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Eder Mateus Nunes Gonçalves, Alvaro Freitas, Silvia Botelho
AutomationML (AML) can be seen as a partial knowledge-based solution for manufacturing and automation domains since it permits integrating different engineering data format, and also contains information about physical and logical structures of production systems, using basic concepts as resources, process, and products, in semantic structures. However, it is not a complete knowledge-based solution because it does not have mechanisms for querying and reasoning procedures, which are basic functions for semantic inferences...
March 15, 2019: Sensors
Ebrahim Oromiehie, Nilanjan Das Chakladar, Ginu Rajan, B Gangadhara Prusty
Precision sensing in the characterization of complex additive manufacturing processes such as the Automated Fibre Placement (AFP) technique is important since the process involves a significant level of uncertainty in terms of quality and integrity of the manufactured product. These uncertainties can be monitored by embedding optical fibre Bragg grating (FBGs) sensors which provide accurate and simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature during the AFP process. The embedded sensors have been shown to remain resilient in continuous health monitoring after manufacturing...
March 15, 2019: Sensors
Edric John Cruz Nacpil, Zheng Wang, Rencheng Zheng, Tsutomu Kaizuka, Kimihiko Nakano
Millions of drivers could experience shoulder muscle overload when rapidly rotating steering wheels and reduced steering ability at increased steering wheel angles. In order to address these issues for drivers with disability, surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors measuring biceps brachii muscle activity were incorporated into a steering assistance system for remote steering wheel rotation. The path-following accuracy of the sEMG interface with respect to a game steering wheel was evaluated through driving simulator trials...
March 15, 2019: Sensors
Yi Zou, Weiwei Zhang, Wendi Weng, Zhengyun Meng
Online multi-object tracking (MOT) has broad applications in time-critical video analysis scenarios such as advanced driver-assistance systems (ADASs) and autonomous driving. In this paper, the proposed system aims at tracking multiple vehicles in the front view of an onboard monocular camera. The vehicle detection probes are customized to generate high precision detection, which plays a basic role in the following tracking-by-detection method. A novel Siamese network with a spatial pyramid pooling (SPP) layer is applied to calculate pairwise appearance similarity...
March 15, 2019: Sensors
Weifeng Liu, Yudong Chi
In this paper, multiple resolvable group target tracking was considered in the frame of random finite sets. In particular, a group target model was introduced by combining graph theory with the labeled random finite sets (RFS). This accounted for dependence between group members. Simulations were presented to verify the proposed algorithm.
March 15, 2019: Sensors
Feifei Zhao, Hong Bao, Song Xue, Qian Xu
For the inverse finite element method (iFEM), an inappropriate scheme of strain senor distribution would cause severe degradation of the deformation reconstruction accuracy. The robustness of the strain⁻displacement transfer relationship and the accuracy of reconstruction displacement are the two key factors of reconstruction accuracy. Previous research studies have been focused on single-objective optimization for the robustness of the strain⁻displacement transfer relationship. However, researchers found that it was difficult to reach a mutual balance between robustness and accuracy using single-objective optimization...
March 15, 2019: Sensors
Miguel Ángel Trujillo, José Ramiro Martínez-de Dios, Carlos Martín, Antidio Viguria, Aníbal Ollero
There is a strong demand in the oil and gas industry to develop alternatives to manual inspection. This paper presents AeroX, a novel aerial robotic manipulator that provides physical contact inspection with unprecedented capabilities. AeroX has a semi-autonomous operation, which provides interesting advantages in contact inspection. In the free-flight mode, the pilot guides the robot until performing contact with its end-effector on the surface to be inspected. During contact, AeroX is in its fully-autonomous global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-free contact⁻flight mode, in which the robot keeps its relative position w...
March 15, 2019: Sensors
Qibo Bao, Jianhui Zhang, Ming Tang, Zhi Huang, Liyi Lai, Jun Huang, Chuanyu Wu
Different to the traditionally defined valved piezoelectric (PZT) pump and valveless PZT pump, two groups of PZT pumps with built-in compliant structures-with distances between the free ends of 0.2 mm (Group A) and 0 mm (Group B)-were designed, fabricated, and experimentally tested. This type of pump mainly contains a chamber 12 mm in diameter and 1.1 mm in height, a PZT vibrator, and two pairs of compliant structures arranged on the flowing channel. The flow-resistance differences between these two groups of PZT pumps were theoretically and experimentally verified...
March 15, 2019: Sensors
Chengcheng Li, Delun Chen, Yuanyuan Wang, Xiaoyong Lai, Juan Peng, Xiaohong Wang, Kexi Zhang, Yang Cao
In this paper, Au and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were successively deposited on fluorine-doped SnO₂ transparent conductive glass (FTO, 1 × 2 cm) via a facile and one-step electrodeposition method to form a clean interface and construct a three-dimensional network structure for the simultaneous detection of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). For nitrite detection, 3D Au-rGO/FTO displayed a sensitivity of 419 μA mM-1 cm-2 and a linear range from 0.0299 to 5.74 mM, while for the detection of H₂O₂, the sensitivity was 236 μA mM-1 cm-2 and a range from 0...
March 15, 2019: Sensors
Zachary W Lamb, Dharma P Agrawal
Vehicular ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are an integral part of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) that facilitate communications between vehicles and the internet. More recently, VANET communications research has strayed from the antiquated DSRC standard and favored more modern cellular technologies, such as fifth generation (5G). The ability of cellular networks to serve highly mobile devices combined with the drastically increased capacity of 5G, would enable VANETs to accommodate large numbers of vehicles and support range of applications...
March 15, 2019: Sensors
Muhammad Al-Amin Hoque, Saima Tasfia, Naser Ahmed, Biswajeet Pradhan
Floods are common natural disasters worldwide, frequently causing loss of lives and huge economic and environmental damages. A spatial vulnerability mapping approach incorporating multi-criteria at the local scale is essential for deriving detailed vulnerability information for supporting flood mitigation strategies. This study developed a spatial multi-criteria-integrated approach of flood vulnerability mapping by using geospatial techniques at the local scale. The developed approach was applied on Kalapara Upazila in Bangladesh...
March 15, 2019: Sensors
Eunsuk Choi, Soonhyung Hwang, Yousang Yoon, Hojun Seo, Jusin Lee, Seongoh Yeom, Gunwoo Ryu, Heewon Yang, Sunjin Kim, Onejae Sul, Seung-Beck Lee
In this article, we report on a highly sensitive tactile shear sensor that was able to detect minute levels of shear and surface slip. The sensor consists of a suspended elastomer diaphragm with a top ridge structure, a graphene layer underneath, and a bottom substrate with multiple spatially digitized contact electrodes. When shear is applied to the top ridge structure, it creates torque and deflects the elastomer downwards. Then, the graphene electrode makes contact with the bottom spatially digitized electrodes completing a circuit producing output currents depending on the number of electrodes making contact...
March 15, 2019: Sensors
Ying Wang, Jing Liu, Hong Zhou
A simple, rapid, and sensitive visual detection method for observing cucumber green mottle mosaic virus was reported based on the template-independent polymerization activity of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), coupled with the cascade amplification of Mg2+ -dependent DNAzyme and hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme. Briefly, the hybridized dsDNA of T1/P1 was cut into two parts at its position of 5'-AA↓CG↑TT-3' by the restricted enzyme AcII. The longer, newborn fragment originating from P1 was tailed at its 3'-end by oligo dG, and an intact enzymatic sequence of Mg2+ -dependent DNAzyme was generated...
March 14, 2019: Sensors
Yin Jeh Ngui, Chih-Ping Lin, Tsai-Jung Wu
Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) has been a powerful tool for measuring soil dielectric properties. Initiating from apparent dielectric constant ( K a ) measurement up until apparent and complex dielectric spectroscopies, the embedded information in the TDR signal can be extracted to inspire our understanding of the underlying dielectric behaviors. Multiple full waveform inversion techniques have been developed to extract complex dielectric permittivity (CDP) spectrum, but most of them involved prior knowledge of input function and tedious calibration...
March 14, 2019: Sensors
Xiushan Wu, Renyuan Tong, Yanjie Wang, Congli Mei, Qing Li
Surface and underground stretched deformation is one of the most important physical measurement quantities for geological-disaster monitoring. In this study, a parallel helical sensing cable (PHSC) based on the time⁻domain reflectometry (TDR) technique is proposed and used to monitor large ground stretched deformation. First, the PHSC structure and manufacturing process are introduced, and then, distributed capacitance, distributed inductance, and characteristic impedance were derived based on the proposed stretched-structure model...
March 14, 2019: Sensors
Cristina Bertoni, Pasquale Naclerio, Emanuele Viviani, Simone Dal Zilio, Sergio Carrato, Alessandro Fraleoni-Morgera
The dynamic response of gas sensors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanofibers(NFs) to gaseous acetone was assessed using a setup based on flow-injection analysis, aimed atemulating actual breath exhalation. The setup was validated by using a commercially available sensor.The P3HT NFs sensors tested in dynamic flow conditions showed satisfactory reproducibility down toabout 3.5 ppm acetone concentration, a linear response over a clinically relevant concentration range(3.5-35 ppm), excellent baseline recovery and reversibility upon repeated exposures to the analyte,short pulse rise and fall times (less than 1 s and about 2 s, respectively) and low power consumption(few nW), with no relevant response to water...
March 14, 2019: Sensors
Inkyu Bang, Hyunwoo Nam, Woohyuk Chang, Taehoon Kim, Jong-Myung Woo, Choul-Young Kim, Tae-Won Ban, Pangun Park, Bang Chul Jung
Wireless avionics intra-communication (WAIC) refers to a wireless communication system among electronic components (e.g., sensors and actuators) that are integrated or installed in an aircraft and it is proposed to replace heavy and expensive wired communication cables. Recently, the use of a frequency band (4.2⁻4.4 GHz) for the WAIC (so-called, WAIC band) has been approved by international telecommunication union (ITU). Accordingly, several existing wireless protocols such as IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15 are being considered as candidate techniques for the intra-avionics sensor network...
March 14, 2019: Sensors
Rafael Vargas-Bernal
In the search for gas sensing materials, two-dimensional materials offer the possibility of designing sensors capable of tuning the electronic band structure by controlling their thickness, quantity of dopants, alloying between different materials, vertical stacking, and the presence of gases. Through materials engineering it is feasible to study the electrical properties of two-dimensional materials which are directly related to their crystalline structure, first Brillouin zone, and dispersion energy, the latter estimated through the tight-binding model...
March 14, 2019: Sensors
Chi-Bao Le, Dinh-Thuan Do, Miroslav Voznak
In this paper, a cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system is studied for the Internet-of-Things (IoT) in which a master node intends to serve multiple client nodes. The adaptive transmission strategy is proposed at the relay node, i.e., the relay can be half-duplex (HD) and/or full duplex (FD). In practical terms, numerous low-cost devices are deployed in such IoT systems and it exhibits degraded performance due to hardware imperfections. In particular, the effects of hardware impairments in the NOMA users are investigated...
March 14, 2019: Sensors
Xingdong Li, Hewei Gao, Fusheng Zha, Jian Li, Yangwei Wang, Yanling Guo, Xin Wang
This paper is focused on designing a cost function of selecting a foothold for a physical quadruped robot walking on rough terrain. The quadruped robot is modeled with Denavit⁻Hartenberg (DH) parameters, and then a default foothold is defined based on the model. Time of Flight (TOF) camera is used to perceive terrain information and construct a 2.5D elevation map, on which the terrain features are detected. The cost function is defined as the weighted sum of several elements including terrain features and some features on the relative pose between the default foothold and other candidates...
March 14, 2019: Sensors
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