age-related decrements in muscle health can benefit substantially from resistance exercise training, a potent stimulus for whole muscle and myofiber hypertrophy, neuromuscular performance gains, and improved functional mobility. With the use of advancing technologies, research continues to elucidate the mechanisms of and heterogeneity in adaptations to resistance exercise training beyond differences in exercise prescription. This review highlights the current knowledge in these areas and emphasizes knowledge gaps that require future attention of the field...
March 1, 2019: Physiology
Jonathon H Stillman
A consequence of climate change is the increased frequency and severity of extreme heat waves. This is occurring now as most of the warmest summers and most intense heat waves ever recorded have been during the past decade. In this review, I describe the ways in which animals and human populations are likely to respond to increased extreme heat, suggest how to study those responses, and reflect on the importance of those studies for countering the devastating impacts of climate change.
March 1, 2019: Physiology
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2019: Physiology
Claire A Nordeen, Sandra L Martin
Suspended animation for deep-space travelers is moving out of the realm of science fiction. Two approaches are considered: the first elaborates the current medical practice of therapeutic hypothermia; the second invokes the cascade of metabolic processes naturally employed by hibernators. We explore the basis and evidence behind each approach and argue that mimicry of natural hibernation will be critical to overcome the innate limitations of human physiology for long-duration space travel.
March 1, 2019: Physiology
Charles C Horn, Jeffrey L Ardell, Lee E Fisher
Autonomic nerves are attractive targets for medical therapies using electroceutical devices because of the potential for selective control and few side effects. These devices use novel materials, electrode configurations, stimulation patterns, and closed-loop control to treat heart failure, hypertension, gastrointestinal and bladder diseases, obesity/diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. Critical to progress is a mechanistic understanding of multi-level controls of target organs, disease adaptation, and impact of neuromodulation to restore organ function...
March 1, 2019: Physiology
Magdalene K Montgomery, William De Nardo, Matthew J Watt
Obesity-associated comorbidities include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. These diseases are associated with accumulation of lipids in non-adipose tissues, which can impact many intracellular cellular signaling pathways and functions that have been broadly defined as "lipotoxic." This review moves beyond understanding intracellular lipotoxic outcomes and outlines the consequences of lipotoxicity on protein secretion and inter-tissue "cross talk," and the impact this exerts on systemic metabolism...
March 1, 2019: Physiology
Kenny L Chan, Flurin Cathomas, Scott J Russo
Metabolic syndrome and major depression are two of the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide, occurring with significant rates of comorbidity. Recent studies have uncovered that each of these conditions is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation. This is characterized by increased circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, altered leukocyte population frequencies in blood, accumulation of immune cells in tissues including the brain, and activation of these immune cells. Cytokines that become elevated during obesity can contribute to the progression of metabolic syndrome by directly causing insulin resistance...
March 1, 2019: Physiology
Jo G R De Mey, Maria Bloksgaard, Christian Aalkjær
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2019: Physiology
Mark Bayley, Christian Damsgaard, Mikkel Thomsen, Hans Malte, Tobias Wang
Air-breathing in vertebrates has evolved many times among the bony fish while in water. Its appearance has had a fundamental impact on the regulation of ventilation and acid-base status. We review the physico-chemical constraints imposed by water and air, place the extant air-breathing fish into this framework, and show how that the advantages of combining control of ventilation and acid-base status are only available to the most obligate of air-breathing fish, thus highlighting promising avenues for research...
January 1, 2019: Physiology
Vandré Casagrande Figueiredo, John J McCarthy
The ribosome is the enzymatic macromolecular machine responsible for protein synthesis. The rates of protein synthesis are primarily dependent on translational efficiency and capacity. Ribosome biogenesis has emerged as an important regulator of skeletal muscle growth and maintenance by altering the translational capacity of the cell. Here, we provide evidence to support a central role for ribosome biogenesis in skeletal muscle growth during postnatal development and in response to resistance exercise training...
January 1, 2019: Physiology
David J Bishop, Javier Botella, Amanda J Genders, Matthew J-C Lee, Nicholas J Saner, Jujiao Kuang, Xu Yan, Cesare Granata
It is well established that different types of exercise can provide a powerful stimulus for mitochondrial biogenesis. However, there are conflicting findings in the literature, and a consensus has not been reached regarding the efficacy of high-intensity exercise to promote mitochondrial biogenesis in humans. The purpose of this review is to examine current controversies in the field and to highlight some important methodological issues that need to be addressed to resolve existing conflicts.
January 1, 2019: Physiology
Marin Manuel, Matthieu Chardon, Vicki Tysseling, C J Heckman
Appropriate scaling of motor output from mouse to humans is essential. The motoneurons that generate all motor output are, however, very different in rodents compared with humans, being smaller and much more excitable. In contrast, feline motoneurons are more similar to those in humans. These scaling differences need to be taken into account for the use of rodents for translational studies of motor output.
January 1, 2019: Physiology
Jeffrey C Horowitz, Victor J Thannickal
Fibrosis is a dynamic process with the potential for reversibility and restoration of near-normal tissue architecture and organ function. Herein, we review mechanisms for resolution of organ fibrosis, in particular that involving the lung, with an emphasis on the critical roles of myofibroblast apoptosis and clearance of deposited matrix.
January 1, 2019: Physiology
Julie Y H Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2019: Physiology
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2019: Physiology
Alexander V Gourine, Gareth L Ackland
Lower resting heart rate and high autonomic vagal activity are strongly associated with superior exercise capacity, maintenance of which is essential for general well-being and healthy aging. Recent evidence obtained in experimental studies using the latest advances in molecular neuroscience, combined with human exercise physiology, physiological modeling, and genomic data suggest that the strength of cardiac vagal activity causally determines our ability to exercise.
January 1, 2019: Physiology
Walter A Rocca, Liliana Gazzuola Rocca, Carin Y Smith, Brandon R Grossardt, Stephanie S Faubion, Lynne T Shuster, James L Kirkland, Nathan K LeBrasseur, Marissa J Schafer, Michelle M Mielke, Kejal Kantarci, Elizabeth A Stewart, Virginia M Miller
Bilateral oophorectomy in premenopausal women is a unique condition causing the abrupt and premature loss of ovarian hormones, primarily estrogen. Bilateral oophorectomy causes an alteration of several fundamental aging processes at the cellular, tissue, organ, and system levels, leading to multimorbidity, frailty, and reduced survival. However, many questions remain unanswered.
November 1, 2018: Physiology
Jeff M Sands, Meredith Hay, Dennis Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Physiology
Herman Pontzer
Humans and other species adapt dynamically to changes in daily physical activity, maintaining total energy expenditure within a narrow range. Chronic exercise thus suppresses other physiological activity, including immunity, reproduction, and stress response. This exercise-induced downregulation improves health at moderate levels of physical activity but can be detrimental at extreme workloads.
November 1, 2018: Physiology
Kathleen M Gilmour, Steve F Perry
The structural features of the fish gill necessary for oxygen uptake also favor undesirable, passive movements of ions and water. Reversible gill remodeling is one solution to this conflict. Cell masses that limit functional surface area are lost when oxygen availability decreases in hypoxia or oxygen demand increases with exercise or high temperature. However, much remains to be learned about how widespread reversible gill remodeling is among fish species, and how and why it occurs.
November 1, 2018: Physiology
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